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fT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

E. CAPPS, PH.D., ll.d. fW. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

. A. POST, m.a. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a. f.r hist.soc. 








Ph.D., LL.D. 









First published 1916 

Reprinted 1922. 1926. 1929, 1933, 1939 

1946, 1951. 1958 





Printed in Great Britain 







BOOK XI 119 




BOOK XV 363 

INDEX 429 



Qvae gemitiis truncaeque deo Neptunius heros 

causa rogat frontis, cum sic Calydonius amnis 

coepit inornatos redimitus harundine crines: 

" triste petis munus. quis enim sua proelia victus 

commemorare velit ? referam tamen ordine, nee tarn 

turpe fuit vinci, quam contendisse decorum est, 6 

magnaque dat nobis tantus solacia victor. 

nomine siqua suo iando pervenit ad aures 

Dei'anira tuas, quondam pulcherrima virgo 

multorumque fuitspes invidiosa procorum. 10 

cum quibus ut soceri domus est intrata petiti, 

'accipe me generum/ dixi ' Parthaone nate' : 

dixit et Alcides. alii cessere duobus. 

ille Iovem socerum dare se, famamque laborum, 

et superata suae referebat iussa novercae. 15 

contra ego ' turpe deum mortali cedere ' dixi — 

nondum erat ille deus — 'dominum me cernis aquarum 




The Neptunian hero 1 asked the god why he groaned 
and what was the cause of his mutilated forehead. 
And thus the Calydonian river, binding up his rough 
locks with a band of reeds, made answer : " Tis an 
unpleasant task you set ; for who would care to 
chronicle his defeats ? Still I will tell the story as it 
happened : nor was it so much a disgrace to be de- 
feated as it was an honour to have striven at all, and 
the thought that my conqueror was so mighty is a 
great comfort to me. Deianira (if you have ever heard 
of her) was once a most beautiful maiden and the 
envied hope of many suitors. When along with them 
I entered the house of the father 2 of the maid I 
sought, I said : ' Take me for son-in-law, O son of 
Parthaon.' Hercules said the same, and the others 
yielded their claims to us two. He pleaded the fact 
that Jove was his father, pleaded his famous labours 
and all that he had overcome at the command of his 
stepmother. In reply I said : ' It is a shame for a god 
to give place to a mortal ' (Hercules had not yet been 
made a god) ; ' you behold in me the lord of the 

l Theseus was the reputed son of Aegeus ; but there was a 
current tradition that he was really the son of Neptune. 
* Oeneus. 



cursibus obliquis inter tua regna fluentum. 

nee gener externis hospes tibi missus ab oris, 

»ed popularis ego et rerum pars una tuarum. 20 

tantum ne noceat, quod me nee regia Iuno 

odit, et omnis abest iussorum poena laborum. 

nam, quo te iactas, Alcmena nate, creatum, 

Iuppiter aut falsus pater est, aut crimine verus. 

matris adulterio patrem petis. elige, fictum 25 

esse Iovem malis, an te per dedecus ortum.' 

talia dicentem iandudum lumine torvo 

spectat, et accensae non fortiter imperat irae, 

verbaque tot reddit : ' melior mihi dextera lingua. 

dummodo pugnando superem, tu vinceloquendo ' 30 

congreditutque ferox. puduit modo magna locutum 

cedere : reieci viridem de corpore vestem, 

bracchiaque opposui, tenuique a pectore varas 

in statione manus et pugnae membra paravi. 

ille cavis hausto spargit me pulvere palmis, 35 

inque vicem fulvae tactu flavescit harenae. 

et modo cervicem, modo crura micantia captat, 

aut captare putes, omnique a parte lacessit. 

me mea defendit gravitas frustraque petebar ; 

baud secus ac moles, magno quam murmure fluctus 

oppugnant ; manet ilia, suoque est pondere tuta. 41 

digredimur paulum, rursusque ad bella coimus, 

inque gradu stetimus, certi non cedere, eratque 

cum pede pes iunctus, totoque ego pectore pronus 

et digitos digitis et frontem fronte premebam. 45 

non aliter vidi fortes concurreie tauros, 



waters which flow down their winding courses through 
your realm. If I wed your daughter, it will be 
no stranger from foreign shores ; but I shall be 
one of your own countrymen, a part of your own 
kingdom. Only let it not be to my disadvantage that 
Queen Juno does not hate me and that no labours are 
imposed upon me in consequence of her hate. For 
Jove, from whom you boast that you have sprung, O 
son of Alcmena, is either not your father, or is so to 
your disgrace. Through your mother's sin you claim 
your father. Choose, then, whether you prefer to say 
that your claim to Jove is false, or to confess yourself 
the son of shame.' As I thus spoke he eyed me for a 
long while with lowering gaze and, unable to control 
his hot wrath longer, he answered just these words : 
' My hand is better than my tongue. Let me but win 
in fighting and you may win in speech ' ; and he came 
at me fiercely. I was ashamed to draw back after 
having spoken so boldly ; and so I threw off my green 
coat, put up my arms, held my clenched hands out in 
front of my breast in position, and so prepared me 
for the fight. He caught up some dust in the hollow 
of his hand and threw it over me and in turn himself 
became yellow with the tawny sand. And now he 
caught at my neck, now at my quick-moving legs (or 
you would think he did), and attacked me at every 
point. My weight protected me and I was attacked in 
vain. Just like a cliff I stood, which, though the roaring 
waves dash against it, stands secure, safe in its own 
bulk. We draw apart a little space, then rush to- 
gether again to the fray and stand firm in our tracks, 
each determined not to yield Foot locked with foot, 
fingers with fingers clenched, brow against brow, with 
all my body's forward-leaning weight I pressed upon 
him. Like that have I seen two strong bulls rush 



cum, pretium pugnae, toto nitidissima saltu 
expetitur coniunx : spectant armenta paventque 
nescia, quern maneat tanti victuria regni. 
ter sine profectu voluit nitentia contra 50 

reicere Alcides a se mea pectora ; quarto 
excutit amplexus, adductaque bracchia solvit, 1 
inpulsumque manu — certum est mihi vera fateri — 
protinus avertit, tergoque onerosus inhaesit. 
siqua fides, — neque enim ficta mihi gloria voce 55 
quaeritur — inposito pressus mihi monte videbar. 
vix tamen inserui sudore fluentia multo 
bracchia, vix solvi duros a pectore nexus, 
instat anhelanti, prohibetque resumere vires, 
et cervice mea potitur. turn denique tellus 60 

pressa genu nostro est, et harenas ore momordi. 
inferior virtute, meas divertor ad artes, 
elaborque viro longum formatus in anguem. 
qui postquam flexos sinuavi corpus in orbes, 
cumque fero movi linguam stridoie bisulcam, 65 

risit, et inludens nostras Tirynthius artes 
' cunarum labor est angues superare mearum/ 
dixit ' et ut vincas alios, Acheloe, dracones, 
pars quota Lernaeae serpens eris unus echidnae ? 
vulneribus fecunda suis erat ilia, nee ullum 70 

de centum numero caput est inpune recisum, 
quin gemino cervix herede valentior esset. 
hanc ego ramosam natis e caede colubris 
crescentemque malo domui, domitamque reclusi. 
quid fore te credas, falsum qui versus in anguem 75 
1 So Merkd : EhwaJ.d volvit. 



together when they strive for the sleekest heifer in 
the pasture as the prize of conflict. The herd looks 
on in fear and trembling, not knowing to which one 
victory will award so great dominion. Three times 
without success did Alcides strive to push away from 
him my opposing breast ; at the fourth attempt he 
shook off my embrace, broke my hold, and, giving me 
a sharp buffet with his hand (I am determined to tell 
it as it was), he whirled me round and clung with all 
his weight upon my back. If you will believe me 
(for I am not trying to gain any credit by exaggera- 
tion), I seemed to bear the weight of a mountain on 
my back. With difficulty I thrust in my arms stream- 
ing with sweat, with difficulty I broke his hard grip 
from my body. He pressed close upon me as I panted 
for breath, gave me no chance to regain my strength, 
and got me around the neck. Then at length I fell 
to my knees upon the earth and bit the dust. Find- 
ing myself no match for him in strength, I had 
recourse to my arts, and glided out of his grasp in the 
form of a long snake. But when I wound my body 
into twisting coils, and darted out my forked tongue 
and hissed fiercely at him, the hero of Tiryns only 
laughed, and mocking at my arts he said : ' It was the 
task of my cradle days to conquer snakes ; and though 
you should outdo all other serpents, Acheloiis, how 
small a part of that Lernaean monster would you, just 
one snake, be ? For it throve on the wounds I gave ; 
nor was any one of its hundred heads cut off without 
its neck being the stronger by two succeeding heads. 
This creature, branching out with serpents sprung 
from death and thriving on destruction, I over- 
mastered and, having overmastered, destroyed. And 
what do you think will become of you who, having 
assumed but a lying serpent form, make use of 



arma aliena moves, quem forma precaria celat ? ' 
dixerat, et summo digitorum vincula collo 
inicit : angebar, ceu guttura forcipe pressus, 
pollicibusque meas pugnabam evellere fauces. 
sic quoque devicto restabat tertia tauri 80 

forma trucis. tauro mutatus membra rebello. 
induit ille toris a laeva parte lacertos, 
admissumque trahens sequitur, depressaque dura 
cornua fig-it humo, meque alta sternit harena. 
nee satis hoc fuerat : rigidum fera dextera cornu 85 
dum tenet, infregit, truncaque a fronte revellit. 
naides hoc, pomis et odoro flore repletum, 
sacrarunt ; divesque meo Bona Copia cornu est." 

Dixerat : et nymphe ritu succincta Dianae, 
una ministrarum, fusis utrimque capillis, yO 

incessit totumque tulit praedivite cornu 
autumnum et mensas, felicia poma, secundas. 
lux subit ; et primo feriente cacumina sole 
discedunt iuvenes, neque enim dum flumina pacem 
et placidos habeant lapsus totaeque residant y.5 

opperiuntur aquae, vultus Achelous agrestis 
et lacerum cornu mediis caput abdidit undis. 

Hunc tamen ablati domuit iactura decoris, 
cetera sospes habet. capitis quoque fronde saligna 
aut superinposita celatur harundine damnum. 100 
at te, Nesse ferox, eiusdem virginis ardor 
perdiderat volucri traiectum terga sagitta. 
namque nova repetens patrios cum coniuge muros 


Dorrowed arms, who are masked in a shifting form ? * 
So saying he fixed his vice-like grip upon my throat. 
I was in angniish, as if my throat were in a forceps' 
grip, and struggled to tear my jaws from his fingers. 
Conquered in this form also, there remained to me 
my third refuge, the form of a savage bull. And so 
in bull form I fought him. He threw his arms around 
my neck on the left, kept up with me as I ran at full 
speed, dragging upon me; and, finally, forced down 
my hard horns and thrust them into the earth and 
laid me low in the deep dust. Nor was this enough : 
holding my tough horn in his pitiless right hand, he 
broke it off and tore it from my forehead, mutilating 
me. This horn the naiads took, filled it with fruit 
and fragrant flowers, and hallowed it. And now the 
goddess of glad Abundance is enriched with my 

So spoke the river-god ; and lo, a nymph girt like 
Diana, one of the attendants with locks flowing free, 
appeared and served them from her bounteous horn 
with all the fruits of Autumn, and wholesome apples 
for the second course. The dawn came on, and, as 
the first rays of the sun smote the mountain-tops, 
the youths took their departure ; for they did not 
wait until the river should flow in peaceful current 
and all the flood-waters should subside. And Acheloiis 
hid his rustic features and his head, scarred from the 
wrenched-off horn, beneath his waves. 

He was humbled indeed by the loss of his beauteous 
horn, which had been taken from him, though scath- 
less in all else, a loss which he could hide with 
willow boughs and reeds entwined about his head. 
But, O savage Nessus, a passion for the same maiden 
utterly destroyed you, pierced through the body by 
a flying arrow. For, seeking his native city with his 



venerat Eueni rapidas love natus ad undas. 

uberior solito, nimbis hiemalibus auctus, 105 

verticibusque frequens erat atque inpervius amnis. 

intrepidum pro se, curam de coniuge agentem 

Nessus adit, membrisque valens scitusque vadorum, 

"officio" que " meo ripa sistetur in ilia 

haec," ait " Alcide. tu viribus utere nando ! " 110 

pallentemque metu, fluviumque ipsumque timentem 

tradidit Aonius pavidam Calydonida Nesso. 

mox, ut erat, pharetraque gravis spolioque leonis — 

nam clavam et curvos trans ripam miserat arcus — 

" quandoquidein coepi, superentur flumina " dixit, 

nee dubitat nee, qua sit clementissimus amnis, 1 16 

quaerit, et obsequio def'erri spernit aquarum. 

iamque tenens ripam, missos cum tolleret arcus, 

coniugis agnovit vocem Nessoque paranti 

fallere depositum "quo te fiducia" clamat 120 

« vana pedum, violente, rapit ? tibi, Nesse biformis, 

dicimus. exaudi, nee res intercipe nostras. 

si te nulla mei reverentia movit, at orbes 

concubitus vetitos poterant inhibere paterni. 

haud tamen effugies, quamvis ope fidis equina ; 125 

vulnere, non pedibus te consequar." ultima dicta 

res probat, et missa fugientia terga sagitta 

traicit. exstabat ferrum de pectore aduncum 



bride, the son of Jove had come to the swift waters 
of Euenus. The stream was higher than its wont, 
swollen with winter rains, full of wild eddies, and 
quite impassable. As the hero stood undaunted for 
himself, but anxious for his bride, Nessus came up, 
strong of limb and well acquainted with the fords, 
and said : "By my assistance, Alcides, she shall be 
set on yonder bank ; and do you use your strength 
and swim across J " The Theban accordingly en- 
trusted to Nessus' care the Calydonian maid, pale and 
trembling, fearing the river and the centaur himself. 
At once, just as he was, burdened with his quiver 
and the lion's skin (for he had tossed his club and 
curving bow across to the other bank), the hero said : 
" Since I have undertaken it, these waters shall be 
overcome." And in he plunged ; nor did he seek 
out where the stream was kindliest, and scorned to 
reach his goal by the courtesy of the waters. And now 
he had just gained the other bank, and was picking 
up his bow which he had thrown across, when he 
heard his wife's voice calling ; and to Nessus, who 
was in act to betray his trust, he shouted : ' Where 
is your vain confidence in your fleetness carrying 
you, you ravisher ? To you, two-formed Nessus, I 
am talking : listen, and do not dare come between 
me and mine. If no fear of me has weight with you, 
at least your father's 1 whirling wheel should prevent 
the outrage you intend. You shall not escape, how- 
ever much you trust in your horse's fleetness. With 
my deadly wound, if not with my feet, I shall 
overtake you." Suiting the action to his last words, 
he shot an arrow straight into the back of the 
fleeing centaur. The barbed point protruded from his 

l i.e. Ixion, who also had been guilty of an outrage for 
*hich he suffered his well-known punishment in Hades. 



quod simul evulsum est, sanguis per utrumque foramen 
emicuit mixtus Lernaei tabe veneni. 130 

excipit hunc Nessus : " neque enim moriemur inulti" 
secum ait, et calido velamina tincta cruore 
d it munus raptae velut inritamen amoris. 

Longa fuit medii mora temporis, actaque magni 
Herculis inplerant terras odiumque novercae. 135 
victor ab Oechalia Cenaeo sacra parabat 
vota Iovi, cum Fama loquax praecessit ad aures, 
Deianira, tuas, quae veris addere falsa 
gaudet, et e minimo sua per mendacia crescit, 
Amphitryoniaden Ioles ardore teneri. 140 

credit amans, venerisque novae perterrita fama 
indulsit primo lacrimis, flendoque dolorem 
diffudit miseranda suum. mox deinde "quid autem 
flemus ? " ait " paelex lacrimis laetabitur istis. 
quae quoniam adveniet, properandum aliquidque 
novandum est, 145 

dum licet, et nondum thalamos tenet altera nostros. 
conquerar, an sileam ? repetam Calydona, morerne ? 
excedam tectis ? an, si nihil amplius, obstem ? 
quid si me, Meleagre, tuam memor esse sororem 
forte paro facinus, quantumque iniuria possit 150 

femineusque dolor, iugulata paelice testor?" 
incursus animus varios habet. omnibus illis 
praetulit inbutam Nesseo sanguine vestem 



breast. This he tore out, and spurting forth from both 
wounds came the blood n?vxed with the deadly poison 
of the Lernaean hydra. Nessus caught this, and 
muttering, " I shall not die unavenged/' he gave his 
tunic, soaked with his Avarm blood, to Deianira as a 
gift, potent to revive waning love. 

Meanwhile, long years had passed ; the deeds of 
the mighty Hercules had filled the earth and had 
sated his stepmother's hate. Returning victorious 
from Oechalia, he was preparing to pay his vows to 
Jove at Cenaeum, when tattling Rumour came on 
ahead to your ears, Deianira, Rumour, who loves to 
mingle false and true and, though very small at first, 
grows huge through lying, and she reported that the 
son of Amphitryon l was enthralled by love of Iole. 2 
The loving wife believes the tale, and completely 
overcome by the report of this new love, she indulges 
her tears at first and, poor creature, pours out her 
grief in a flood of weeping. But soon she says: 
" Why do I weep ? My rival will rejoice at my 
tears. But since she is on her way hither I must 
make haste and devise some plan while I may, and 
while as yet another woman has not usurped my 
couch. Shall I complain or shall I grieve in silence ? 
Shall I go back to Calydon or tarry here ? Shall I 
leave my house or, if I can nothing more, stay and 
oppose her ? What if, O Meleager, remembering 
that I am your sister, I make bold to plan some 
dreadful deed, and by killing my rival prove how 
much a woman's outraged feelings and grief can 
do ? " Her mind has various promptings ; but to all 
other plans she prefers to send to her husband the 
tunic soaked in Nessus' blood, in the hope that this 

i The husband of Alcmena and putative father of Hercules. 
9 The daughter of Kurytus, king of Oechalia. 



mittere, quae vires defecto reddat amori, 
ignaroque Lichae, quid tradat, nescia, luctus 155 

ipsa suos tradit blandisque miserrima verbis, 
dona det ilia viro, mandat. capit inseius heros, 
induiturque umeris Lernaeae virus echidnae. 

Tura dabat primis et verba precantia flammis, 
vinaque marmoreas patera fuudebat in aras : 160 

incaluit vis ilia mali, resolutaque flammis 
Herculeos abiit late dilapsa per artus. 
dum potuit, solita gemitum virtute repressit. 
victa malis postquam est patientia, reppulit aras, 
inplevitque suis nemorosum vocibus Oeten. 1 65 

nee mora, letiferam couatur sclndere vesteno : 
qua trahitur, trahit ilia cutem, foedumque relatu, 
aut haeret membris frustra temptata revelli, 
aut laceros artus et grandia detegit ossa. 
ipse cruor, gelido ceu quondam lammina candens 1 70 
tincta lacu, stridit coquiturque ardente veneno. 
nee modus est, sorbent avidae praecordia flammae, 
caeruleusque fluit toto de corpore sudor, 
ambustique sonant nervi, caecaque medullis 
tabe liquefaetis tollens ad sidera palmas 175 

" cladibus," exclamat " Saturnia, pascere nostris : 
pascere, et hanc pestem specta, crudelis, ab alto, 
corque ferum satia. vel si miserandus et hosti, 
hoc est, si tibi sum, diris cruciatibus aegram 
invisamque animam natamque laboribus aufer. 180 
hoc mihi munus erit; decet haec dare dona 



may revive her husband's failing love ; and to I.ichas, 
ignorant of what he bears, with her own hai ds she 
all unwittingly commits the cause (if her future woe, 
and with honeyed wonts the unhappy woman bids him 
take this present to her lord. The hero innocently 
received the gift and put on his shoulders the tunic 
soaked in the Lernaean hydra's poison. 

He was offering incense and prayers amid the 
kindling flames and pouring wine from the libation 
buwl upon the marble altar : then was the virulence 
of that pest aroused and, freed by the heat, went 
stealing throughout the frame of Hercules. While 
he could, with his habitual manly courage he held 
back his groans. But when his endurance was con- 
quered by his pain, he overthrew the altar and filled 
woody Oeta with his cries. At once he tries to tear 
off the deadly tunic ; but where it is torn away, it 
tears the skin with it and, ghastly to relate, it either 
sticks to his limbs, from which he vainly tries to tear 
it, or else lays bare his torn muscles and huge bones. 
His very blood hisses and boils with the burning 
poison, as when a piece of red-hot metal is plunged 
into a cold pool. Without limit the greedy flames 
devour his vitals; the dark sweat pours from his whole 
body ; his burnt sinews crackle and, while his very 
marrow melts with the hidden, deadly fire, he 
stretches suppliant hands ' to heaven and cries : 
" Come, feast, Saturnia, 1 upon my destruction ; 
feast, I say ; look down, thou cruel one, from thy 
lofty seat, behold my miserable end, and glut thy 
savage heart ! Or, if I merit pity even from my 
enemy — that is, from thee — take hence this hateful 
life, sick with its cruel sufferings and born for toil. 
This mil be a boon to me, surely a fitting boon 

1 Juno. 



ergo ego foedantem peregrmo templa cruore 
Busirin domui ? saevoque alimenta parentis 
Antaeo eripui t nee me pastoris Hiberi 
forma triplex, nee forma triplex tua, Cerbere. movit.-' 
vosne, manus. validi pressistis cornua tauri ? 1 86 

vestrum opus Elis habet, vestrumStymphalides undae. 
Partheniumque nemus ? vestra virtute relatus 
Thermodontiaco caelatus balteus auro, 
pomaque ab insomni concustodita dracone ? 190 

nee mini centauri potuere resistere, nee mi 
Areadiae vastator aper? nee profuit hydrae 
crescere per damnum geminasque resumere vires ? 
quid, quod Thracis equos humano sanguine pingues 
plenaque corporibus laceris praesepia vidi, 1 95 

visaque deieci, dominumque ipsosque peremi ? 
his elisa iacet moles Nemeaca lacertis : 
hac caelum cervice tuli. defessa iubendo est 
saeva Iovis coniunx : es>o sum indefissus a<rendo. 
sed nova pestis adest, cui nee virtute resisti 200 

nee telis armisque potest, pulmonibus errat 
ignis edax imis, perque onines pascitur artus. 
at valet Euiystheus ! et sunt, qui credere possint 
esse deos ! " dixit, perque altum saucius Oeten 
haud aliter graditur, quam si venabula taurus 205 
corpore fixa gerat, factique refugerit auctor. 
saepe ilium gemitus edentem, saepe frementem, 
saepe retemptantem totas infringere ve.stes 
sternentemque trabes irascentemque videres 
montibus aut patrio tendentem bracchia caelo. 210 


for a stepmother to bestow ! Was it for this I slew 
Busiris, who defiled his temples with strangers' blood ? 
that I deprived the dread Antaeus of his mother's 
strength ? that I did not far the Spanish shepherd's 1 
triple form, nor thy triple form, O Cerberus ? Was it 
for this, O hands, that you broke the strong bull's 
horns ? that Elis knows your toil, the waves of Stym- 
phalus, the Parthenian woods ? that by your prowess 
the girdle wrought of Thermodonian gold in relief was 
secured, and that fruit guarded by the dragon's sleep- 
less eves ? Was it for this that the centaurs could not 
prevail against me, nor the boar that wasted Arcady ? 
that it did not avail the hydra to grow by loss and 
gain redoubled strength ? What, when I saw the 
Thracian's horses fat with human blood and those 
mangers full of mangled corpses and, seeing, threw 
them down and slew the master 2 and the steeds 
themselves ? By these arms the monster of Nemea 
lies crushed ; upon this neck I upheld the sky ! The 
cruel wife of Jove is weary of imposing toils; but I 
am not yet weary of performing them. But now a 
strange and deadly thing is at me, which neither by 
strength can I resist, nor yet by weapons nor by 
arms. Deep through my lungs steals the devouring 
fire, and feeds through all mv frame. But Eurystheus 
is alive and well ! And there are those who can 
believe that there are gods!" He spoke and in 
sore distress went ranging along high Oeta ; just 
as a bull carries about the shaft that has pierced 
his body, though the giver of the wound has fled. 
See him there on the mountains oft uttering heart- 
rending groans, oft roaring in agony, oft struggling 
to tear off all his garments, uprooting great trunks of 
trees, and raging o'er the mountains or stretching 
out his arms to his father's skies. 

1 Geryon. * Diornedes. 



Ecce Lichan trepidum latitantem rape cavata 
aspicit, utque dolor rabiem conlegerat oranem, 
"tune, Licha," dixit " feral ia donadedisti? 
tune meae necis auctor eris ?" tremit ille, pavetque 
pallidus, et timide verba excusantia dicit. 215 

dicentera genibusque manus adhibere parantem 
corripit Alcides, et terque quaterque rotatum 
mittit in Euboicas tormento fortius undas. 
ille per aerias pendens induruit auras : 
utque ferunt imbres gelidis concrescere ventis, 220 
inde nives fieri, nivibus quoque molle rotatis 
astringi et spissa glomerari grandine corpus, 
sic ilium validis iactum per inane lacertis 
exsanguemque metu nee quicquam umoris habentem 
in rigidos versum silices prior edidit aetas. 22 5 

nunc quoque in Euboico scopulus brevis eminet alto 
gurgite et humanae servat vestigia formae, 
quem, quasi sensurum, nautae calcare verentur, 
appellantque Lichan. at tu, Iovis inclita proles, 
arboribus caesis, quas ardua gesserat Oete, 230 

inque pyram structis arcum pharetramque capacem 
regnaque visuras iterum Troiana sagittas 
ferre iubes Poeante satum, quo flamma ministro 
subdita. dumque avidis comprenditur ignibus agger, 
congeriem silvae Nemeaeo vellere summam 235 

sternis, et inposita clavae cervice recumbis, 
haud alio vultu, quam si conviva iaceres 
inter plena meri redimitus pocula sertis. 


Of a sudden he caught sight of Lichas cowering 
with fear and hiding beneath a hollow rock, and with 
all the accumulated rage of suffering he cried : " Was 
it you, Lichas, who brought this fatal gift? And shall 
you be called the author of my death ?" The young 
man trembled, grew pale with (ear, and timidly at- 
tempted to excuse his act. But while he was yet 
Speaking and striving to clasp the hero's knees, 
Alcides caught him up and, whirling him thrice 
and again about his head, he hurled him far out into 
the Euboean sea, swifter than a missile from a catapult. 
The youth stiffened as he yet hung high in air; and 
as drops of rain are said to congeal beneath the chilling 
blast and change to snow, then whirling snowflakes 
condense to a soft mass and finally are packed in 
frozen hail : so, hurled by strong arms through the 
empty air, bloodless with fear, his vital moisture 
dried, he changed, old tradition says, to flinty rock. 
Even to this day in the Euboean sea a low rock rises 
from the waves, keeping the semblance of a human 
form ; this rock, as if it were sentient, the sailors fear 
»o tread on, and they call it Lichas. But you, illus- 
trious son of Jove, cut down the trees which grew on 
lofty Oeta, built a huge funeral pyre, and bade the 
son of Poeas, 1 who set the torch beneath, to take in 
recompense your bow, capacious quiver and arrows, 
destined once again to see the realm of Troy. And 
as the pyre began to kindle with the greedy flames, 
you spread the Nemean lion's skin on top of the 
pile of wood and, with your club for pillow, laid vou 
down with peaceful countenance, as if, amid cups of 
generous wine and crowned with garlands, you were 
reclining on a banquet-couch. 

1 Philoctetea. 



Iamque valens et in omne latus diffusa sonabat, 
securosque artus contemptoremque petebat 240 

flamma suum. timuere dei pro vindice terrae. 
quos ita, sensit enim, laeto Saturnius ore 
luppiter adloquitur: "nostra est timor iste voluptas, 
o superi, totoque libens mihi pectore grator, 
quod memoris populi dicor rectorque paterque 245 
et niea progenies vestro quoque tuta favore est. 
nam quamquam ipsius datis hoe inmanibus actis, 
obligor ipse tamen. sed enim nee pectora vano 
fida metu paveant. istas nee spernite flammas ! 
omnia qui vicit, vincet, quos cernitis, ignes; 250 

nee nisi materna Vulcan um parte potentem 
sentiet. aeternum est a me quod traxit, et expers 
atque inmune necis, nullique domabile flammae. 
idque ego defunctum terra caelestibus oris 
accipiam, cunctisque meum laetabile factum 255 

dis fore confido. siquis tamen Hercule, siquis 
forte deo doliturus erit, data praemia nolet, 
sed meruisse dari sciet, invitusque probabit." 
adsensere dei. coniunx quoque regia visa est 
cetera non duro, duro tamen ultima vultu 260 

dicta tulisse Iovis, seque indoluisse notatam. 
interea quodcumque fuit populabile flammae, 
Mulciber abstulerat, nee cognoscenda remansit 
Herculis effigies, nee quicquam ab imagine ductum 
matris habet, tantumque Iovis vestigia servat. 265 
utque novus serpens posita cum pelle senecta 
luxuriare solet, squamaque nitere recenti, 


And now on all sides the spreading flames were 
crackling fiercely, and licking at the careless limbs 
that scorned their power. The gods felt fear for 
the earth's defender. Then Saturnian Jove, well 
pleased (for he knew their thoughts), addressed them: 
" Your solicitude is a joy to me, ye gods of heaven, 
and 1 rejoice with all my heart that I am called king 
and father of a grateful race of gods, and that my 
offspring is safe under your protecting favour also. 
For, though you offer this tribute to his own mighty 
deeds, still I myself am much beholden to you. But 
let not your faithful hearts be filled with needless 
fear. Scorn not those flames ' He who has conquered 
all things shall conquer these fires which you see ; 
nor shall he feel Vulcan's power save in the part his 
mother gave him. Immortal is the part which he 
took from me, and that is safe and beyond the power 
of death, which no flame can destroy. And when this 
is done with earth I shall receive him on the heavenly 
shores, and I trust that this act of mine will be pleas- 
ing to all the gods. But if there is anyone, if there 
is anyone, I say, who is going to be sorry that Her- 
cules is made a god, why then, he will begrudge the 
prize, but he will at least know that it was given 
deservedly, and will be forced to approve the deed." 
The gods assented ; even Juno seemed to take all 
else complacently, but not complacently the last 
words of Jove, and she grieved that she had been 
singled out for rebuke. Meanwhile, whatever the 
flames could destroy, Mulciber had now consumed, 
and no shape of Hercules that could be recognized 
remained, nor was there anything left which his 
mother gave. He kept traces only of his father ; and 
as a serpent, its old age sloughed off with its skin, 
revels in fresh life, and shines resplendent in its 



sic ubi mortales Tirynthius exuit artus, 

parte sui meliore viget, maiorque videri 

coepit et augusta fieri gravitate verendus. 270 

quem pater omnipotens inter cava nubila raptum 

quadriiugo curru radiantibus intulit astris. 

Sensit Atlas pondus. neque adhuc Sthenelei'us iras 
solverat Eurystheus, odiumque in prole paternum 
exercebat atrox. at longis anxia curis 275 

Argolis Alcmene, questus ubi ponat aniles, 
cui referat nati testatos orbe labores, 
cuive suos casus, Iolen habet. Herculis illam 
imperiis thalamoque animoque receperat Hyllus, 
inpleratque uterum generoso semine ; cui sic 280 
incipit Alcmene : "faveant tibi numina saltern, 
conripiantque moras turn cum matura vocabis 
praepositam timid is parientibus Ilithyiam, 
quam mihi difficilem Iunonis gratia fecit, 
namque laboriferi cum iam natalis adesset 285 

Herculis et decimum premeretur sidere signum, 
tenr'ebat gravitas uterum mihi, quodque ferebam, 
tantum erat, ut posses auctorem dicere tecti 
ponderis esse Iovem. nee iam tolerare labores 
ulterius poteram. quin nunc quoque frigidus artus, 
dum loquor, horror habet, parsque est meminisse 
doloris. 291 

septem ego per noctes, totidem cruciata diebus, 
fessa malis, tendensque ad caelum bracchia, magno 
Lucinam Nixosque patres clamore vocabam. 
ilia quidem venit, sed praecorrupta, meumque 295 
quae donare caput Iunoni vellet iniquae. 


bright new scales ; so when the Tirynthian put off his 
mortal frame, he gained new vigour in his better part, 
began to seem of more heroic size, and to become 
awful in his godlike dignity. Him the Almighty 
Father sped through the hollow clouds with his team 
of four, and set him amid the glittering stars. 

Atlas felt his weight. Rut not even now did 
Eurystheus, the son of Sthenelus, put away his 
wrath ; but his bitter hatred for the father he still 
kept up towards his race. Now, spent with long- 
continued cares, Argive Alcmena had in Iole one to 
whom she could confide her old woman's troubles, to 
whom she could relate her son's labours witnessed by 
all the world, and her own misfortunes. For by Her- 
cules' command, Hyllus had received Iole to his arms 
and heart, and to him she was about to bear a child of 
that noble race. Thus spoke Alcmena to her : " May 
the gods be merciful to you at least and give you 
swift deliverance in that hour when in your need 
you call on Ilithyia, goddess of frightened mothers 
in travail, whom Juno's hatred made so bitter 
against me. For when the natal hour of toil-bear- 
ing Hercules was near and the tenth sign was being 
traversed by the sun, my burden was so heavy and 
what I bore so great that you could know Jove was 
the father of the unborn child ; nor could I longer 
bear my pangs. Nay, even now as I tell it, cold 
horror holds my limbs and my pains return even as I 
think of it. For seven nights and days I was in 
torture ; then, spent with anguish, I stretched my 
arms to heaven and with a mighty wail I called upon 
Luclna and the three guardian deities of hirth. 
Lucina came, indeed, but pledged in advance to give 
my life to cruel Juno. There she sat upon the altar 
before the door, listening to my groans, with her 



utque meos audit gemitus, subsedit in ilia 

ante fores ara, dextroque a poplite laevum 

pressa genu et digitis inter se pectine iunctis 

sustinuit partus, tacita quoque carmina voce 300 

dixit, et inceptos tenuerunt carmina partus. 

nitor, et ingrato facio convicia demens 

vana lovi, cupioque mori, moturaque duros 

verba queror silices. matres Cadmeides adsunt, 

votaque suscipiunt, exhortanturque dolentem. 305 

una ministrarum, media de plebe, Galanthis, 

flava comas, aderat, faciendis strenua iussis, 

officiis dilecta suis. ea sensit iniqua 

nescio quid Iunone geri, dumque exit et intrat 

saepe fores, divam residentem vidit in ara 310 

bracchiaque in genibus digitis conexa tenentem, 

et ' quaecumque es,' ait f dominae gratare. levata est 

Argolis Alcmene, potiturque puerpera voto.' 

exsiluit, iunctasque manus pavefacta remisit 

diva potens uteri : vinclis levor ipsa remissis. 315 

numine decepto risisse Galanthida fama est. 

ridentem prensamque ipsis dea saeva capillis 

traxit, et e terra corpus relevare volentem 

arcuit, inque pedes mutavit bracchia primos. 

strenuitas antiqua manet ; nee terga colorem 320 

amisere suum : forma est diversa priori. 

quae quia mendaci parientem iuverat ore, 

ore parit nostrasque domos, ut et ante, irequentat." 

Dixit, et admonitu veteris commota ministrae 


right knee crossed ovei Ler left, and with her fingers 
interlocked ; and so she stayed the birth. Charms also, 
in low muttered words, she chanted, and the charms 
prevented my deliverance. I fiercely strove and, 
mad with pain, I shrieked out vain revilings against 
ungrateful Jove. I longed to die, and my words 
would have moved the unfeeling rocks. The Theban 
matrons stood around me, appealed to heaven, and 
strove to stay my grief. There was one of my 
attendants born of the common folk, Galanthis, with 
hair of reddish hue, active always in obedience to my 
commands, well loved by me for her faithful services. 
She felt assured that unjust Juno was working some 
spell against me ; and as she was passing in and out 
the house, she saw the goddess seated on the altar 
holding her clinched hands upon her knees, and said 
to her : ' Whoever you are, congratulate our mistress : 
Argive Alcmena is relieved ; her prayers are answered 
and her child is born.' Up leaped the goddess of 
birth, unclinched her hands and spread them wide 
in consternation ; my bonds were loosed and I was 
delivered of my child. They said Galanthis laughed 
in derision of the cheated deity. And as she laughed 
the cruel goddess caught her by the hair and dragged 
her on the ground ; and, as the girl strove to rise, she 
kept her there and changed her arms into the fore- 
legs of an animal. Her old activity remained and her 
hair kept its former hue ; but her former shape was 
changed. And because she had helped her labouring 
mistress with her deceitful lips, through her mouth 
must she bring forth her young. And still, as of 
yore, she makes our dwelling-place her home." 1 

She spoke and, stirred by the warning fate of 
her former attendant, groaned deeply. And as she 
1 Galanthis was changed into a weasel. 



ingemuit. quam sic nurus est affata dolentem : S25 
' te tamen, o genetrix, alienae sanguine nostro 
rapta movet facies. quid si tibi mira sororis 
fata meae referam ? quamquam lacrimaeque dolorque 
impediunt, prohibentque loqui. fuit unica matri — 
me pater ex alia genuit — notissima forma 330 

Oechalidum, Dryope. quam virginitate carentem 
vimque dei passam Delphos Delumque tenentis 
excipit Andraemon, et habetur coniuge felix. 
est lacus, adclivis devexo margine formam 
litoris efficiens, summum myrteta coronant. 335 

venerat hue Dryope fatorum nescia, quoque 
indignere magis, nymphis latura coronas, 
inque sinu puerum, qui nondum impleverat annum 
dulce ferebat onus tepidique ope lactis alebat. 
haut procul a stagno Tyrios imitata colores 340 

in spem bacarum florebat aquatica lotos, 
carpserat hinc Dryope, quos oblectamina nato 
porrigeret, flores, et idem factura videbar— - 
namque aderam — vidi guttas e flore cruentas 
dtoidere et tremulo ramos horrore moveri. 3+5 

scilicet, ut referunt tardi nunc denique agrestes, 
Lotis in hanc nymphe, fugiens obscena Priapi, 
conlulerat versos, se^-vato nomine, vultus. 

" Nescierat soror hoc. quae cum perterrita retro 
ire et adoratis vellet discedere nymphis, 350 

haeserunt radice pedes, convellere pugnat, 
nee quicquam, nisi summa movet. subcrescit ab imo, 
totaque paulatim lentus premit inguina cortex. 


grieved her daughter-in-law thus addressed her: 
" And yet, my mother, 'tis the changed form of one 
not of our blood you grieve for. What if I should 
tell you of the strange misfortunes of my own sister? 
And yet my tears and grief check me and almost 
prevent my speech. She was her mother's only 
child (for I was born of my father's second wife), 
Dryope, the most beautiful of all the Oechalian 
maids. Her, a maid no more through the violence 
of him who rules at Delphi and at Delos, Andraemon 
took and was counted happy in his wife. There is 
a pool whose shelving banks take the form of sloping 
shores, the top of which a growth of myrtle crowns. 
Dryope had come hither innocent of the fates and, 
that you ma}' be the more indignant, with the intention 
of gatheringgarlands for the nymphs. In her arms she 
bore a pleasing burden, her infant boy not yet a full 
year old, and nursed him at her breast. Near the 
margin of the pool a plant of the water-lotus grew 
full of bright blossoms, the harbingers of fruit. To 
please her little son the mother plucked some of 
these blossoms, and I was in the act to do the same 
(for I was with her), when I saw drops of blood fall- 
ing from the flowers and all the branches shivering 
with horror. For, you must know, as the slow 
rustics still relate, Lotis, a nymph, while fleeing from 
Priapus' vile pursuit, had taken refuge in this shape, 
changed as to features but keeping still her name. 

" But my sister knew naught of this. And when 
she started back in terror and, with prayers to the 
uymphs, strove to leave the place, her feet clung, 
root-like, to the ground ; she struggTed to tear her- 
self away, but nothing moved except the upper pari 
of her body ; the slow-creeping bark climbed upward 
from her feet and covered all her loins. When 

a J? 


ut vidit, conata manu laniare capillos, 
fronde manum implevit : frondes caput omne tene- 
bant. 355 

at puer Amphissos, (namque hoc avus Eurytus illi 
addiderat nomen,) materna rigescere sentit 
ubera ; nee sequitur ducentem lacteus umor. 
spectatrix aderam fati crudelis, opemque 
non poteram tibi ferre, soror, quantumque valebam, 
crescentem truncum ramosque amplexa morabar, 36l 
et, fateor, volui sub eodem cortice condi. 

"Ecce vir Andraemon genitorque miserrimus adsunt, 
et quaerunt Dryopen : Dryopen quaerentibus illis 
ostendi loton. tepido dant oscula ligno, 365 

adfusique suae radicibus arboris haerent. 
nil nisi iam faciem, quod non foret arbor, habebat 
cara soror : lacrimae misero de corpore factis 
inrorant foliis ; et, dum licet, oraque praestant 
vocis iter, tales effundit in aera questus : 370 

' siqua fides miseris, hoc me per numina iuro 
non meruisse nefas. patior sine crimine poenam. 
viximus innocuae. si mentior, arida perdam 
quas habeo frondes, et caesa securibus urar. 
hunc tamen infantem maternis demite ramis, 375 
et date nutrici, nostraque sub arbore saepe 
lac facitote bibat, nostraque sub arbore ludat. 
cumque ioqui poterit, matrem facitote salutet, 
et tristis dicat " latet hoc in stipite mater." 
stagna tamen timeat, nee carpat ab arbore flores, 380 


she saw this, she strove to tear her hair with her 
hands, but only filled her hands with leaves; for 
leaves now covered all her head. But the boy, 
Amphissos (for so his grandsire, Eurytus, had named 
him), felt his mother's breast grow hard, nor could 
he any longer draw his milky feast. I stood and saw 
your cruel fate, my sister, nor could I bring you any 
aid at all. And yet, so far as I could, I delayed the 
change by holding your growing trunk and branches 
fast in my embrace; and (shall I confess it?) I 
longed to hide me beneath that selfsame bark. 

" But lo, her husband, Andraemon, and her most 
unhappy father came seeking for Dryope ; and 
Dry ope, in response to their questionings, I showed 
them as the lotus-tree. They printed kisses on the 
warm wood and, prostrate on the ground, they clung 
about the roots of their darling tree. And now my 
dear sister had only her face remaining, while all the 
rest was tree. Her tears rained down upon the leaves 
made from her poor body ; and while they could, and 
her lips afforded utterance for her voice, it poured 
forth these complaints into the air: 'If oaths of 
wretched sufferers have any force, I swear by the 
gods that I have not merited this dreadful thing, 
In utter innocence I am suffering, and in innocence 
I have always lived. If 1 say not the truth, parched 
with the drought may I lose my foliage and may I 
be cut down by the axe and burned. But take this 
infant from his mother's limbs and give him to a 
nurse. Beneath my tree let him often come and 
take his milk ; beneath my tree let him play. And 
when he learns to talk, have him greet his mother 
and sadly say : " Here in this tree-trunk is my mother 
hid." Still let him fear the pool, pluck no blossoms 
from the trees, and think all shrubs are goddesses in 



et frutices omnes corpus putet esse dearum. 

care vale coniunx, et tu, germana, pattrque ! 

quin, siqua est pietas, ab acutae vulnere t'alcis, 

a pecoris morsu frondes defendite nostras. 

et quoniam mihi fas ad vos incumbere non est, 385 

erigite hue artus, et ad oscula nostra venite, 

dum tangi possum, parvumque attollite natum ! 

plura loqui nequeo. nam iam per Candida mollis 

colla liber serpit, summoque cacumine condor. 

ex oculis removete manus. sine munere vestro 3y0 

contegat inductus morientia lunnna cortex ! ' 

desierant simul ora loqui, simul esse, diuque 

corpore mutato rami caluere recentes." 

Dumque refert Iole factum mirabile, dumque 
Eurytidos lacrimas admoto pollice siccat S£)5 

Alcmene, (flet et ipsa tamen,) compescuit omnem 
res nova tristitiam. nam limine constitit alto 
paene puer dubiaque tegens lanugine malas, 
ora reformatus primos Iolaus in annos. 
hoc illi dederat Iunonia muneris Hebe, 400 

victa viri precibus. quae cum iurare pararet, 
dona tributuram post nunc se talia nulli, 
non est passa Tliemis : " nam iam discordia Thebae 
bella movent," dixit "Capaneusque nisi ab love vinci 
baud poterit, fientque pares in vulnere fratres, 405 
subductaque suos manes tellure videbit 


disguise ! Farewell, dear husband, and you, sister, 
and my father! Nay, if you love me still, protect 
my branches from the sharp knife, my foliage from 
the browsing sheep. And, since it is not permitted 
me to bend down to you, reach up to me aid let me 
kiss you while I may ; and reach me once more my 
little son ' Now I can say no more ; for over my 
white neck the soft bark comes creeping, and 1 
am buried in its overtopping folds. You need not 
close my eyes with your ha ds ; without your ser- 
vice let the bark creep up and close my dying 
eyes ! ' In the same moment did she cease to 
speak and cease to be ; and long did the new-made 
branches keep the warmth of the transformed 

\\ hile Iole was telling this wonderful tale, and 
while Alcmena, herself also in tears, was drying with 
her sympathetic hand the tears of the daughter of 
Eurj'tus, a startling circumstance banished the grief 
of both. For there, in the deep doorway, stood a 
youth, almost a boy, with delicate down covering his 
cheeks, lolaiis, 1 restored in features to his youthful 
prime. Hebe, Juno's daughter, won by her hus- 
band's 2 prayers, had given him this boon ; and when 
she was on the point of swearing that to no one after 
him would she bestow such gifts, Themis checked 
her vow. "For," said she, " Thebes is even now 
embroiled in civil strife, Capaneus shall be invin- 
cible save by the hand of Jove himself; the two 
brothers 3 shall die by mutual wounds; the prophet- 
king 4 shall in the flesh behold his own spirits, 

1 The son of Iphicles, half-brother to Hercules. 
3 i.e. Hercules, to whom, after his trauslaiion to heaven, 
Hebe had been given in marriage. 
* Eteoclea and Polynices * Amphiaraiis. 



vivus adhuc vates ; ultusque parente parentem 
natus erit facto pius et sceleratus eodem 
attonitusque malis, exul mentisque domusque, 
vultibus Eumenidum matrisque agitabitur umbris, 410 
donee eum coniunx fatale poposcerit aurum, 
cognatumque latus Phegei'us hauserit ensis. 
turn demum magno petet hos Acheloia supplex 
ab love Callirhoe natis infantibus annos, 
neve necem sinat esse diu victoris inultam. 415 

Iuppiter his motus privignae dona nurusque 
praecipiet, facietque viros inpubibus annis." 

Haec ubi faticano venturi praescia dixit 
ore Themis, vario superi sermone fremebant. 
et, cur non aliis eadem dare dona liceret, 420 

murmur erat. queritur veteres Pallantias annos 
coniugis esse sui, queritur canescere mitis 
Iasiona Ceres, repetitum Mulciber aevum 
poscit Erichthonio, Venerem quoque cura futuri 
tangit, et Anchisae renovare paciscitur annos. 425 
cui studeat, deus omnis habet ; crescitque favore 
turbida seditio, donee sua Iuppiter ora 
solvit, et " o ! nostri siqua est reverentia," dixit 
" quo ruitis ? tantumne aliquis sibi posse videtur, 
fata quoque ut superet ? fatis Iolaus in annos, 430 
quos egit, rediit. fatis iuvenescere debent 


engulfed by the yawning earth; and his son 1 shall 
avenge parent on parent, 2 filial and accursed in 
the selfsame act ; stunned by these evil doings, 
banished from reason and from home, he shall be 
hounded by the Furies and by his mother's ghost 
until his wife 3 shall ask of him the fatal golden 
necklace and the sword of Phegeus shall have 
drained his kinsman's blood. And then at last 
shall Callirhoe, daughter of Achelous, by prayer 
obtain from mighty Jove that her infant sons 
may attain at once to manly years, that so their 
victorious father's death be not long unavenged. 
Jove, thus prevailed upon, shall claim in advance for 
these the gifts of his stepdaughter 4 and daughter- 
in-law, 5 and shall in an act change beardless boys to 

When Themis, who knew what was to come, thus 
spoke with prophetic lips, a confused murmur of 
varying demands arose among the gods, and they 
inquired why they were not allowed to grant the 
same boon to others. Pallantis 6 lamented her hus- 
band's 7 hoary age ; mild Ceres bewailed Iasion's 
whitening locks; Mulciber demanded renewed life 
for Erichthonius, and Venus, too, with care for the 
future, stipulated that old Anchises' years should be 
restored. Each god had his own favourite; and the 
noisy, partisan strife kept on, until Jupiter opened 
his lips and spoke : '' Oh, if you have any reverence 
for me, what are you coming to ? Does anyone sup- 
pose that he can so far prevail as to alter Fate's 
decrees ? 'Twas by the will of Fate that Iolaus was 
restored to the years which he had passed, by Fate 

1 Alcmaeon.  Eriphyle. 3 Callirhoe. 

* Hebe. * Ibid. 

• Aurora. * Tithonus. 



Callirhoe geniti, non ambitione nee armis. 

vos etiam, quoque hoc animo meliore feratis, 

me quoque fata regunt. quae si mutare valerem, 

nee nostrum seri curvarent Aeacon anni, 435 

perpetuumque aevi florem Rhadamanthus haberet 

cum Minoe raeo ; _ qui propter amara senectae 

pondera despicitur^nec quo prius ordine regnat." 

Dicta Iovis movere deos; nee sustinet ullus, 
cum videat fessos Rhadamanthon et Aeacon annis 
et Minoa, queri. qui, dum fuit integer aevi, 441 
terruerat magnas ipso quoque nomine gentes; 
tunc erat invalidus, Dei'onidenque iuventae 
robore Miletum Phoeboque parente superbum 
pertimuit, credensque suis insurgere regnis, 445 

haut tamen est patriis arcere penatibus ausus. 
sponte fugis, Milete, tua, celerique carina 
Aegaeas metiris aquas, et in Aside terra 
moenia constituis positoris habentia nomen. 
hie tibi, dum sequitur patriae curvamina ripae, 450 
filia Maeandri totiens redeuntis eodem 
cognita Cyanee, praestanti corpora forma, 
Byblida cum Cauno, prolem est enixa gemellam. 

Byblis in exemplo est, ut ament concessa puellae, 
Byblis Apollinei correpta cupidine fratris; 45/ 

non soror ut fratrem, nee qua debebat, amabat. 
ilia quidem primo nullos intellegit ignes, 
nee peccare putat, quod saepius oscula iungat, 
quod sua fraterno circumdet bracchia collo; 


also Callirhoe's sons are destined to leap to manhood 
from infancy, and not by any ambition or strife of 
theirs. You, too (I say this that you may be of better 
mind), and me also the Fates control. If I could 
change them, old age would not bend low my Aeacus ; 
Rhadamanthus, too, would enjoy perpetual youth, 
together with my Minos, who, because of the galling 
weight of age, is now despised and no longer reigns 
in his former state." 

Jove's words appeased the gods ; nor could anyone 
complain when he saw Rhadamanthus, Aeacus, and 
Minos spent with years. Now Minos, while in his 
prime, had held great nations in fear of him by his 
very name ; but at that time he was infirm with age 
and in fear of Miletus, son of Deione and Phoebus, 
proud of his youthful strength and parentage ; and, 
though he believed that the youth was planning a 
rebellion against his kingdom, still he did not dare 
to banish him from his ancestral home. But of your 
own accord you fled, Miletus, and in your swift vessel 
crossed the Aegean sea and on the shores of Asia 
built a city which still bears its founder's name. 
There, while wandering along the banks of her 
father's winding stream, Cyanee, a nymph of un- 
rivalled beauty, daughter of Maeander, who oft 
returns upon his former course, was known by you ; 
and of this union Byblis and Caunus, twin progeny, 
were born. 

Byblis is a warning that girls should not love un- 
lawfully, Byblis, smitten with a passion for her 
brother, the grandson of Apollo. She loved him not 
as a brother, nor as a sister should. At first, indeed, 
she did not recognize the fires of love, nor think it 
wrong often to kiss him, often to throw her arms 
about her brother's neck, and she was long deceived 



mendacique diu pietatis fallitur umbra. 460 

paulatim declinat amor, visuraque fratrem 
culta venit, nimiumque cupit formosa videri 
et siqua est illic formosior, invidet illi. 
sed nondum manifesta sibi est, nullumque sub illo 
igne facit votum, verumtamen aestuat intus. 465 

iam dominum appellat, iam nomina sanguinis odit, 
Byblida iam mavult, quam se vocet ille sororem. 

Spes tamen obscenas animo demittere non est 
ausa suo vigilans ; placida resoluta quiete 
saepe videt quod amat : visa est quoque iungere 
fratri 470 

corpus et erubuit, quamvis sopita iacebat. 
somnus abit ; silet ilia diu repetitque quietis 
ipsa suae speciem dubiaque ita mente profatur : 
" me miseram ! tacitae quid vult sibi noctis imago ? 
quam nolim rata sit ! cur haec ego somnia vidi ? 475 
ille quidem est oculis quamvis formosus iniquis 
et placet, et possim, si non sit frater, amare, 
et me dignus erat. verum nocet esse sororem. 
dummodo tale nihil vigilans, committere temptem, 
saepe licet simili redeat sub imagine somnus ! 480 
testis abest somno, nee obest imitata voluptas. 
pro Venus et tenera volucer cum matre Cupido, 
gaudia quanta tuli ! quam me manifesta libido 
contigit ! ut iacui totis resoluta medullis! 
ut meminisse iuvat! quamvis brevis ilia voluptas 485 
noxque fuit praeceps et coeptis invida nostris. 

" O ego, si liceat mutato nomine iungi, 


by the semblance of sisterly affection. But gradually 
this affection changed to love : carefully adorned she 
came to see her brother, too anxious to seem lovely 
in his sight ; and if any other seemed more beautiful 
to him, she envied her. But not yet did she have a 
clear vision of herself, felt no desire, prayed for no 
joy of love ; but yet the hidden fire burned on. Now 
she called him her lord, now hated the name of 
brother, and wished him to call her Byblis, rather 
than sister. 

Still in her waking hours she does not let her 
mind dwell on impure desires ; but when she is re- 
laxed in peaceful slumber, she often has visions oi 
her love : she sees herself clasped in her brother's 
arms and blushes, though she lies sunk in sleep. 
When sleep has fled, she lies still for long and pic- 
tures again the visions of her slumber and at last, 
with wavering mind, she exclaims : " Oh, wretched 
girl that I am ! What means this vision of the night ? 
Oh, but I would not have it so ! Why do I have 
such dreams ? He is indeed beautiful, even to eyes 
that look unkindly on him, and is pleasing, and I 
could love him if he were not my brother ; and he 
would be worthy of me ; but it is my bane that I 
am his sister. If only when I am awake I make trial 
of no such thing, still may sleep often return with a 
dream like that ! There's no one to tell in sleep, 
and there is no harm in imagined joy. O Venus and 
winged Cupid with thy soft mother, how happy I 
was ! How real my joy seemed ! How my very 
heart melted within me as I lay ! How sweet to 
remember it ! And yet 'twas but a fleeting pleasure, 
and night was headlong and envious of the joys 
before me. 

" Oh, if I could only change my name and be joined 



quam bene, Caune, tuo poteram nurus esse parenti 1 
jUam bene, Caune, meo poteras gener esse parenti ! 
omnia, di facerent, essent communia nobis, 490 

praeter avos : tu me vellem generosior esses! 
nescioquam facies igitur, pulcherrime, matrem ; 
at mihi, quae male sum, quos tu, sortita parentes, 
nil nisi frater eris. quod obest, id habebimus unum. 
quid mihi significant ergo mea visa ? quod autem 495 
somnia pondus habent ? an habent et somnia pondus ? 
di melius .' di nenipe suas habuere sorores. 
sic Saturn us Opem iunctam sibi sanguine duxit, 
Oceanus Teth}'n, Iunonem rector Olympi. 
sunt superis sua iura ! quid ad caelestia ritus 500 
exigere liumanos diversaque foedera tempto ? 
aut nostro vetitus de corde fugabitur ardor, 
aut hoc si nequeo, peream, precor, ante toroque 
mortua componar, positaeque det oscula frater. 
et tamen arbitrium quaerit res ista duorum ! 505 

finge placere mihi : scelus esse videbitur illi. 

"At non Aeolidae thalamos timuere sororum ! 
unde sed hos novi ? cur haec exempla paravi ? 
quo feror ? obscenae procul hinc discedite flammae 
nee, nisi qua fas est germanae, frater ametur 1 510 
si tamen ipse meo captus prior esset amore, 
forsitan illius possem indulgere furori. 
ergo ego, quae fuerim non reiectura petentem, 
ipsa petam ! poterisne loqui ? poterisne fateri ? 
coget amor, potero ! vel, si pudor ora tenebit, 515 
iittera celatos arcana fatebitur ignes." 


to you, how good a daughter, Caunus, I could be to your 
father, how good a son, Caunus, you could be to mine ! 
we should have all things in common, if heaven 
allowed, except our grandparents. I should want you 
to be better born than I ! You will be someone's hus- 
band, I suppose, O most beautiful ; but to me, who 
have unfortunately drawn the same parents as your- 
self, you will never be anything but brother : what 
is our bane, that alone we shall have in common. 
What then do my dreams mean for me ! — But what 
weight have dreams ? or have dreams really weight ? 
The gods forbid! — But surely the gods have loved 
their sisters ; so Saturn married Ops, blood-kin of his ; 
Oceanus, Tethys ; the ruler of Olympus, Juno. But 
the gods are a law unto themselves ! Why should 1 
try to measure human fashions by divine and far 
different customs ? Either my passion will flee from 
my heart if I forbid its presence, or if I cannot do 
this, I pray that I may die before I yield, and be laid 
out dead upon my couch, and as I lie there may my 
brother kiss my lips. And yet that act requires the 
will of two ! Supposing it please me, it will seem a 
crime to him. 

"Yet the Aeolidae did not shun their sisters' 
chambers ! But whence do I know these? Why do 
I quote these examples? Whither am I tending? 
Get you far hence, immodest love, and let not my 
brother be loved at all, save in sisterly fashion ! 
And yet if he himself had first been smitten with 
love for me, I might perchance smile upon his 
passion. Let me myself, then, woo him, since I 
should not have rejected his wooing! And caa you 
speak? can you confess? Love will compel me: I 
can ! or if shame holds my lips, a private letter shall 
confess my secret love." 



Hoc placet, haec dubiam vicit sententia mentem. 
in latus erigitur cubitoque innixa sinistro 
P viderit : insanos " inquit " fateamur amores ! 
ei mihi, quo labor ? quein mens mea concipit ignem ?" 
et meditata manu componit verba trementi. 521 

dextra tenet ferrum, vacuam tenet altera ceram. 
incipit et dubitat, scribit damnatque tabellas, 
et notat et delet, mutat culpatque probatque 
inque vicem sumptas ponit positasque resumit. 525 
quid velit ignorat ; quicquid factum videtur, 
displicet. in vultu est audacia mixta pudori. 
scripta "soror " fuerat ; visum est delere sororem 
verbaque correctis incidere talia ceris : 
" quam, nisi tu dederis. non est habitura salutem, 530 
banc tibi mittit amans : pudet, a, pudet edere nomen, 
et si quid cupiam quaeris, sine nomine vellem 
posset agi mea causa meo, nee cognita Byblis 
ante forem, quam spes votorum certa fuisset. 

" Esse quidem laesi poterat tibi pectoris index 535 
et color et macies et vultus et umida saepe 
lumina nee causa suspiria mota patenti 
et crebri amplexus, et quae, si forte notasti, 
oscula sentiri non esse sororia possent. 
ipsa tamen, quamvis animo grave vulnus habebam, 
quam vis intus erat furor igneus, omnia feci 541 

(sunt mihi di testes), ut tandem sanior essem, 
pugnavique diu violenta Cupidinis arma 
effugere infelix, et plus, quam ferre puellam 
posse putes, ego dura tuli. superata fateri 545 



This plan meets her approval ; upon this her 
wavering mind decides. She half-way rises and, 
leaning upon her left elbow, says : " Let him see : 
let us confess our mad passion! Ah me! whither 
am I slipping ? What hot love does my heart con- 
ceive ? " And she proceeds to set down with a 
trembling hand the words she has thought out. In 
her right hand she holds her pen, in her left an 
empty waxen tablet. She begins, then hesitates and 
stops ; writes on and hates what she has written ; 
writes and erases ; changes, condemns, approves ; 
by turns she lays her tablets down and takes them 
up again. What she would do she knows not ; on 
the point of action, she decides against it. Shame 
and bold resolution mingle in her face. She had 
begun with "sister"; but "sister" she decided to 
erase, and wrote these words on the amended wax : 
" A health to you, which, if you give it not to her, 
she will not have, one sends to you who loves you. 
Shamed, oh, she is ashamed to tell her name. And 
if you seek to know what I desire, I would that 
nameless I might plead my cause, and not be known 
as Byblis until my fond hopes were sure. 

" You might have had knowledge of my wounded 
heart from my pale, drawn face, my eyes oft filled 
with tears, my sighs for no seeming cause, my 
frequent embraces and my kisses which you might 
have known, had you but marked them, were more 
than sisterly. Yet, though my heart was sore dis- 
tressed, though full of hot passion, I have done 
everything (the gods are my witnesses) to bring 
myself to sanity. Long have I fought, unhappy that 
I am, to escape love's cruel charge, and I have borne 
more than you would think a girl could bear. But 
I have been overborne and am forced to confess my 



cogor, opemque tuam timidis exposcere votis. 
tu servare potes, tu perdere solus amantem : 
elige, utrum facias, non hoc inimica precatur, 
sed quae, cum tibi sit iunctissima, iunctior esse 
expetit et vinclo tecum propiore ligari. 550 

iura senes norint, et quid liceatque nefasque 
fasque sit, inquirant, legumque examina servent. 
conveniens Venus est annis temeraria nostris. 
quid liceat, nescimus adhuc, et cuncta licere 
credimus, et sequimur magnorum exempla deorum. 
nee nos aut durus pater aut reverentia famae 556 
aut timor impediet : tamen ut sit causa timendi, 
dulci fraterno sub nomine furta tegemus. 
est mihi libertas tecum secreta loquendi, 
et damus amplexus, et iungimus oscula coram. 560 
quantum est, quod desit ? miserere fatentis amores, 
et non fassurae, nisi cogeret ultimus ardor, 
neve merere meo subscribi causa sepulchro." 
Talia nequiquam perarantem plena reliquit 
cera manum, summusque in margine versus adhaesit. 
protinus inpressa signat sua crimina gemma, 566 

quam tinxit lacrimis (linguam defecerat umor) : 
deque suis unum famulis pudibunda vocavit, 
et pavidum blandita " fer has, fidissinie, nostro " — 
dixit, et adiecit longo post tempore " fratri." 570 
cum daret, elapsae manibus cecidere tabellae. 
omine turbata est, misit tamen. apta minister 


love, and with timid prayers to beg help of you. 
For you alone can save, you only can destroy your 
lover. Choose which you will do. It is no enemy 
who prays to you, but one who, though most closely 
joined to you, seeks to be more fully joined and to 
be bound by a still closer tie. Let old men know 
propriety and talk of what is fitting, what is right 
and wrong, and preserve the nice discrimination of 
the laws. But love is compliant and heedless for 
those of our age. What is allowed we have not yet 
discovered, and we believe all things allowed ; and 
in this we do but follow the example of the gods. 
You and I have no harsh father, no care for reputa- 
tion, no fear to hold us back. And yet even though 
there be cause for fear, beneath the sweet name of 
brother and sister we shall conceal our stolen love. 
I have full liberty to talk apart with you ; we may 
embrace and kiss in open view of all. How much 
still is lacking ? Pity her who confesses to you her 
love, but who would not confess if the utmost love 
did not compel her ; and let it not be written on my 
sepulchre that for your sake I died." 

The tablet was full when she had traced these 
words doomed to disappointment, the last line coming 
to the very edge. Straightway she stamped the 
shameful letter with her seal which she moistened 
with her tears (for moisture failed her tongue). 
Then, blushing hotly, she called one of her atten- 
dants and with timorous and coaxing voice said: 
"Take these tablets, most faithful servant, to 

my " ; and after a long silence added, "brother." 

While she was «iving them, the tablets slipped from 
her hands and fell. Though much perturbed by the 
omen, she still sent the letter. The servant, finding 
a fitting time, went to the brother and delivered to 



tempora nactus adit traditque fatentia verba. 

attonitus subita iuvenis Maeandrius ira 

proicit acceptas lecta sibi parte tabellas, 575 

vixque manus retinens trepidantis ab ore ministri, 

" dum lieet, o! vetitae scelerate libidinis auctor, 

eff'uge ! " ait " qui, si nostrum tua fata pudorem 

non traherent secum, poenas mihi morte dedisses." 

ille fugit pavidus, dominaeque ferocia Cauni 5S0 

dicta refert. palles audita, Bybli, repulsa, 

et pavet obsessum glaciali frigore corpus. 

mens tamen ut rediit, pariter rediere furores, 

linguaque vix tales icto dt dit aere voces : 

" et merito ! quid enim temeraria vulneris huius 585 

indicium feci ? quid, quae celanda fuerunt, 

tarn cito commisi properatis verba tabellis? 

ante erat ambiguis animi sententia dictis 

praetc mptanda mihi. ne non sequeretur euntem, 

parte aliqua veli, qualis foret aura, notare 590 

debueram, tutoque mari decurrere, quae nunc 

non exploratis inplevi lintea ventis. 

auferor in scopulos igitur, subversaque toto 

obruor oceano, neque habent mea vela recursus. 

"Quid quod et ominibus certis prohibebar amori 59. 
indulgere meo, turn cum mihi ferre iubenti 
excidit et fecit spes nostras cera caducas ? 
nonne vel ilia dies fuerat, vel tota voluntas, 
sed potius mutanda dies ? (bus ip^e monebat 
signaque certa dabat, si non male sana fuissem. 600 
et tamen ipsa loqui, nee me committere cerae 


him the message of confession. The grandson of 
Maeander, in a passion of sudden rage, threw down 
the tablets which he had taken and read half through, 
and, scarcely restraining his hands from the trem- 
bling servant's throat, he cried : " Flee while you 
may, you rascally promoter of a lawless love ! But 
if your fate did not involve our own disgrace, you 
should have paid the penalty for this with death." 
He fled in terror and reported to his mistress her 
brother's savage answer. When, Byblis, you heard 
that your love had been repulsed, you grew pale, and 
your whole body trembled in the grip of an icy chill. 
But when your senses came back, your mad love came 
back with equal force ; and then with choked and 
feeble utterance you spoke : " Deservedly I suffer ! 
For why did I so rashly tell him of this wound of 
mine ? Why was I in such a haste to commit to 
tablets what should have been concealed ? I should 
first have tried his disposition towards me by obscure 
hints. That my voyage might have a favourable 
wind, I should first have tested with a close-reefed 
sail what the wind was, and so have fared in safety ; 
but now with sails full spread I have encountered 
unexpected winds. And so my ship is on the rocks ; 
with the full force of ocean am I overwhelmed, and 
have no power to turn back upon my course. 

" Nay, by the clearest omens I was warned not to 
confess my love, at the time when the letter fell 
from my hand as I bade my servant bear it, and 
taught me that my hopes must fall as well. Should 
not that day or my whole purpose — say rather, should 
not the day have been postponed? God himself 
warned me and gave me clear signs had J not been 
mad with love. And yet I should have told him with 
my own lips, I should in person have confessed my 



debueram. praesensque meos apsrire furores, 
vidisset lacrimas, vultum vidisset amantis ; 
plura loqui poteram, quam quae cepere tabellae. 
invito putui circumdare bracchia cello, 605 

et, si reicerer, potui moritura videri 
amplectique pedes, adfusaque poscere vitam. 
omnia fecissem, quorum si singula duram 
flectere non poterant, potuissent omnia, mentem. 
forsitan et missi sit quaedam culpa ministri : 610 

non adiit apte, nee legit idonea, credo, 
tempora, nee petiit horamque animumque vacantem. 
" Haecnocueremihi. neque enim est de tigridenatus 
nee rigidas silices solidumve in pectore ferrum 
aut adamanta gerit, nee lac bibit ille leaenae. 615 
vincetur ! rep^tendus erit, nee taedia coepti 
ulla mei capiam, dum spiritus iste manebit. 
nam primum, si facta mihi revocare lieeret, 
non coepisse fuit: coepta expugnare secundum est. 
quippe nee ille potest, ut iam mea vota relii quam, 
non tamenausorum semper memor esse meorum. 621 
et, quia desierim, leviter vohiisse videbor, 
aut et : am temptasse ilium insidiisque petisse, 
vel certe non hoc, qui plurimus urguet et urit 
pectora nostra, deo, sed victa libidine credar ; 625 
denique iam nequeo nil commisisse nefandum. 
et scripsi et petii : temerata est nostra voluntas ; 
ut nihil adiciam, non possum innoxia dici. 


passion, and not have trusted my inmost heart to 
waxen tablets ! He should have seen my tears, he 
should have seen his lover's face ; I could have 
spoken more than any tablets could hold; I could 
have thrown my arms about his unwilling neck and, 
if I were rejected, I could have seemed at the point 
of death, could have embraced his feet and, lying 
prostrate there, have begged for life. I should have 
done all things, which together might have won his 
stubborn soul if one by one they could not. Perhaps 
the servant whom I sent made some mistake : did not 
approach him rightly; chose an unfitting time, I 
suppose, nor sought an hour and mind that was 

" All this has wrought against me. For he is 
no tigress' son ; he has no heart of hard flint or 
solid iron or adamant ; no lioness has suckled him. 
He shall be conquered! I must go to him again; 
nor shall I weary in my attempts while I have 
breath left in my body. For if it were not too late 
to undo what 1 have done, it was the best thing 
not to have begun at all ; the second best is to 
win through with what I have begun. Though 
I should now abandon my suit, he cannot help 
remembering always how far I have already dared. 
And in that case, just because I did give up, I shall 
seem either to have been fickle in my desire, or else 
to have been trying to tempt him and catch him in 
a snare. Whichever of these he thinks of me, he 
certainly will not believe that I have been overcome 
by that god who more than all others rules and in- 
flames our hearts, but actuated by lust alone. In 
short, I cannot now undo the wrong that I have 
done. I have both written and have wooed him 
and rash I was to do so. Though I do nothing more, 



quod superest, multum est in vota, in criinina 

dixit, et (incertae tanta est discordia mentis,) 630 
cum pigeat temptasse, libet temptare. modumque 
exit et infelix committit saepe repelli. 
mox ubi finis abest, patriam fugit ille nefasque, 
inque peregrina ponit nova moenia terra. 

Turn vero maestam tota Miletida mente 635 

defecisse ferunt, turn vero a pectore vesten. 
diripuit planxitque suos furibunda lacertos ; 
lamque palam est demens, inconcessamque fatetur 
spem veneris, sine qua patriam invisosque penates 
deserit, et profugi sequitur vestigia fratris. 640 

utque tuo motae, proles Semelei'a, thyrso 
Ismariae celebrant repetita triennia bacchae, 
Byblida non aliter latos ululasse per agros 
Bubasides videre nurus. quibus ilia relictis 
Caras et armiferos Lelegas Lyciamque pererrat. 645 
iam Cragon et Limyren Xanthique reliquerat umlas, 
quoque Chimaera iugo mediis in partibus ignem, 
pectus et ora leae, caudam serpentis habebat. 
deficiunt silvae, cum tu lassata sequendo 
concidis, et dura positis tellure capillis, 650 

Bybli, iaces, frondesque tuo premis ore caducas. 
saepe etiam nymphae teneris Lelege'ides ulnis 
tollere conantur, saepe, ut medeatur amori, 
praecipiunt, surdaeque adhibent solacia menti. 
muta iacet, viridesque suis tenet unguibus herbas 655 
Byblis, et umectat lacrimarum gramina rivus. 


I cannot seem other than guilty in his sight. As for 
the rest, I have much to hope and naught to fear." 
Thus does she argue ; and (so great is her uncertainty 
of soul), while she is sorry that she tried at all, she 
wants to try again. The wretched girl tries every 
art within her power, but is repeatedly repulsed. 
At length, when there seemed to be no limit to her 
importunity, the youth fled from his native land and 
from this shameful wooing, and founded a new city 1 
in another land. 

Then, they say, the wretched daughter of Miletus 
lost all control of reason ; she tore her garments from 
her breast, and in mad passion beat her arms. Now 
before all the world she rages and publicly proclaims 
her hope of unlawful love, disappointed in which she 
forsakes her land and her hated home and follows her 
fleeing brother. And just as, crazed by thy thyrsus, 
O son of Semele, thy Ismarian worshippers throng thy 
triennial orgies, so the women of Bubassus 2 beheld 
Byblis go shrieking through the broad fields. Leaving 
these behind, she wandered through the land of Caria, 
by the well-armed Leleges and the country of the 
Lycians. And now she had passed by Cragus and 
Limyre and Xanthus' stream and the ridge where 
dwelt Chimaera, that fire-breathing monster with 
lion's head and neck and serpent's tail. Clear beyond 
the wooded ridge she went, and then at last, wearied 
with pursuing, you fell, O Byblis, and lay there with 
your hair streaming over the hard ground and your 
face buried in the fallen leaves. Often the Lelegeian 
nymphs try to lift her in their soft arms, often advise 
her how she may cure her love and offer comfort to 
her unheeding soul. Byblis lies without a word, 

1 Caunus, in south-western Caria. 
* A town in Caria. 



naidas his venam, quae nuniquam arescere posset, 

subposuisse ferunt. quid enim dare maius habebant? 

protinus, ut secto piceae de cortice guttae, 

utve tenax gravida manat tellure bitumen ; 660 

utve sub adventu spirantis lene favoni 

sole remollescit quae frigore constitit unda ; 

sic lacrimis consumpta suis Phoebe'ia Byblis 

vertitur in fontem, qui nunc quoque vallibus illis 

nomen habet dominae, nigraque sub ilice manat. 66. r > 

Fama novi centum Creteas forsitan«urbes 
implesset monstri, si non miracula nuper 
Iphide mutata Crete propiora tulisset. 
proxima Gnosiaco nam quondam Phaestia regno 
progenuit tellus ignotum nomine Ligdum, 670 

ingenua de plebe virum, nee census in illo 
nobilitate sua maior, sed vita fidesque 
inculpata fuit. gravidae qui coniugis aures 
vocibus his monuit, cum iam prope partus adesset . 
"quae voveam, duo sunt: minimo ut relevere dolore, 
utque marem parias. onerosior altera sors est, 676 
et vires fortuna negat. quod abominor : ergo 
edita forte tuo fuerit si femina partu, — 
invitus mando ; pietas, ignosce ! — necetur." 
dixerat, et lacrimis vultum lavere profusis, 680 

tarn qui mandabat, quam cui mandata dabantur. 
sed tamen usque suum vanis Telethusa maritum 


clutching the green herbs with her fingers, and 
watering the grass with her flowing tears. The naiads 
are said to have given her a vein of tears which could 
never dry ; for what greater gift had they to bestow ? 
Straightway, as drops of pitch drip forth from the 
gashed pine-bark ; as sticky bitumen oozes from rich 
heavy earth ; or as, at the approach of the soft 
breathing west-wind, the water which had stood 
frozen with the cold now melts beneath the sun ; so 
Phoebean Byblis, consumed by her own tears, is 
changed into a fountain, which to this day in those 
valleys has the name of its mistress, and issues forth 
from under a dark ilex-tree. 

The story of this unnatural passion would, per- 
haps, have been the talk of Crete's hundred towns, 
if Crete had not lately had a wonder of its own in 
the changed form of Iphis. For there once lived in 
the Phaestian country, not far from the royal town 
of Gnosus, a man named Ligdus, otherwise unknown, 
of free-born but humble parentage ; nor was his pro- 
perty any greater than his birth. But he was of 
blameless life and trustworthy. When now the time 
drew near when his wife should give birth to a child, 
he warned and instructed her with these words: 
"There are two things which I would ask of Heaven : 
that you may be delivered with the least possible 
pain, and that your child may be a boy. Girls are 
more trouble, and fortune has denied them strength. 
Therefore (and may Heaven save the mark!), if by 
chance your child should prove to be a girl (I hate 
to say it, and may I be pardoned for the impiety), 
let her be put to death." He spoke, and their 
cheeks were bathed in tears, both his who ordered 
and hers to whom the command was given. Never- 
theless, Telethusa ceaselessly implored her husband 



sollicitat precibiiSj ne spem sibi ponat in arto. 
certa sua est Ligdo sententia. iamque ferendo 
vix erat ilia gravem maturo pondere ventrem, 685 
cum medio noctis spatio sub imagine somni 
Inachis ante torum, pompa comitata sacrorum, 
aut stetit aut visa est. inerant lunaria fronti 
cornua cum spicis nitido flaventibus auro 
et regale decus ; cum qua latrator Anubis, 690 

sanctaque Bubastis, variusque coloribus Apis, 
quique premit vocem digitoque silentia suadet ; 
sistraque erant, nuraquamque satis quaesitus Osiris, 
plenaque somniferis serpens peregrina venenis. 
turn velut excussam somno et manifesta videntem 695 
sic adfata dea est : "pars o Telethusa mearum, 
pone graves curas, mandataque falle mariti. 
nee dubita, cum te partu Lucina levarit, 
tollere quicquid erit. dea sum auxiliaris opemque 
exorata fero ; nee te coluisse quereris 700 

ingratum numen." monuit, thalamoque recessit. 
laeta toro surgit, purasque ad sidera supplex 
Cressa manus tollens, rata sint sua visa, precatur. 
Ut dolor increvit, seque ipsum pondus in auras 
expulit, et nata est ignaro femina patre, 705 

iussit ali mater puerum mentita. fidemque 
res habuit, neque erat ficti nisi conscia nutrix, 


(though all in vain) not so to straiten her expectation ; 
but Ligdus remained steadfast in his determination. 
And now the time was at hand when the child should 
be born, when at midnight, in a vision of her dreams, 
she saw or seemed to see the daughter 1 of Inachus 
standing before her bed, accompanied by a solemn 
train of sacred beings. She had crescent horns 
upon her forehead, and a wheaten garland yellow with 
bright gold about her head, a sight of regal beauty. 
Near her were seen the dog Anubis, sacred Bubastis, 
dappled Apis, and the god 2 who enjoins silence 
with his finger on his lips; there also were the sacred 
rattles, and Osiris, for whom none ever search enough, 
and the Egyptian, serpent swelling with sleep- 
producing venom. She seemed to be thoroughly 
awake and to see all things about her clearly as 
the goddess spoke to her : " O Telethusa, one of my 
own worshippers, put away your grievous cares, and 
think not to obey your husband's orders. And do not 
hesitate, when Lucina has delivered you, to save your 
child, whatever it shall be. I am the goddess who 
bring help and succour to those who call upon 
me ; nor shall you have cause to complain that you 
have worshipped a thankless deity." Having so 
admonished her, the goddess left the chamber. Then 
joyfully the Cretan woman arose from her bed, and, 
raising her innocent hands in suppliance to the stars, 
she prayed that her vision might come true. 

When now her pains increased and the birth was 
accomplished, and the child proved to be a girl 
(though without the father's knowledge), the mother, 
with intent to deceive, bade them feed the boy. 
Circumstances favoured her deceit, for the nurse was 

1 i.e. Io, worshipped as the goddess Isis. See I. 747. 
1 Harpocrates. 


vota pater solvit, nomenque inponit avitum : 
Iphisavus fuerat. gavisa est nomine mater, 
quod commune foret, nee quemquam fallerct illo. 710 
inde incepta pia mendacia fraude latebant. 
cultus erat pueri ; facies, quam sive puellae, 
sive dares puero, fuerat formosus uterque. 

Tertius interea decimo successerat annus : 
cum pater, Iphi, tibi flavam despondet Ianthcn, 715 
inter Phaestiadas quae laudatissima formae 
dote fuit virgo, Dictaeo nata Teleste. 
par aetas, par forma fuit, primasque magislris 
accej)ere artes, elementa aetatis, ab isdem. 
hinc amor ambarum tetigit rude pectus, et aequum 
vulnus utrique dedit, Bed erat fiducia dispar : 721 
coniugium pactaeque exspectat tempora taedae, 
quamque virum putat esse, virum fore credit Ianthe ; 
Ipliis amat, qua posse frui desperat, et auget 
hoe ipsum flammas, ardc tque in virgine virgo 725 

vixque tenens lacrimas " quis me manet exifus," 

" cognita quam nulli, quam prodigiosa novaeque 
cura tenet Veneris ? si di mihi parcere vellent, 
parcere debuerant ; si non, et perdere vellent, 
naturale malum saltern et de men- d< dissent. 730 
nee vaccam vaecae, nee equas amor urit equaruin : 
urit oves aries, sequltur sua femina cervum. 
sic et aves coeunt, interque animalia cuncta 


the only one who knew of the trick. The father 
paid his vows and named the child after its grand- 
father : the grandfather had been I phis. The mother 
rejoiced in the name ; for it was of common gender 
and she could use it without deceit. And so the 
trick, begun with pious fraud, remained undetected. 
The child was dressed like a boy, and its face would 
have been counted lovely whether you assigned it 
to a girl or boy. 

Meanwhile thirteen years passed by; and then 
your father found you a bride, O Iphis, in golden- 
haired Iantlie, a girl the most praised among the 
Phaestian women for the rich dower of her beauty, 
the daughter of Cretan Telestes. The two were of 
equal age and equal loveliness, and from the same 
teachers had they received their first instruction in 
childish rudiments. Hence love came to both their 
hearts all unsuspected and filled them both with 
equal longing. But they did not both love with 
equal hope : Ianthe looked forward confidently to 
marriage and the fulfilment of her troth, and be- 
lieved that she whom she thought to be a man would 
some day be her husband. Whereas Iphis loved 
without hope of her love's fulfilment, and for this 
very reason loved all the more — a girl madly in love 
with another girl. Scarcely holding back her tears, 
" Oh, what will be the end of me," she said, " whom 
a love possesses that no one ever heard of, a strange 
and monstrous love ? If the gods wished to save me 
they should have saved me ; if not, and they wished 
to ruin me, they should at least have given me some 
natural woe, within the bounds ot experience. Cows 
do not love cows, nor mares, mares ; but the ram 
desires the sheep, and his own doe follows the stag. 
So also birds mate, and in the whole animal world 


femina femineo conrepta cupidine nulla est. 
vellcm nulla forem ! ne non tamen omnia Crete 735 
monstra ferat, taurum dilexit filia Solis, 
femina nempe marem. meus est furiosior illo, 
si verum profitemur, amor, tamen ilia secuta est 
spem Veneris ; tamen ilia dolis et imagine vaccae 
passa bovem est, et erat, qui deciperetur, adulter. 740 
hue licet ex toto sollertia confluat orbe, 
ipse licet revolet ceratis Daedalus alis, 
quid faciet ? num me puerum de virgine doctis 
artibus efficiet ? num te mutabit, Ianthe ? 

"Quin animum firmas,tequeipsa recolligis, Iphi, 745 
consiliique inopes et stultos excutis ignes ? 
quid sis nata, vide, nisi te quoque decipis ipsa, 
et pete quod fas est, et ama quod femina debes ! 
spes est, quae capiat, spes est, quae pascat amorem. 
hanc tibi res adimit. non te custodia caro 750 

arcet ab amplexu, nee cauti cura mariti, 
non patris asperitas, non se negat ipsa roganti, 
nee tamen est potienda tibi, nee, ut omnia fiant, 
esse potes felix, ut dique hominesque laborent. 
nunc quoque votorum nulla est pars vana meorura, 
dique mihi faciles, quicquid valuere, dederunt ; 756 
quodque ego, vult genitor, vult ipsa, socerque futurus. 
at non vult natura, potentior omnibus istis, 
|ime mihi sola nocet. venit ecce optabile tempus, 
luxque iugalis adest, et iam mea net Ianthe — 760 
nee mihi continget : mediis sitiemus in undis. 


there is no female smitten with love for female. I 
would I were no female ! Nevertheless, that Crete 
might produce all monstrous things, the daughter 1 
of the Sun loved a bull — a female to be sure, and 
male ; my passion is more mad than that, if the truth 
be told. Yet she had some hope of her love's fulfil- 
ment ; yet she enjoyed her bull by a trick and the 
disguise of the heifer, and it was the lover who was 
deceived. Though all the ingenuity in the world 
should be collected here, though Daedalus himself 
should fly back on waxen wings, what could he do ? 
With all his learned arts could he make me into a 
boy from a girl ? or could he change you, Ianthe ? 

"Nay, then, be strong of soul, take courage, Iphis, 
and banish from your heart this hopeless, foolish 
love. See what you were born, unless you yourself 
deceive yourself as well as others ; seek what is 
lawful, and love as a woman ought to love ! It is 
hope of fulfilment that begets love, and hope that 
keeps it alive. And of this hope the nature of things 
deprives you. No guardian keeps you from her dear 
embrace, no watchfulness of a jealous husband, no 
cruel father; nor does she herself deny your suit. And 
yet you cannot have her, nor can you be happy, though 
all things should favour you, though gods and men 
should work for you. And even now none of my 
prayers have been denied ; the gods, compliant, have 
given me whatever was theirs to give ; and what I 
wish my father wishes, she herself and her father all 
desire. But nature will not have it so, nature, more 
mighty than they all, who alone is working my dis- 
tress. And lo, the longed-for time is come, my 
wedding-day is at hand, and soon Ianthe will be 
mine — and yet not mine. In the midst of water we 

1 Paaiphae. 



pronuba quid Iuno, quid ad haec, Hymenaee, venitis 
sacra, quibus qui ducat abest, ubi nubimus arabae ? " 
pressit ab his vocem. nee lenius altera virgo 
aestuat, utque celer venias, Hymenaee, precatur. 765 
quod petit haec, Telethusa timens modo tempora 

nunc ficto languore moram trahit, omina saepe 
visaque causatur. sediam consumpserat oinnem 
materiam ficti, dilataque tempora taedae 
institerant, unusque dies restabat. at ilia 770 

crinalem capiti vittam nataeque sibique 
detrahit, et passis aram complexa capillis : 
" Isi, Paraetonium Mareoticaque arva Pharonque 
quae colis, et septem digestum in cornua Niluui : 
ter, precor," inquit " opem, nostroque medere timori ! 
te, dea, te quondam tuaque haec insignia vidi 776 
cunctaque cognovi, sonitum comitesque facesque . . . 
sistrorum, memorique animo tua iussa notavi. 
quod videt haec lucem, quod non ego punior, ecce 
consilium mun usque tuum est. miserere duarum, 
auxilioque iuva ! " lacrimae sunt verba secutae. 781 
visa dea est movisse suas, (et moverat,) aras, 
et templi tremuere fores, imitataque lunam 
cornua fulserunt, crepuitque sonabile sistrum. 
non secura quidem, fausto tamen omine laeta 785 
mater abit templo. sequitur comes I phis euntem, 
quam solita est, maiore gradu, nee candor in ore 
permanet, et vires augentur, et acrior ipse est 
vultus, et incomptis brevior mensura capillis, 


shall thirst. Why do you come, Juno, goddess of 
brides, and Hymen, to these wedding rites, where 
no man takes the woman for his bride, but where 
both are brides ?" She broke off speech with these 
words. The other maiden burned with equal love, 
and prayed, Hymen, that you would make haste to 
come. And Telethusa, fearing what Ianthe sought, 
put off the time, now causing delay because of a 
pretended sickness, often giving for reason some ill- 
omened vision she had seen. But now she had 
exhausted every possible excuse, and the postponed 
wedding-day was close at hand, and but one more 
day remained. Then the mother took the encircling 
fillets from her own and her daughter's heads, and 
with flowing locks she prayed, clinging to the altar: 
" O Isis, who dwellest in Paraetonium and the 
Mareotic fields and Pharos and the sevenfold waters 
of the Nile, help us, I pray, and heal our sore distress. 
Thee, goddess, thee and these thy symbols once 
I saw and recognized them all — the clashing sound, 
thy train, the torches, [the rattling] of the sistra — 
and with retentive mind I noted thy commands. 
That this, my daughter still looks on the light, that 
I have not been punished, behold, is all of thy counsel 
and thy gift. Pity us two, and help us with thy aid ! " 
Tears followed on her words. The goddess seemed 
to move, nay, moved her altar, the doors of the 
temple shook, her moon-shaped horns shot forth 
gleams of light and the sistrum rattled noisily. Not 
yet quite free from care and yet rejoicing in the 
good omen, the mother left the temple ; and Iphis 
walked beside her as she went, but with a longer 
stride than was her wont. Her face seemed of a 
darker hue, her strength seemed greater, her very 
features sharper, and her locks, all unadorned, were 

c 59 


plusque vigoris adept, habuit quam femina. nam 

quae 790 

femina nuper eras, puer es ! date munera templis, 
nee timida gaudete fide ! dant munera templis, 
addunt et titulum : titulus breve carmen habebat : 


postera lux ratliis latum patefeeerat orbern, 795 

cum Venus et Iuno sociosque Hymenaeus ad ignes 
conveniunt, potituique sua puer Iphis Ianthe. 



shorter than before. She seemed more vigorous 
than was her girlish wont. In fact, you who but 
lately were a girl are now a boy! Go, make your 
offerings at the shrines ; rejoice with gladness un- 
afraid ! They make their offerings at the shrines 
and add a votive tablet ; the tablet had this brief 
inscription : These gifts as man did Ii j his pay which 
once as maid he vowed. The morrow's sun had 
revealed the broad world with its rays, when Venus, 
Juno, and Hymen met at the marriage fires, and the 
boy Iphis gained his Ianthe. 




Inde per inmensum croceo velatus amictu 

aethera digreditur Ciconumque Hymenaeus ad oras 

tendit et Orphea nequiquam voce vocatur. 

adfuit ille quidem, sed nee sollemnia verba 

nee laetos vultus nee felix attulit omen. 5 

fax quoque, quam tenuit, lacrimoso stridula fumo 

usque fuit nuliosque invenit motibus ignes. 

exitus auspicio gravior : nam nupta per herbas 

dum nova naiadum turba comitata vagatur, 

occidit in talum serpentis dente recepto. 10 

quam satis ad superas postquam Rhodopeius auras 

deflevit vates, ne non temptaret et umbras, 

ad Styga Taenaria est ausus descendere porta 

perque leves populos simulacraque functa sepulcro 

Persephonen adiit inamoenaque regna tenentem 15 

umbrarum dominum pulsisque ad carmina nervis 

sic ait : " o positi sub terra numina mundi, 

in quem reccidimus, quicquid mortale creamur, 

si licet et falsi positis ambagibus oris 

vera loqui sinitis, non hue, ut opaca viderem 20 

Tartara, descendi, nee uti villosa colubris 

tenia Medusaei vincirem guttura monstri 



Thence through the boundless air Hymen, clad in a 
saffron mantle, departed and took his way to the 
country of the Ciconians, and was summoned by the 
voice of Orpheus, though all in vain. He was 
present, it is true ; but he brought neither the hal- 
lowed words, nor joyous faces, nor lucky omen. The 
torch also which he held kept sputtering and filled 
the eyes with smoke, nor would it catch fire for 
any brandishing. The outcome of the wedding was 
worse than the beginning; for while the bride was 
strolling through the grass with a group of naiads in 
attendance, she fell dead, smitten in the ankle by a 
serpent's tooth. When the bard of Rhodope had 
mourned her to the full in the upper world, that he 
might try the shades as well he dared to go down to 
the Stygian world through the gate of Taenarus. 
And through the unsubstantial throngs and the ghosts 
who had received burial, he came to Persephone and 
him who rules those unlovely realms, lord of the 
shades. Then, singing to the music of his lyre, he 
said : " O ye divinities who rule the world which lies 
beneath the earth, to which we all fall back who are 
born mortal, if it is lawful and you permit me to lay 
aside all false and doubtful speech and tell the simple 
truth : I have not come down hither to see dark 
Tartarus, nor yet to bind the three necks of Medusa's 
monstrous offspring, rough with serpents. Ths cause 



causa viae est coniunx, in quam calcata venerium 

vipera difTudit crescentesque abstulit annos. 

posse pati volui nee me temptasse negabo : 25 

vieit Amor, supera deus hie bene notus in ora est; 

an sit et hie, dubito: sed et hie tamen auguror esse, 

fnmaque si veteris non est mentita rapinae, 

vos quoque iunxit Amor, per ego haec loca plena 

per Chaos hoc ingens vastique silentia regni, SO 

Eurydices, oro, properata retexite fata, 
omnia debemur vobis, paulumque morati 
serius aut citius sedem properamus ad unam. 
tendimus hue omnes, haec est domus ultima, vosque 
humani generis longissima regna tenetis. 35 

haec quoque, cum iustos matura peregerit annos, 
iuris erit vestri : pro munere poscimus usum ; 
quodsi fata negant veniam pro coniuge, certum est 
nolle redire mihi : leto jraudete duorum." 

Talia dicentem nervosque ad verba moventem 40 
exsangues flebant animae ; nee Tantalus undam 
captavit refugam, stupuitque Ixionis orbis, 
nee carpseie iecur volucres, urnisque vacarunt 
Belides, inque tuo sedisti, Sisyphe, saxo. 
tunc primum lacrimis victarum carmine fama est 45 
Eumenidum maduisse genas, nee regia coniunx 
sustinet oranti nee, qui regit ima, negare, 
Eurydicenque vocant : umbras erat ilia recentes 
inter et incessit passu de vulnere tardo. 
hanc simul et legem Rhodopeius accipit Orpheus, 50 


of my journey is my wife, into whose body a trodden 
serpent shot his poison and so snatched away her 
budding years. I have desired strength to endure, 
and I will not deny that I have tried to bear it. 
But Love has overcome me, a god well-known in the 
upper world, but whether here or not I do not know ; 
and yet I surmise that he is known here as well, 
and if the story of that old-time ravishment is not 
false, you, too, were joined by Love. By these fear- 
some places, by this huge void and these vast and 
silent realms, I beg of you, unravel the fates of my 
Eurydice, too quickly run. We are in all things due 
to you, and though we tarry on earth a little while, 
slow or swift we speed to one abode. Hither we all 
make our way ; this is our final home ; yours is the 
longest sway over the human race. She also shall be 
yours to rule when of ripe age she shall have lived 
out her allotted years. I ask the enjoyment of her 
as a boon ; but if the fates deny this privilege for 
my wife, I am resolved not to return. Rejoice in the 
death of two." 

As he spoke thus, accompanying his words with the 
music of his lyre, the bloodless spirits wept ; Tantalus 
did not catch at the fleeing wave ; Ixion's wheel 
stopped in wonder ; the vultures did not pluck at 
the liver ; * the Belides rested from their urns, and 
thou, O Sisyphus, didst sit y.pcv thy stone. Then 
first, tradition says, conquered by the song, the 
cheeks of the Eumenides were wet with tears ; nor 
could the queen nor he who rules the lower world 
refuse the suppliant. They called Eurydice. She was 
among the new shades and came with steps halting 
from her wound. Orpheus, the Thracian, then re- 
ceived his wife and with her this condition, that he 

» *.«. of Tityui, 



ne flectat retro sua lumina, donee Avernas 

exierit valles ; aut inrita dona futura. 

carpitur adclivis per muta silentia trames, 

arduus, obscurus, caligine densus opaca, 

nee procul af'uerunt telluris margine summae : 55 

hie, ne deficeret, metuens avidusque videndi 

flexit amans oculos, et protinus ilia relapsa est. 

bracchiaque intendens prendique et prendere certans 

nil nisi cedentes infelix arripit auras, 59 

iamque iterum moriens non est de coniuge quicquam 

questa suo (quid enim nisi se quereretur amatam ?) 

suprenmmque " vale/' quod iam vix auribus ille 

acciperet, dixit revolutaque rursus eodem est. 

Non aliter stupuit gemina nece coniugis Orpheus, 

quain tria qui timidus, medio portante catenas, 65 

eolla canis vidit, quern non pavor ante reliquit, 

quarn tiatura prior saxo per corpus oborto, 

quique in se crimen traxit vuluitque videri 

Olenos esse nocens, tuque, o confisa fiafurae 

infelix Lethaea tuae, iunctissima quondam 70 

pectora, nunc lapides, quos umida sustinet hie. 

orantem frustraque iterum transire volentem 

portitor arcuerat : septem tamen ille diebus 

squalidus in ripa Cereris sine munere sedit ; 

cura dolorque animi lacrimaeque alimenta fuere. 75 


should not turn his eyes backward until he had gone 
forth from the valley of Avernus, or else the gift 
would be in vain. They took the up-sloping path 
through places of utter silence, a steep path, indis- 
tinct and clouded in pitchy darkness. And now 
they were nearing the margin of the upper earth, when 
he, afraid that she might fail him, eager for sight of 
her, turned back his longing eyes; and instantly she 
slipped into the depths. He stretched out his arms, 
eager to catch her or to feel her clasp ; but, unhappy 
one, he clasped nothing but the yielding air. And 
now, dying a second time, she made no com- 
plaint against her husband ; for of what could she 
complain save that she was beloved ? She spake 
one last " farewell " which scarcely reached her 
husband's ears, and fell back again to the place 
whence she had come. 

By his wife's double death Orpheus was stunned, 
like that frightened creature 1 who saw the three- 
headed dog with chains on his middle neck, whose 
numbing terror left him only when his former nature 
left, and the petrifying power crept through his 
body ; or like that Olenos, 2 who took sin upon him- 
self and was willing to seem guilty; and like you, 
luckless Lethaea, 3 too boastful of your beauty, once 
two hearts joined in close embrace, but now two 
stones which well-watered Ida holds. Orpheus prayed 
and wished in vain to cross the Styx a second 
time, but the keeper drove him back. Seven days 
he sat there on the bank in filthy rags and with 
no taste of food. Care, anguish of soul, and tears 
were his nourishment. Complaining that the gods of 

l A man, unknown, who is said to have turned to stone at 
Bight ot Cerberus led in chains by Hercules. 
> See Index. 3 See Index. 



esse deos Erebi crudeles questus, in altam 

se recipit Rhodopen pulsuniqueaquilonibus Haemum. 

Tertius aequoreis inclusion Piscibus annum 
finierat Titan, omnemque refugerat Orpheus 
femineam Venerem, seu quod male cesserat illi, 80 
sive fidem dederat ; multas tamen ardor habcbat 
iungere se vati, multae doluere repulsae 
ille etiam Thracum populis fuit auctor amorera 
in teneros transferre mares citraque iuventam 
aetatis breve ver et primos carpere flores. 85 

Collis erat collemque super planissima campi 
area, quam viridem faciebant graminis herbae : 
umbra loco deerat ; qua postquam parte resedit 
dis genitus vates et fila sonantia movit, 
umbra loco venit : non Chaonis afuit arbor, Q0 

non nemus Heliadum, non frondibus aesculus altis, 
nee tiliae molles, nee fagus et innuba laurus, 
et coryli fragiles et fraxinus utilis hastis 
enodisque abies curvataque glandibus ilex 
et platanus genialis acerque coloribus inpar Q5 

amnicolaeque simul salices et aquatica lotos 
perpetuoque virens buxum tenuesque myricae 
et bicolor myrtus et bacis caerula tinus. 
vos quoque, flexipedes hederae, venistis et una 
pampineae vites et amictae vitibus ulmi 100 

ornique et piceae pomoque onerata rubenti 
arbutus et lentae, victoris praemia, palmae 
et succincta comas hirsutaque vertice pinus, 
grata deum matri, siquidem Cybeleius Attis 
exuit hac hominem truncoque induruit illo. 105 

Adfuit huic turbae metas imitata cupressus, 


Erebus were cruel, he betook himself to high Rho- 
dope and wind-swept Haemus. 

Three times had the sun finished the year and 
come to watery Pisces ; and Orpheus had shunned all 
love of womankind, whether because it had gone 
so ill with him, or because he had so given his 
troth. Still, many women felt a passion for the bard ; 
many grieved for their love repulsed. He set the 
example for the peoples of Thrace of giving his love 
to tender boys, and enjoying the springtime and first 
flower of their youth. 

A hill there was, and on the hill a wide-extending 
plain, green with luxuriant grass ; but the place was 
devoid of shade. When here the heaven-descended 
bard sat down and smote his sounding lyre, shade 
came to the place. There came the Chaonian oak, 
the grove of the Heliades, 1 the oak with its deep 
foliage, the soft linden, the beech, the virgin laurel- 
tree, the brittle hazel, the ash, suitable for spear- 
shafts, the smooth silver-fir, the ilex-tree bending 
with acorns, the pleasant plane, the many-coloured 
maple, river-haunting willows, the lotus, lover of 
the pools, the evergreen boxwood, the slender tama- 
risk, the double-hued myrtle, the viburnum with its 
dark-blue berries. You also, pliant-footed ivy, came, 
and along with you tendrilled grapes, and the elm- 
trees, draped with vines ; the mountain-ash, the 
forest-pines, the arbute-tree, loaded with ruddy 
fruit, the pliant palm, the prize of victory, the 
bare-trunked pine with broad, leafy top, pleasing to 
the mother of the gods, since Attis, dear to Cybele, 
exchanged for this his human form and stiffened in 
its trunk. 

Amidst this throng came the cone-shaped cypress, 

1 The poplar-trees. 



nunc arbor, puer ante deo dilectus ab illo, 

qui citharam nervis et nervis temperat arcum. 

namque sacer nymphis Carthaea tenentibus arva 

ingens cervus erat, lateque patentibus altas J 10 

ipse suo capiti praebebat cornibus umbras. 

cornua fulgebant auro, demissaque in arraos 

pendebant tereti gemmata monilia collo. 

bulla super frontem parvis argentea loris 

vineta movebatur parilique aetate : nitebant 115 

auribus e geminis circum cava tempora bacae ; 

isque metu vacuus naturalique pavore 

deposito celebrare domos mulcendaque colla 

quamlibet ignotis manibus praebere solebat. 

sed tamen ante alios, Ceae pulcherrime gentis, 120 

gratus erat, Cjparisse, tibi : tu pabula cervum 

ad nova, tu liquidi ducebas fontis ad undam, 

tu modo texebas varios per cornua flores, 

nunc eques in tergo residens hue laetus et illuc 

mollia purpureis frenabas ora capistris. 125 

Aestus erat mediusque dies, solisque vapore 
concava litorei fervebant bracchia Cancri : 
fessus in herbosa posuit sua corpora terra 
cervus et arborea frigus ducebat ab umbra, 
hunc puer inprudens iaculo Cyparissus acuto 1 30 

fixit et, ut saevo morientem vulnere vidit, 
velle mori statuit. quae non solacia Phoebus 
dixit ! ut hunc, leviter pro maleriaque doleret, 
admonuit ! gemit ille tamen munusque supremum 
hoc petit a superis, ut tempore lugeat omni. 1 35 

iamque per inmensos egesto sanguine fletus 
in viridem verti coeperunt membra colorem, 


now a tree, but once a boy, beloved by that god who 
strings the lyre and strings the bow. For there was 
a mighty stag, sacred to the nymphs who haunt the 
Carthaean plains, whose wide-spreading antlers gave 
ample shade to his own head. His antlers gleamed 
with gold, and down on his shoulders hung a gem- 
mounted collar set on his rounded neck. Upon his 
forehead a silver boss bound with small thongs was 
worn, and worn there from his birth. Pendent from 
both his ears, about his hollow temples, were gleam- 
ing pearls. He, quite devoid of fear and with none 
of his natural shyness, frequented men's homes and 
let even strangers stroke his neck. But more than 
to all the rest, O Cyparissus, loveliest of the Cean 
race, was he dear to you. Twas you who led the 
stag to fresh pasturage and to the waters of the clear 
spring. Now would you weave bright garlands for 
his horns ; now, sitting like a horseman on his back, 
now here, now there, would gleefully guide his soft 
mouth with purple reins. 

'Twas high noon on a summer's day, when the 
spreading claws of the shore-loving Crab were burn- 
ing with the sun's hot rays. Weary, the stag had 
lain down upon the grassy earth and was drinking in 
the coolness of the forest shade. Him, all unwit- 
tingly, the boy, Cyparissus, pierced with a sharp 
javelin, and when he saw him dying of the cruel wound, 
he resolved on death himself. What did not Phoebus 
say to comfort him ! How he warned him to grieve 
in moderation and consistently with the occasion! 
The lad only groaned and begged this as the 
boon he most desired from heaven, that he might 
mourn for ever. And now, as his life forces were 
exhausted by endless weeping, his limbs began to 
change to a green colour, and his locks, which but 



et, niodo qui iiivea pendebant fronte capilli, 
horrida caesaries fieri sumptoque rigore 
sidereum gracili spec-tare cacumine caelum. 140 

ingemuit tristisque deus "lugebere nobis 
lugebisque alios aderisque dolentibus " inquit. 

Tale nemus vates attraxerat inque ferarum 
concilio medius turba volucrunique sedcbat. 
ut satis inpulsas temptavit pollice chordas 145 

et sensit varios, quamvis diversa sonarent, 
concordare modos, hoe vocera carmine movit : 
" ab love, Musa parens, (cedunt Iovis omnia 

carmina nostra move ! Iovis est mihi saepe potestas 
dicta prius : cecini plectro graviore Gigantas 1.50 

sparsaque Phlegraeis victricia fulmina campis. 
nunc opus est leviore lyra, puerosque canamus 
dilectos superis inconcessisque puellas 
ignibus attonitas meruisse libidine poenam. 

" Rex superum Phrygii quondam Ganjmedisamore 
arsit, et inventum est aliquid, quod Iuppiter esse, 1 ;& 
quam quod erat, mallet, nulla tamen alite verti 
dignatur, nisi quae posset sua fulmina ferre. 
nee mora, percusso mendacibus aere pennis 
abripit Iliaden; qui nunc quoque pocula miscet 1()0 
invitaque Iovi nectar Iunone ministrat. 

"Te quoque, Amyclide,posuisset in aethere Phoebus, 
tristia si spatium ponendi fata dedissent. 
qua licet, aeternus tamen es, quotiensque repellit 
ver hiemem, Piscique Aries succedit aquoso, 1 ( )5 



now overhung his snowy brow, were turned to a 
bristling crest, and he became a stiff tree with slender 
top looking to the starry heavens. The god groaned 
and, full of sadness, said : " You shall be mourned 
by me, shall mourn for others, and your place shall 
always be where others grieve." 

Such was the grove the bard had drawn, and he 
sat, the central figure in an assembly of wild beasts 
and birds. And when he had tried the chords by 
touching them with his thumb, and his ears told him 
that the notes were in harmony although they were 
of different pitch, he raised his voice in this song: 
" From Jove, O Muse, my mother — for all things 
yield to the sway of Jove — inspire my song ! Oft 
have I sung the power of Jove before ; I have sung 
the giants in a heavier strain, and the victorious bolts 
hurled on the Phlegraean plains. But now I need 
the gentler touch, for I would sing of boys beloved 
by gods, and maidens inflamed by unnatural love and 
paying the penalty of their lust. 

" The king of the gods once burned with love for 
Phrygian Ganymede, and something was found which 
Jove would rather be than what he was. Still he did 
not deign to take the form of any bird save only that 
which could bear his thunderbolts. Without delay 
he cleft the air on his lying wings and stole away the 
Trojan boy, who even now, though against the will 
of Juno, mingles the nectar and attends the cups of 

" You aI;o, youth of Amyclae, 1 Phoebus would have 
set in the sky, if grim fate had given him time to 
set you there. Still in what fashion you may you 
are immortal : as often as spring drives winter out 
and the Ram succeeds the watery Fish, so often 

1 Hyacinthus. 


tu totiens oreris viridique in caespite flores. 

te meus ante omnes genitor dilexit, et orbe 

in medio positi canierunt praeside Delphi, 

dum deus Eurotan inmunitamque frequentat 

Sparten, nee citharae nee sunt in honore sagittae : 

inmemor ipse sui non retia ferre recusat, 171 

non tenuisse canes, non per iuga montis in'qui 

ire comes, longaque alit adsuetudine flammas. 

iamque fere medius Titan venientis et actae 

noctis erat spatioque pari distabat utrimque, 175 

corpora veste levant et suco pinguis olivi 

splendescunt latique ineunt certamina disci. 

quem prius aerias libratum Phoebus in auras 

misit et oppositas disiecit pondere nubes ; 

reccidit in solitam longo post tempore terram 1 80 

pondus et exhibuit iunctam cum viribus artem. 

protinus inprudens actusque cupidine lusus 

tollere Taenarides orbem properabat, at ilium 

dura repercussum subiecit in aera tellus 

in vultus, Hyacinthe, tuos. expalluit aeque 185 

quam puer ipse deus conlapsosque excipit artus, 

et modo te refovet, modo tristia vulnera siccat, 

nunc animam admotis fugientem sustinet herbis. 

nil prosunt artes : erat inmedicabiie vulnus. 

ut, siquis violas rigidumve papaver in horto 1.90 

liliaque infringat fulvis horrentia Unguis, 

marcida demittant subito caput ilia vietum 

nee se sustineant spectentque cacumine terram : 



do you come up and blossom on the green turf. 
Above all others did my father love you, and Delphi, 
set at the very centre of the earth, lacked its pre- 
siding deity while the god was haunting Eurotas' 
stream and Sparta, 1 the unwalled. No more has he 
thought for zither or for bow. Entirely heedless 
of his usual pursuits, he refuses not to bear the nets, 
nor hold the dogs in leash, nor go as comrade 
along the rough mountain ridges. And so with long 
association he feeds his passion's flame. And now 
Titan was about midway 'twixt the coming and the 
banished night, standing at equal distance from both 
extremes ; they strip themselves and, gleaming with 
rich olive oil, they try a contest with the broad 
discus. This, well poised, Phoebus sent flying through 
the air and cleft the opposite clouds with the heavy 
iron. Back to the wonted earth after long time it 
fell, revealing the hurler's skill and strength com- 
bined. Straightway the Taenarian a youth, heed- 
less of danger and moved by eagerness for the game, 
ran out to take up the discus. But it bounded back 
into the air from the hard earth beneath full in your 
face, O Hyacinthus. The god grows deadly pale 
even as the boy, and catches up the huddled form; 
now he seeks to warm you again, now tries to 
staunch your dreadful wound, now strives to stay 
your parting soul with healing herbs. But his arts 
are of no avail ; the wound is past all cure. Just as 
when in a garden, if someone should break off 
violets or stiff* poppies or lilies, bristling with 
yellow stamens, fainting they suddenly droop their 
withered heads and can no longer stand erect, but 
gaze, with tops bowed low, upon the earth : so the 

1 The home of Hyacinthus. 

4 Poetic for Laconian, or Spartan. 



sic vultus moriens iacet et defecta vigore 

ipsa sibi est oneri cervix umeroque reeumbit. 19 5 

• laberis, Oebalide, prima {Validate iuventa,' 

Phoebus ait f videoque tuum, mea crimina, vulnus. 

tu dolor es facinusque meum : mea dextera leto 

inscribenda tuo est ego sum tibi funeris auctor. 

quae mea culpa tamen, nisi si lusisse vocari 200 

culpa potest, nisi culpa potest et amasse vocari ? 

atque utinam merito vitam tecumve liceret 

reddere ! quod quoniam fatali lege tenemur, 

semper eris mccum memorique haerebis in ore. 

te lyra pulsa manu, te carmina nostra sonabunt, 205 

flosque novus scripto gemitus imitabere nostros. 

tempus et illud erit, quo se fortisshnus heros 

addat in hunc florem folioque legatur eodem.' 

talia dum vero memorantur Apollinis ore, 

ecce cruor, qui fusus humo signaverat herbas, 210 

desinit esse cruor, Tyrioque nitentior ostro 

flos oritur formamque capit, quam lilia, si non 

purpureus color his, argenteus esset in illis. 

non satis hoc Phoebo est (is enim fuit auctor honoris): 

ipse suos gemitus foliis iuscribit, et AI AI 215 

flos habet insci iplum, funestaque littera ducta est. 

nee genuisse pudet Sparten Hyacinthon : honorque 

durat in hoc aevi, celebrandaque more priorum 

annua praelata redeunt Hyacinthia pompa. 



dying face lies prone, the neck, its strength all gone, 
cannot sustain its own weight and falls back upon the 
shoulders. ' Thou art fallen, defrauded of thy youth's 
prime, Oebalides,' * says Phoebus, * and in thy wound 
do I see my guilt ; thou art my cause of grief and 
self-reproach ; my hand must be proclaimed the cause 
of thy destruction. I am the author of thy death. 
And yet, what is my fault, unless my playing with 
thee can be called a fault, unless my loving thee 
can be called a fault ? And oh, that I might 
give up my life for thee, so well-deserving, or give 
it up with thee ! But since we are held from this 
by the laws of fate, thou shalt be always with me, and 
shalt stay on my mindful lips. Thee shall my lyre, 
struck by my hand, thee shall mysongs proclaim. And 
as a new flower, by thy markings shalt thou imitate 
my groans. Also the time will come when a most 
valiant hero 2 shall be linked with this flower, and 
by the same markings shall he be known.' While 
Apollo thus spoke with truth-telling lips, behold, the 
blood, which had poured out on the ground and 
stained the grass, ceased to be blood, and in its place 
there sprang a flower brighter than Tyrian dye. It 
took the form of the lily, save that the one was of 
purple hue, while the other was silvery white. Phoe- 
bus, not satisfied with this — for 'twas he who wrought 
the honouring miracle— himself inscribed his grieving 
words upon the leaves, and the flower bore the marks, 
A I AI, letters of lamentation, drawn thereon. Sparta, 
too, was proud that Hyacinthus was her son, and even 
to this day his honour still endures ; and still, as the 
anniversary returns, as did their sires, they celebrate 
the Hyacinthia in solemn festival. 

1 Descendant of Oebalus, Spartan, 



"At si forte roges fecundam Amathunta metallis, 
an genuisse velit Propoetidas, abnuat aeque 221 

atque illos, gemino quondam quibus aspera cornu 
frons erat, unde etiam nomen traxere Cerastae. 
ante fores horum stabat Iovis Hospitis ara ; 
ignarus sceleris 1 quam siquis sanguine tinctam 22.5 
advena vidisset, mactatos crederet illic 
lactantes vitulos Amathusiacasque bidentes : 
hospes erat caesus ! sacris offensa nefandis 
ipsa suas urbes Ophiusiaque arva parabat 
deserere alma Venus, 'sed quid loca grata, quid urbes 
peccavere meae ? quod' dixit ' crimen in illis? 231 
exilio poenam potius gens inpia pendat 
vel nece vel siquid medium est mortisque fugaeque. 
idque quid esse potest, nisi versae poena figurae ?' 
dum dubitat, quo mutet eos, ad cornua vultum 235 
flexit et admonita est haec illis posse relinqui 
grandiaque in torvos transformat membra mvencos. 

" Sunt tamen obscenae Venerem Propoetides ausae 
esse negare deam ; pro quo sua numinis ira 
corpora cum fama primae vulgasse feruntur, 240 

utque pudor cessit, sanguisque induruit oris, 
in rigidum parvo silicem discrimine versae. 

" Quas quia Pygmalion aevum per crimen agentis 
viderat, offensus vitiis, quae plurima menti 
femineae natura dedit, sine coniuge caelebs 245 

vivebat thalamique diu consorte carebat. 

1 The text is corrupt. Of the many MS. readings and con- 
jectures this of N. Madvig seems best. Ehwald reads f in lugubris 
celeri f. 



" But if you should chance to ask Amathus, rich 
in veins of ore, if she is proud of her Propoetides, 
she would repudiate both them and those whose 
foreheads once were deformed by two horns, whence 
also they took their name, Cerastae. Before their 
gates there used to stand an altar sacred to Jove, 
the god of hospitality ; if any stranger, ignorant of 
the crime, had seen this altar all smeared with blood, 
he would suppose that suckling calves or two-year- 
old sheep of Amathus had been sacrificed thereon. 
'Twas the blood of slaughtered guests ! Outraged 
by these impious sacrifices, fostering Venus was pre- 
paring to desert her cities and her Ophiusian plains; 
' but,' she said, ' wherein have these pleasant 
regions, wherein have my cities sinned ? What 
crime is there in them? Rather let this impious 
race pay the penalty by exile or by death, or by 
some punishment midway betwixt death and exile. 
And what other can that be than the penalty of a 
changed form ? ' While she hesitates to what she 
shall change them, her eyes fall upon their horns, 
and she reminds herself that these can still be left 
to them. And so she changes their big bodies into 
savage bulls. 

" But the foul Propoetides dared to deny the 
divinity of Venus. In consequence of this, through 
the wrath of the goddess they are said to have been 
the first to prostitute their bodies and their fame ; 
and as their shame vanished and the blood of their 
faces hardened, 1 they were turned with but small 
change to hard stones. 

" Pygmalion had seen these women spending their 
lives in shame, and, disgusted with the faults which 
in such full measure nature had given the female 
1 i.e. they lost the power to blush. 



interea niveum mira feliciter arte 

sculpsit ebur formamque dedit, qua femina nasci 

nulla potest, operisque sui concepit amorem. 

virginis est verae facies, quam vivere credas, 250 

et, si non obstet reverentia, velle moveri : 

ars adeo latet arte sua. miratur et haurit 

pectore Pygmalion simulati corporis ignes. 

saepe manus operi temptantes admovet, an sit 

corpus an illud ebur, nee adhuc ebur esse fatrtur. 

oscula dat reddique putat loquiturque tenetque 256 

et credit tactis digitos insidere membris 

et metuit, pressos veniat ne livor in artus, 

et modo blanditias adhibet, modo grata puellis 

munera fert illi conchas teretesque lapillos 260 

et parvas volucres et flores mille colorum 

liliaque pictasque pilas et ab arbore lapsas 

Heliadum lacrimas ; ornat quoque vestibus artus, 

dat digitis gemmas, dat longa monilia collo, 

aure leves bacae, redimicula pectore pendent : 26"5 

cuncta decent ; nee nuda minus formosa videtur. 

conlocat hanc stratis concha Sidonide tinctis 

dapellatque tori sociam adclinataque colla 

mollibus in plumis, tamquam sensura, reponit. 

" Festa dies Veneris tota celeberrima Cypro 270 
venerat, et pandis inductae cornibus aurura 
conciderant ictae nivea cervice iuvencae, 
turaque fumabant, cum munere functus ad aras 


mind, he lived unmarried and long was without a 
partner of his couch. Meanwhile, with wondrous 
art he successfully carves a figure out of snowy ivory, 
giving it a beauty more perfect than that of any 
woman ever born. And with his own work he falls 
in love. The face is that of a real maiden, whom 
you would think living and desirous of being moved, 
if modesty did not prevent. So does his art conceal 
his art. Pygmalion looks in admiration and is in- 
flamed with love for this semblance of a form. 
Often he lifts his hands to the work to try whether 
it be flesh or ivory ; nor does he yet confess it to be 
ivory. He kisses it and thinks his kisses are re- 
turned. He speaks to it, grasps it and seems to feel 
his fingers sink into the limbs when he touches them; 
and then he fears lest he leave marks of bruises on 
them. Now he addresses it with fond words of love, 
now brings it gifts pleasing to girls, shells and smooth 
pebbles, little birds and many-hued flowers, and lilies 
and coloured balls, with tears 1 of the Heliades that drop 
down from the trees. He drapes its limbs also with 
robes, puts gemmed rings upon its fingers and a long 
necklace around its neck ; pearls hang from the ears 
and chains adorn the breast. All these are beautiful ; 
but no less beautiful is the statue unadorned. He 
lays it on a bed spread with coverlets of Tyrian hue, 
calls it the consort of his couch, and rests its reclin- 
ing head upon soft, downy pillows, as if it could 
enjoy them. 

"And now the festal day of Venus had come, 
which all Cyprus thronged to celebrate ; heifers 
with spreading horns covered with gold had fallen 
'neath the death-stroke on their snowy necks, and 
the altars smoked with incense. Pygmalion, having 

1 i.e. amber. 



constitit et timide ' si di dare cuncta potestis, 
sit coniunx, opto,' non ausus ' eburnea virgo ' 275 
dicere, Pygmalion 'similis mea ' dixit 'eburnae.' 
sensit, ut ipsa suis aderat Venus aurea festis, 
vota quid ilia velint et, amici numinis omen, 
flamraa ter accensa est apicemque per aera duxit. 
ut rediit, simulacra suae petit ille puellae 280 

incumbensque toro dedit oscula : visa tepere est ; 
adniovet os iterum, manibus quoque pectora temptat : 
temptatum mollescit ebur positoque rigore 
subsidit digitis ceditque, ut Hymettia sole 
cera remollescit tractataque pollice multas 285 

flectitur in facies ipsoqae fit utilis usu. 
dum stupet et dubie gaudet fallique veretur, 
rursus amans rursusque manu sua vota retractat 
corpus erat ! saliunt temptatae pollice venae, 
turn vero Paphius plenissima concipit heros 290 

verba, quibus Veneri grates agat, oraque tandem 
ore suo non falsa premit, dataque oscula virgo 
sensit et erubuit timidumque ad lumina lumen 
attollens pariter cum caelo vidit amantem. 
coniugio, quud fecit, adest dea, iamque coactis 295 
cornibus in plenum noviens lunaribus orbem 
ilia Paphon genuit, de qua tenet insula nomen. 
" Editus hac ille est, qui si sine prole fuisset, 
inter felices Cinyras potuisset haberi. 
dira canam ; procul bine natae, procul este parentes 
aut, mea si vestras mulcebunt carmina mentes, 301 
desit in hac mihi parte fides, nee credite factum, 


brought his gift to the altar, stood and falteringly 
prayed : ' If ye, O gods, can give all things, I pray 

to have as wife ' he did not dare add 'rny 

ivory maid,' but said, 'one like my ivory maid.' 
But golden Venus (for she herself was present at her 
feast) knew what that prayer meant; and, as an 
omen of her favouring deity, thrice did the flame burn 
brightly and leap high in air. When he returned he 
sought the image of his maid, and bending over the 
couch he kissed her. She seemed warm to his touch. 
Again he kissed her, and with his hands also he 
touched her breast. The ivory grew soft to his touch 
and, its hardness vanishing, gave and yielded beneath 
his fingers, as Hymettian wax grows soft under the sun 
and, moulded by the thumb, is easily shaped to many 
forms and becomes usable through use itself. The 
lover stands amazed, rejoices still in doubt, fears he 
is mistaken, and tries his hopes again and yet again 
with his hand. Yes, it was real flesh 1 The veins 
were pulsing beneath his testing finger. Then did 
the Paphian hero pour out copious thanks to Venus, 
and again pressed with his lips real lips at last. The 
maiden felt the kisses, blushed and, lifting her timid 
eyes up to the light, she saw the sky and her lover 
at the same time. The goddess graced with her 
presence the marriage she had made ; and ere the 
ninth moon had brought her crescent to the full, a 
daughter was born to them, Paphos, from whom the 
island takes its name. / 

"Cinyras was her son and, had he been without 
offspring, might have been counted fortunate. A 
horrible tale I have to tell. Far hence be daughters, 
far hence, fathers ; or, if your minds find pleasure 
in my songs, do not give credence to this story, and 
believe that it never happened ; or, if you do believe 



vel, si credetis, facti quoque credite poenam. 

si tamen admissum sinit hoc natura videri, 

gentibus Ismariis et nostro gratulor orbi, S05 

gratulor huic terrae, quod abest regionibus illis, 

quae tantum genuere nefas : sit dives amorao 

cinnamaque costumque suum sudataque ligno 

tura ferat floresque alios Panchaia tellus, 

dum ferat et murrain : tanti nova non fuit arbor. 310 

ipse negat nocuisse tibi sua tela Cupido, 

Myrrha, facesque suas a crimine vindicat isto ; 

stipite te Stygio tumidisque adflavit echidnis 

e tribus una soror : scelus est odisse parentem, 

hie amor est odio maius scelus. — undique lecti 3 1 5 

te cupiunt proceres, totoque Oriente iuventa 

ad thalami certamen adest : ex omnibus unum 

elige, Myrrha, virum, dum ne sit in omnibus unus. 

ilia quidem sentit foedoque repugnat amori 

et secum ' quo mente feror ? quid molior ? ' inquit 

1 di, precor, et pietas sacrataque iura parentum, 32 1 

hoc prohibete nefas scelerique resistite nostro, 

si tamen hoc scelus est. sed enim damnare negatur 

hanc Venerem pietas : coeunt animalia nullo 

cetera dilectu, nee habetur turpe iuvencae 32.5 

ferre patrem tergo, fit equo sua filia coniunx, 

quasque creavit init pecudes caper, ipsaque, cuius 

semine concepta est, ex illo concipit ales. 

felices, quibus ista licent ! humana malignas 

cura dedit leges, et quod natura remittit, 330 

invida iura negant, gentes tamen esse feruntur, 



it, believe also in the punishment of the deed. If, 
however, nature allows a crime like this to show 
itself, I congratulate the Ismarian people, and this our 
country ; I congratulate this land on being far away 
from those regions where such iniquity is possible. 
Let the land of Panchaia be rich in balsam, let it 
bear its cinnamon, its costum, its frankincense 
exuding from the trees, its flowers of many sorts, so 
long as it bears its myrrh-tree, too : a new tree was 
not worth so great a price. Cupid himself avers that 
his weapons did not harm you, Myrrha, and clears 
his torches from that crime of yours. One of the 
three sisters with firebrand from the Styx and with 
swollen vipers blasted you. Tis a crime to hate 
one's father, but such love as this is a greater crime 
than hate. From every side the pick of princes 
desire you ; from the whole Orient young men are 
here vying for your couch ; out of them all choose 
one for your husband, Myrrha, only let not one * be 
among them all. She, indeed, is fully aware of her 
vile passion and fights against it and says within her- 
self: 'To what is my purpose tending? What am 
I planning ? O gods, I pray you, and piety and the 
sacred rights of parents, keep this sin from me and 
fight off my crime, if indeed it is a crime. But I am 
not sure, for piety refuses to condemn such love as 
this. Other animals mate as they will, nor is it 
thought base for a heifer to endure her sire, nor for 
his own offspring to be a horse's mate ; the goat goes 
in among the flocks which he has fathered, and the 
very birds conceive from those from whom they 
were conceived. Happy they who have such privi- 
lege ! Human civilization has made spiteful laws, 
and what nature allows, the jealous laws forbid. And 
1 i.e. her father. 



in quibus et nato genetrix et nata parenti 
iungitur, ut pietas geminato crescat amore. 
me miseram, quod non nasci mini contigit illic, 
fortunaque loci laedor ! — quid in ista revolvor ? 335 
spes interdictae, discedite ! dignus amari 
ille, sed ut pater, est. — ergo, si filia magni 
non essem Cinyrae, Cinyrae concumbere possem : 
nunc, quia iam meus est, non est meus, ipsaque damno 
est mihi proximitas, aliena potentior essem ? 340 

ire libet procul hinc patriaeque relinquere fines, 
dum scelus effugiam ; retinet malus ardor amantem, 
ut praesens spectem Cinyram tangamque loquarque 
osculaque admoveam, si nil conceditur ultra, 
ultra autem spectare aliquid potes, inpia virgo ? 345 
et quot confundas et iura et nomina, sentis 1 
tune eris et matris paelex et adultera patris ? 
tune soror nati genetrixque vocabere fratris ? 
nee metues atro crinitas angue sorores, 
quas facibus saevis oculos atque ora petentes 350 

noxia corda vident? at tu, dum corpore non es 
passa nefas, animo ne concipe neve potentis 
concubitu vetito naturae pollue foedus ! 
velle puta : res ipsa vetat ; pius ille memorque 
moris — et o vellem similis furor esset in illo ! ' 355 
" Dixerat, at Cinyras, quern copia digna procorum, 
quid faciat, dubitare facit, scitatur ab ipsa, 
nominibus dictis, cuius velit esse mariti ; 
ilia silet primo patriisque in vultibus haerens 
aestuat et tepido suffundit lumina rore. 860 



jet they say that there are tribes among whom 
mother with son, daughter with father mates, so that 
natural love is increased by the double bond. Oh, 
wretched me, that it was not my lot to be born there, 
and that I am thwarted by the mere accident of 
place I Why do I dwell on such things ? Avaunt, 
lawless desires ! Worthy to be loved is he, but as a 
father. — Well, if I were not the daughter of great 
Cinyras, to Cinyras could I be joined. But as it is, 
because he is mine, he is not mine ; and, while my 
very propinquity is my loss, would I as a stranger be 
better off? It is well to go far away, to leave the 
borders of my native land, if only I may flee from 
crime ; but unhappy passion keeps the lover here, 
that I may see Cinyras face to face, may touch him, 
speak with him and kiss him, if nothing else is 
granted. But can you hope for aught else, you un- 
natural girl ? Think how many ties, how many names 
you are confusing ! Will you be the rival of your 
mother, the mistress of your father? Will you be 
called the sister of your son, the mother of your 
brother ? And have you no fear of the sisters with 
black snakes in their hair, whom guilty souls see 
brandishing cruel torches before their eyes and 
faces ? But you, while you have not yet sinned in 
body, do not conceive sin in your heart, and defile 
not great nature's law with unlawful union. Grant 
that you wish it : facts themselves forbid. He is a 
righteous man and heedful of moral law— and oh 
how I wish a like passion were in him ! ' 

" She spoke ; but Cinyras, whom a throng of worthy 
suitors caused to doubt what he should do, inquired 
of her herself, naming them over, whom she wished 
for husband. She is silent at first and, with gaze 
fixed on her father's face, wavers in doubt, while the 



virginei Cinyras haec credens esse timoris, 
flere vetat siccatque genas atque oscula iungit ; 
Myrrha datis nimium gaudet consultaque, qualem 
optet habere vimm, ' similem tibi ' dixit ; at ille 
non intellectam vocem conlaudat et ' esto 365 

tam pia semper' ait. pietatis nomine dicto 
demisit vultus sceleris sibi conscia virgo. 

" Noctis erat medium, curasque et corpora somnus 
solverat ; at virgo Cinyreia pervigil igni 
carpitur indomito furiosaque vota retractat 370 

et modo desperat, modo vult temptare, pudetque 
et cupit, et, quid agat, non invenit, utque securi 
saucia trabs ingens, ubi plaga novissima restat, 
quo cadat, in dubio est omnique a parte timetur, 
sic animus vario labefactus vulnere nutat 375 

hue levis atque illuc momentaque sumit utroque, 
nee modus et requies, nisi mors, reperitur amoris. 
mors placet, erigitur laqueoque innectere fauces 
destinat et zona summo de poste revincta 
4 care, vale, Cinyra, causamque intellege mortis !' 380 
dixit et aptabat pallenti vincula collo. 

"Murmura verborum fidas nutricis ad aures 
pervenisse ferunt limen servantis alumnae, 
surgit anus reseratque fores mortisque paratae 
instrumenta videns spatio conclamat eodem 385 

seque ferit scinditque sinus ereptaque collo 
vincula dilaniat ; turn denique flere vacavit, 
turn dare conplexus laqueique requirere causani. 
muta silet virgo terramque inmota tuetur 


warm tears fill her eyes. Cinyras, attributing this to 
maidenly alarm, bids her not to weep, dries her 
cheeks and kisses her on the lips. Myrrha is too 
rejoiced at this and, being asked what kind of 
husband she desires, says: 'One like you.' But he 
approves her word, not understanding it, and says : 
• May you always be so filial.' At the word « filial ' 
the girl, conscious of her guilt, casts down her eyes. 
" It was midnight, and sleep had set free men's 
bodies from their cares ; but the daughter of Cinyras, 
sleepless through the night, is consumed by un- 
governed passion, renews her mad prayers, is filled 
now with despair, now with lust to try, feels now 
shame and now desire, and finds no plan of action ; 
and, just as a great tree, smitten by the axe, when 
all but the last blow has been struck, wavers which 
way to fall and threatens every side, so her mind, 
weakened by many blows, leans unsteadily now this 
way and now that, and falteringly turns in both 
directions ; and no end nor rest for her passion can 
she find save death. She decides on death. She 
rises from her couch, resolved to hang herself, and, 
tying her girdle to a ceiling-beam, she says : ' Fare- 
well, dear Cinyras, and know why I die,' and is in 
the act of fitting the rope about her death-pale neck. 
" They say that the confused sound of her words 
came to the ears of the faithful nurse who watched 
outside her darling's door. The old woman rises 
and opens the door ; and when she sees the pre- 
parations for death, all in the same moment she 
screams, beats her breasts and rends her garments, 
and seizes and snatches off the rope from the girl's 
neck. Then at last she has time to weep, time to 
embrace her and ask the reason for the noose. The 
girl is stubbornly silent, gazes fixedly on the ground, 

d 91 


et deprcnsa dolet tardae conamina mortis. 390 

instat anus canosque suos et inania nudans 

ubera per cunas alimentaque prima precatur, 

ut sibi committat, quicquid dolet. ilia rogantem 

aversata gemit ; certa est exquirere nutrix 

nee solam spondere fidem. ' die' inquit ' opemque 

me sine ferre tibi : non est mea pigra senectus. SQ6 

seu furor est, habeo, quae carmine sanet et herbis ; 

sive aliquis nocuit, magico lustraberc ritu ; 

ira deum sive est, sacris placabilis ira. 

quid rear ulterius ? certe fortuna domusque 400 

sospes et in cursu est : vivunt geneti ixque paterque.' 

Myrrha patre audito suspiria duxit ab imo 

pectore ; nee nutrix etiamnum coneipit ullum 

mente nefas aliquemque tamen praesentit amorem 

propositique tenax, quodcumque est, orat, ut ipsi 405 

indicet, et gremio lacrimantem tollit aniii 

atque ita conplectens infirmis membra lacertis 

' sensimus,' inquit 'amas! et in hoc mea (pone 

sedulitas erit apta tibi, nee sentiet umquam 
hoc pater.' exiluit gremio furibunda torumque 410 
ore premens 'discede, precor, miseroque pudori 
parce !' ait; instant: 'discede, aut desine ' dixit 
' quaerere, quid doleam ! scelus est, quod scire laboras.' 
borret anus tremulasque manus annisque metuque 
tendit et ante pedes supplex procumbit alumnae 415 
et modo blanditur, modo, si non conscia fiat, 
terret et indicium laquei coeptaeque minatur 


and grieves that her attempt at death, all too slow, 
has been detected. The old woman insists, bares 
her white hair and thin breasts, and begs by the girl's 
cradle and her first nourishment that she trust to her 
nurse her cause of grief. The girl turns away from 
her pleadings with a groan. The nurse is determined 
to find out, and promises more than confidence. 
'Tell me,' she says, 'and let me help you ; my old 
age is not without resources. If it be madness, I 
know one who has healing-charms and herbs ; or if 
someone has worked an evil spell on you, you shall be 
purified with magic rites ; or if the gods are wroth 
with you, wrath may be appeased by sacrifice. What 
further can I think ? Surely your household fortunes 
are prosperous as usual ; your mother and your father 
are alive and well.' At the name of father Myrrha 
sighed deeply from the bottom of her heart. Even 
now the nurse had no conception of any evil in the 
girl's soul, and yet she had a presentiment that it 
was some love affair, and with persistent purpose 
she begged her to tell her whatever it was. She 
took the weeping girl on her aged bosom, and so 
holding her in her feeble arms she said : ' I know, 
you are in love ! and in this affair I shall be entirely 
devoted to your service, have no fear ; nor shall your 
father ever know.' With a bound the mad girl 
leaped from her bosom and, burying her face in her 
couch, she said : ' Go away, I pray you, and spare my 
unhappy shame' : still pressed, 'Go away,' she said 
again, ' or cease asking why I grieve. It is a crime, 
what you want so much to know.' The old woman is 
horrified and, stretching out her hands trembling with 
age and fear, she falls pleadingly at her nursling's 
feet, now coaxing and now frightening her if she does 
not tell ; she both threatens to report the affair of the 
noose and attempt at death, and promises her help 



mortis et ofricium commisso spondet amori. 
extulit ilia caput lacrimisque inplevit obortis 
pectora nutricis conataque saepe fateri 420 

saepe tenet vocem pudibundaque vestibus ora 
texit et ' o' dixit ' felicem coniuge matiem ! ' 
hactenus, et gemuit. gelidus nutricis in artus 
ossaque (sensit enim) penetrat tremor, albaque toto 
vertice canities rigidis stetit hhta capillis, 425 

multaque, ut excuteret diros, si posset, amores, 
addidit, at virgo scit se non falsa moneri ; 
certa mori tamen est, si non potiatur amore. 
' vive,' ait haec, ' potiere tuo ' — et, non ausa ' parente ' 
dicere, conticuit promissaque numine firmat. 430 

" Festa piae Cereris ce'ebrabant annua matres 
ilia, quibus nivea velatae corpora veste 
primitias frugum dant spicea serta suarum 
penjue noveni noctes venerem tactusque viriles 
in vetitis numerant : turba Cenchreis in ilia 435 

regis adest coniunx arcanaque sacra frequentat. 
ergo legitima vacuus dum coniuge lectus, 
nacta gravem vino Cinyram male sedula nutrix, 
nomine mentito veros exponit amores 
et faciem laudat ; quaesitis virginis annis 440 

' par ' ait ' est Myrrhae.' quam postquam adducere 

iussa est 
utque domum rediit, ' gaude, mea ' dixit 'alumna : 
vicimus ! ' infelix non toto pectore sentit 
laetitiam virgo, praesagaque peetora maerent, 
sed tamen et gaudet : tanta est discordia mentis. 445 

" Tempus erat, quo cuncta silent, interque triones 
flexerat obliquo plaustrum temone Bootes : 


if she will confess her love. The girl lifts her head 
and fills her nurse's bosom with her rising tears; 
often she tries to confess, and often checks her 
words and hides her shamed face in her robes. Then 
she says : ' O mother, blest in your husband ! ' — 
only so much, and groans. Cold horror stole through 
the nurse's frame (for she understood), and her 
white hair stood up stiffly over all her head, and 
she said many things to banish, if she might, the 
mad passion. The girl knew that she was truly 
warned ; still she was resolved on death if she 
could not have her desire. ' Live then,' said the 
other, ' have your ' — she did not dare say ' father ' ; 
she said no more, calling on Heaven to confirm her 

" It was the time when married women were cele- 
brating that annual festival of Ceres at which with 
bodies robed in white raiment they bring garlands of 
wheaten ears as the first offerings of their fruits, and 
for nine nights they count love and the touch of man 
among things forbidden. In that throng was Cen- 
chreis, wife of the king, in constant attendance on 
the secret rites. And so since the king's bed was 
deprived of his lawful wife, the over-officious nurse, 
finding Cinyras drunk with wine, told him of one 
who loved him truly, giving a false name, and praised 
her beauty. When he asked the maiden's age, she 
said : ' The same as Myrrha's.' Bidden to fetch her, 
when she had reached home she cried : ' Rejoice, 
my child, we win ! ' Not with all her heart did the 
unhappy girl feel joy, and her mind was filled with 
sad forebodings; but still she did also rejoice; so 
inconsistent were her feeling's. 

"It was the time when all things are at rest, and 
between tht Bears Bootes had turned his wain with 



ad facinus venit ilia suum ; fugit aurea caelo 

luna, tegunt nigrae latitantia sidera nubes ; 

nox caret igne suo ; primus tegis, Icare, vultus, 450 

Erigoneque pio sacrata parentis amore. 

ter pedis offensi signo est revocata, ter omen 

funereus bubo letali carmine fecit : 

it tamen, et tenebrae minuunt noxque atra pudorem ; 

nutricisque manura laeva tenet, altera motu 455 

caecum iter explorat. thalami iam limina tangit, 

iamque fores aperit, iam ducitur intus : at illi 

poplite succiduo genua intremuere, fugitque 

et color et sanguis, animusque relinquit euntem. 

quoque suo propior sceleri est, magis horret, et ausi 

paenitet, et vellet non cognita posse reverti. 46 1 

cunctantem longaeva manu deducit et alto 

admotam lecto cum traderet 'accipe,' dixit, 

* ista tua est, Cinyra ' devotaque corpora iunxit. 

accipit obsceno genitor sua viscera lecto 465 

virgineosque metus levat hortaturque timentem. 

forsitan aetatis quoque nomine ' filia ' dixit, 

dixit et ilia ' pater,' sceleri ne nomina desint. 

" Plena patris thalamis excedit et inpia diro 
semina fert utero conceptaque crimina portat. 470 
postera nox facinus geminat, nee finis in ilia est, 
cum tandem Cinyras, avidus cognoscere amantem 


down-pointing pole. 1 She came to her guilty deed. 
The golden moon fled from the sky ; black clouds 
hid the skulking stars; night was without her 
usual fires. You were the first, Icarus, to cover 
your face, and you, Erieone, deified for your pious 
love of your father. Thrice was Myrrha stop; ed 
by the omen of the stumbling foot; thrice did the 
funereal screech-owl warn her by his uncanny cry : 
still on she went, her shame lessened by the black 
shadows of the night. With her left hand she holds 
fast to her nurse, and with the other she gropes 
her way through the dark. Now she reaches the 
threshold of the chamber, now she opens the door, 
now is led within. But her knees tremble and sink 
beneath her; colour and blood flee from her face, 
and her senses desert her as she goes. The nearer 
she is to her crime, the more she shudders at it, 
repents her of her boldness, would gladly turn back 
unrecognized. As she holds back, the aged crone 
leads her by the hand to the side of the high bed 
and, delivering her over, says : * Take her, Cmyras, 
she is yours ' ; and leaves the doomed pair together. 
The father receives his own flesh in his incestuous 
bed, strives to calm her girlish fears, and speaks 
encouragingly to the shrinking girl. It chanced, 
by a name appropriate to her age, he called her 
' daughter/ and she called him ' father,' that 
names might not be lacking to their guilt. 

" Forth from the chamber she went, full of her 
father, with crime conceived within her womb. The 
next night repeated their guilt, nor was that the end. 
At length Cinyras, eager to recognize his mistress 

1 At midnight these constellations attain their highest 
point in the heavens, and thereafter begin their downward 



post tot concubitus, inlato lumine vidit 

et scelus et natam verbisque dolore retentis 

pendenti nitidum vagina deripit ensem ; 475 

Myrrha fugit : tenebrisque et caecae munere noctis 

intercepta neci est latosque vagata per agios 

palmiferos Arabas Panchat-aque rura relinquit 

perque novcm erravit redeuntis cornua lunae, 

cum tandem terra requievit fessa Sabaea ; 4S0 

vixque uteri portabat onus, turn nescia voti 

atque inter mortisque metus et taedia vitae 

est tales conplfxa preces : r o siqua patetis 

numina confessis, merui nee triste recuso 

supplicium, sed ne violem vivosque superstes 485 

mortuaque exstinctos, ambobus pellite regnis 

mutataeque mihi vitamque necemque negate ! ' 

numen confessis aliquod patet : ultima certe 

vota suos habuere deos. nam crura loquentis 

terra supervenit, ruptosque obliqua per ungues 490 

porrigitur radix, longi firmamina trunci, 

ossaque robur agunt, mediaque manente medulla 

sanguis it in sucos, in magnos bracchia ramos, 

in parvos digiti, duratur cortice pellis. 

iamque gravem crescens uterum perstrinxerat arbor 

pectoraque obruerat collumque operire parabat : 496 

non tulit ilia moram venientique obvia ligno 

subsedit mersitque suos in cortice vultus. 

quae quamquam amisit veteres cum corpore sensus, 

flet tamen, et tepidae manant ex arbore guttae. 500 

est honor et lacrimis, stillataque robore murra 

nomen erile tenet nulloque tacebitur aevo. 



after so many meetings, brought in a light and beheld 
his crime and his daughter. Speechless with woe, 
he snatched his bright sword from the sheath which 
hung near by. Myrrha fled and escaped death by 
grace of the shades of the dark night. Groping her 
way through the broad fields, she left palm-bearing 
Arabia and the Panchaean country ; then, after nine 
months of wandering, in utter weariness she rested 
at last in the Sabaean land. And now she could 
scarce bear the burden of her womb. Not knowing 
what to pray for, and in a strait betwixt fear of death 
and weariness of life, she summed up her wishes in 
this prayer : ' O gods, if any there be who will listen 
to my prayer, I do not refuse the dire punishment I 
have deserved ; but lest, surviving, I offend the living, 
and, dying, I offend the dead, drive me from both 
realms ; change me and refuse me both life and 
death ! ' Some god did listen to her prayer ; her 
last petition had its answering gods. For even as she 
spoke the earth closed over her legs ; roots burst 
forth from her toes and stretched out on either side 
the supports of the high trunk ; her bones gained 
strength, and, while the central pith remained the 
same, her blood changed to sap, her arms to long 
branches, her fingers to twigs, her skin to hard bark. 
And now the growing tree had closely bound her 
heavy womb, had buried her breast and was just 
covering her neck ; but she could not endure the 
delay and, meeting the rising wood, she sank down 
and plunged her face in the bark. Though she has 
lost her old-time feelings with her body, still she 
weeps, and the warm drops trickle down from the 
tree. Even the tears have fame, and the myrrh which 
distils from the tree-trunk keeps the name of its mis- 
tress and will be remembered through all the ages. 



u At male conceptus sub robore creverat infans 
quaerebatque viam, qua se genetrice relicta 
exsereret ; media gravidus tumet arbore venter. 505 
tendit onus matrem ; neque habent sua verba dolores, 
nee Lucina potest parientis voce vocari. 
nitenti tamen est similis curvataque crebros 
dat gemitus arbor lacrimisque cadentibus umet. 
constitit ad ramos mitis Lucina dolentis 510 

admovitque manus et verba puerpera dixit : 
arbor agit rimas et fissa cortice vivum 
reddit onus, vagitque puer ; quem mollibus herbis 
naides inpositum lacrimis unxere parentis, 
laudaret faciem Livor quoque ; qualia namque 515 
corpora nudorum tabula pinguntur Ainorum, 
talis erat, sed, ne faciat discrimina cultus, 
aut huic adde leves, aut illi deme pharetras. 

" Labitur occulte fallitque volatilis aetas, 
et nihil est annis velocius : ille sorore 520 

natus avoque suo, qui conditus arbore nuper, 
nuper erat genitus, modo formosissimus infans, 
iam iuvenis, iam vir, iam se formosior ipso est, 
iam placet et Veneri matrisque uleiscitur ignes. 
namque pharetratus dum dat puer oscula matri, 525 
inscius exstanti destrinxit harundine pectus ; 
laesa manu natum dea reppulit . altius actum 
vulnus erat specie primoque fefellerat ipsam. 
capta viri forma non iam Cythereia curat 
litora, non alto repetit Paphon aequore cinctam 530 
piscosamque Cnidon gravidamve Amathunta metallis; 


" But the misbegotten child had grown within the 
w •  ', and was now seeking a way by which it might 
ltav :. mother and come forth. The pregnant tree 
swells in mid-trunk, the weight within straining on 
its mother. The birth-pangs cannot voice them- 
selves, nor can Lucina be called upon in the words 
of one in travail. Still, like a woman in agony, the 
tree bends itself, groans oft, and is wet with fall- 
ing tears. Pitying Lucina stood near the groaning 
branches, laid her hands on them, and uttered 
charms to aid the birth. Then the tree cracked 
open, the bark was rent asunder, and it gave forth 
its living burden, a wailing baby-boy. The naiads 
laid him on soft leaves and anointed him with his 
mother's tears. Even Envy would praise his beauty, 
for he looked like one of the naked loves portrayed 
on canvas. But, that dress may make no distinction, 
you should either give the one a light quiver ©r take 
it from the other. 

" Time gl ides by imperceptibly and cheats us in its 
flight, and nothing is swifter than the years. That 
son of his sister and his grandfather, who was but 
lately concealed within his parent tree, but lately 
born, then a most lovely baby-boy, is now a youth, 
now man, now more beautiful than his former self; 
now he excites even Venus' love, and avenges his 
mother's passion. For while the goddess' son, with 
quiver on shoulder, was kissing his mother, he chanced 
unwittingly to graze her breast with a projecting 
arrow. The wounded goddess pushed her son away 
with her hand ; but the scratch had gone deeper than 
she thought, and she herself was at first deceived. 
Now, smitten with the beauty of a mortal, she cares 
no more for the borders of Cythera, nor does she seek 
Paphos, girt by the deep sea, nor fish-haunted Cnidos, 



abstinet et caelo : caelo praefertur Adonis. 

hunc tenet, huic comes est adsuetaque semper in 

iiidulgere sibi formamque augere colendo, 
per iuga, per silvas dumosaque saxa vagatur 535 

fine «renu vestem ritu succincta Dianae 
hortaturque canes tutaeque animalia praedae, 
aut pronos lepores aut celsum in cornua cervum 
aut agitat dammas ; a fortibus abstinet apris 
raptoresque lupos armatosque unguibus ursos 540 
vitat et armenti saturatos caede leones. 
te quoque, ut hos timeas, siquid prodesse monendo 
posset, Adoni, monet, ' fortis'que ' fugacibus. esto ' 
inquit; 'Jnjaida ges non est audacia tuta. 
parce meo, iuvenis, temerarius esse periclo, 545 

neve feras, quibus arma dedit natura, lacesse, 
stet mihi ne magno tua gloria, non movet aetas 
nee facies nee quae Venerem movere, leones 
saetigeresque sues oculosque animosque ferarum. 
fulmen habent acres in aduueis dentibus apri, 550 
impetus est fulvis et vasta leonibus ira, 
invisumque mihi genus est.' quae causa, roganti 
' dicam,' ait ' et veteris monstrum mirabere culpae. 
sed labor insolitus iam me lassavit, et, ecce, 
opportuna sua blanditur populus umbra, 555 

datque torum caespes : libet hac requiescere tecum ' 
(et requievit) ' humo' pressitque et gramen et ipsum 
inque sinu iuvenis posita cervice reclinis 
sic ait ac mediis interserit oscula verbis : 


nor Amathus, rich in precious ores. She stays away 
even from the skies ; A dorps '« p referred to heaven. 
She holds him fast, is his companion and, though her 
wont has always been to take her ease in the shade, 
and to enhance her beauty by fostering it, now, over 
mountain ridges, through the woods, over rocky places 
set with thorns, she ranges with her garments girt up 
to her knees after the manner of Diana. 'She also 
cheers on the hounds and pursues those creatures 
which are safe to hunt, such as the headlong hares, 
or the stag with high-branching horns, or the timid 
doej^but from strong wild boars she keeps away, and 
from ravenous wolves, and she avoids bears, armed 
with claws, and lions reeking with the slaughter of 
cattle. She warns you, too, Adonis, to fear these 
beasts, if only it were of any avail to warn. ' Be brave 
again st timorous creature s.' she says ; ' but against 
bold creatures bold ness is not safe. Do not be rash, 

,dear boy,jjLsiX£isk_» an d do not provoke those beasts 
which nature has well aimed, les^y_oux_gjory_Jbe at 

'gre at cost to me, Neither youth nor beauty, nor the 
things which have moved Venus, move lions and 
bristling boars and the eyes and minds of wild beasts. 
Boars have the force of a lightning stroke in their 
curving tusks, and the impetuous wrath of tawny 
lions is irresistible. I fear and hate them all.' When 
he asks her why, she says : ' I will tell, and you shall 
marvel at the monstrous outcome of an ancient crime. 
But now I am aweary with my unaccustomed toil; 
and see, a poplar, happily at hand, invites us with its 
shade, and here is grassy turf for couch. I would fain 
rest here on the grass with you.' So saying, she 
reclined upon the ground and, pillowing her head 
against his breast and mingling kisses with her words 
she told the following tale : 



" ' Forsitan audieris aliquam certamine cursus 560 
veloces superasse vivos : non fabula rumor 
ille fuit; superabat enira. nee dicere posses, 
laude pedum formaene bono praestantior esset. 
scitanti deus huic de coniuge " coniuge " dixit 
" nil opus est, Atalanta, tibi : fuge coniugis usum. 565 
nee tamen effugies teque ipsa viva carebis." 
territa sorte dei per opacas innuba silvas 
vivit et instantem turbam violenta procorum 
condicione fugat, rt nee sum potienda, nisi " inquit 
" victa prius cursu. pedibus contendite meoum ; 570 
praemia veloci coniunx thalamique dabuntur, 
mors pretium tardis : ea lex certaminis esto." 
ilia quidem inmitis, sed (tanta potentia formae est) 
venit ad hanc legem temeraria turba procorum. 
sederat Hippomenes cursus spectator iniqui 575 

et "petitur cuiquam per tanta pericula coniunx?" 
dixerat ac nimios iuvenum damnarat amores ; 
ut faciem et posito corpus velamine vidit, 
quale meum, vel quale tuum, si femina fias, 
obstipuit tollensque manus "ignoscite,"' dixit 580 
"quos modo culpavi! nondum mihi praemia nota, 
quae peteretis, erant." laudando concipit ignes 
et, ne quis iuvenum currat velocius, optat 
invidiaque timet. " sed cur certaminis huius 
intemptata mihi fortuna relinquitur ? " inquit 585 
" audentes deus ipse iuvat ! " dum talia secum 
exigit Hippomenes, passu volat alite virgo. 


"'You may, perchance, have heard of a maid who 
surpassed swift-footed men in the contest of the race. 
And that was no idle tale, for she did surpass them. 
Nor could you say whether her fleetness or her beauty 
was more worthy of your praise. Now when this maid 
consulted the oracle about a husband, the god replied : 
"A husband will be your bane, O Atalanta; fte.e 
from the in tercourse of husband ; and yet you will not 
escape, _ aff37 _ though living, you will lose yourself." 
Terrified by the oracle of the god, she lived unwedded 
in the shady woods, and with harsh terms she re- 
pulsed the insistent throng of suitors. " I am not to 
be won," she said, " till I be conquered first in speed. 
Contest the race with me. Wife and couch shall be 
given as prize unto the swift, but death shall be the 
reward of those who lag behind. Be that the con- 
dition of the race." She, in truth, was pitiless, but 
such was the witchery of her beauty, even on this 
condition a rash throng of suitors came to try their 
fate. Now Hippomenes had taken his seat as a 
spectator of this cruel race, and had exclaimed : 
" Who would seek a wife at so great peril to him- 
self?" and he had condemned the young men for 
their headstrong love. (Bu t when he saw her face 
and her disrobed form, such beauty as is mine, or as 
would be yours if you were a woman, he was amazed 
and, stretching out his hands, he cried : " Forgive 
me, ye whom but now I blamed. /I did not yet 
realize the worth of the prize you strove for." As 
he praises, his own heart takes fire and he hopes that 
none of the youths may outstrip her in the race, and 
is filled with jealous fears. " But why is my fortune 
in this contest left untried ? " he cries. " God himself 


helps those who dare." While thus Hippomenes 
was weighing the matter in his mind, the girl sped by 




quae quamquam Scytlnca non setius ire sagitta 

Aonio visa est iuveni, tamen ille decorem 

miratur magis : et cursus facit ille decorem. 590 

aura refert ablata citis talaria pi an I is, 

tergaque iactantur crines per eburnea, quaeque 

poplitibus suberant picto genualia limbo ; 

inque puellari corpus candore ruborem 

traxerat, baud aliter, quam cum super atria velum 

Candida purpureum simulatas inficit umbras. 5 ( j6 

dum notat haec hospes, decursa novissima meta est, 

et tegitur festa victrix Atalanta corona. 

dant gemitum victi penduntque ex foedere poenas. 

" c Non tamen eventu iuvenis deterritus horum 
constitit in medio vultuque in virgine fixo 601 

"quid facilem titulum superando quaeris iuertes ? 
mecum confer" ait. "seu me fortuna potentem 
fecerit, a tanto non indignabere vinci : 
namque mihi genitor Megareus Onchestius, II li 605 
est Neptunus avus, prouepos ego regis aquarum, 
nee virtus citra genus est ; seu vincar, habebis 
Hippomene victo magnum et memorabile nomen." 
talia dicenrem molli Schoeneia vultu 
aspicit et dubitat, superari an vincere malit, 610 

atque ita " quis deus hunc formosis " inquit "iniquus 
perdere vult caraeque iubet discrimine vitae 
coniugium petere hoc? non sum, me iudice, tanti. 
nee forma tangor, (poteram tamen hac quoque tangi) 
sed quod adhuc puer est; *non me movet ipse, sed 
aetas. 6l5 



on winged feet. Though she seemed to the Aonian 
youth to go not less swiftly than a Scythian arrow, 
yet he admired her beauty still more. And the 
running gave a beauty of its own. The breeze bore 
back the streaming pinions on her flying feet, her 
hair was tossed over her white shoulders ; the bright- 
bordered ribbons at her knees were fluttering, and 
over her fair girlish body a pink flush came, just 
as when a purple awning, drawn over a marble hall, 
stains it with borrowed hues. While the stranger 
marked all this, the last goal was passed, and Atalanta 
was crowned victor with a festal wreath. But the 
conquered youths with groans paid the penalty 
according to the bond. 

" ' Not deterred by the experience of these, how- 
ever, Hippomenes stood forth and, fixing his eyes 
upon the girl, exclaimed : " Why do you seek "an 
easily won renown by conquering sluggish youth ? 
Come, strive with me ! If fortune shall give me the 
victory, 'twill be no shame for you to be overcome by 
so great a foe. For Megareus of Onchestus is my 
father and his grandfather is Neptune ; hence I am 
the great-grandson of the king of the waters. Nor 
is my manly worth less than my race. Or, if I shall 
be defeated, you will have a great and memorable 
name for the conquest of Hippomenes." As he said 
this, the daughter of Schoeneus gazed on him with 
softening eyes, being in a strait betwixt her desire to 
conquer and to be conquered. And thus she spoke : 
"What god, envious of beauteous youths, wishes to 
destroy this one, and prompts him to seek wedlock 
with me at the risk of his own dear life ? I am not 
worth so great a price, if I am the judge. Nor is 
it his beauty that touches me — and yet I could be 
touched by this as well— but the fact that he is still 



quid, quod inest virtus et mens interrita leti? 

quid, quod ab aequorea numeratur origine quartus? 

quid, quod amat tantique putat conubia nostra. 

ut pereat, si me fors illi dura negarit ? 

dum licet, hospes, abi thalamosque relinque cruentos 

coniugium crudele meum est, tibi nubere nulla 621 

nolet, et optari potes a sapiente puella. — 

cur tamen est mihi cura tui tot iam ante peremptis? 

viderit ! intereat, quoniam tot caede procorum 

admonitus non est agiturque in taedia vitae. — 625 

occidet hie igitur, voluit quia vivere mecum, 

indignamque necem pretium patietur amoris? 

non erit invidiae victoria nostra ferendae. 

sed non culpa mea est ! utinam desistere velles, 

aut, quoniam es demens, utmam velocior esses ! 630 

a ! quam virgineus puerili vultus in ore est ! 

a ! miser Hippomene, nollem tibi visa fuissem 1 

vivere dignus eras, quod si felicior essem, 

nee mihi coniugium fata inportuna negarent, 

unus eras, cum quo sociare cubilia vellem." 635 

dixerat, utque rudis primoque cupidine tacta, 

quid facit ignorans, amat et non sentit amorem. 

"' lam solitos poscunt cursus populusque paterque, 
cum me sollicita proles Neptunia voce 
invocat Hippomenes "Cytherea," que "conprecor, 
ausis 64* 

adsit " ait " nostris et quos dedit, adiuvet ignes." 


but a boy. It is not he himself who moves me, but 
his youth. <_What of his manly courage and his soul 
fearless of death ? What that he claims bv birth to 
be the fourth from the monarch of the seas?! What 
of his love for me, and that he counts marriage with 
me of so great worth that he would perish if cruel 
fate denies me to him ? O stranger, go hence while 
still you may ; flee from this bloody wedlock. Mar- 
riage with me is a fatal thing. No other maiden will 
refuse to wed you, and it may well be that a wiser 
girl will seek your love. — Yet why this care for you, 
since so many have already perished ? Let him look 
to himself! let him perish, too, since by the death of 
so many suitors he was not warned, and cares so little 
for his life. — And shall he die, because he wished 
to live with me, and suffer undeserved death as the 
penalty of love? My victory will be attended by 
unbearable hatred against me. But the fault is none 
of mine. O sir, I would that you might desist, or, 
since you are so madly set upon it, would that you 
might prove the swifter! Ah, how girlish is his 
youthful face ! Ah, poor Hippomenes, I would that 
you had never looked on me ! You were so worthy 
of life. But if I were of happier fortune, and if the 
harsh fates did not deny me marriage, you were the 
only he with whom I should want to share my couch." 
So speaks the maid ; and, all untutored, feeling for 
the first time the impulse of love, ignorant of what 
she does, she loves and knows it not. 

" ' Meanwhile the people and her father demanded 
the accustomed race. Then did the Neptunian youth, 
Hippomenes, with suppliant voice call on me : " O 
may Cytherea," he said, " be near, I pray, and assist 
the thing I dare and smile upon the love which she 
has given." A kindly breeze bore this soft prayer to 



detulit aura preces ad me non invida blandas : 
motaque sum, fateor, nee opis mora longa dabatur. 
est ager, indigenae Tamasenum nomine dicunt, 
telluris Cypriae pars optima, quam mihi prisci 645 
sacravere senes templisque accedere dotem 
hanc iussere meis ; medio nitet arbor in arvo, 
fulva comas, fulvo ramis crepitantibus auro : 
hinc tria forte mea veniens decerpta lerebam 
aurea poma manu nullique videnda nisi ipsi 650 

Hippomenen adii docuique, quis usus in illis. 
signa tubae dedeiant, cum carcere pronus uterque 
emicat et summam celeri pede libat harenam : 
posse putes illos sicco freta radere passu 
et segetis canae stantes percurrere aristas. 655 

adiciunt animos iuveni clamorque favorque 
verbaque dicentum " nunc, nunc incumbere tempus ! 
Hippomene, propera ! nunc viribus utere totis ! 
pelle moram : vinces ! " dubium, Megareius heros 
gaudeat an virgo magis his Schoeneia dictis. 660 

o quotiens, cum iam posset transire, morata est 
spectatosque diu vultus invita reliquit ! 
aridus e lasso veniebat anhelitus ore, 
metaque erat longe : turn denique de tribus unum 
fetibus arboreis proles Neptunia misit. 665 

obstipuit virgo nitidique cupidine pomi 
declinat ciu-sus aurumque volubile tollit ; 
praeterit Hippomenes : resonant spectacula plausu. 


me and I confess it moved my heart. And ther< 
was but scanty time to give him aid. There is a 
field, the natives call it the field of Tamasus, the 
richest portion of the Cyprian land, which in ancient 
times men set apart to me and bade my temples be 
enriched with this. Within this field there stands a 
tree gleaming with golden leaves and its branches 
crackle with the same bright «;oid. Fresh come from 
there, I chanced to have in my hand three golden 
apples which I had plucked. Revealing myself to no 
one save to him, I approached Hippomenes and 
taught him how to use the apples. The trumpets 
had sounded for the race, when they both, crouching 
low, flashed forth from their stalls and skimmed the 
surface of the sandy course with flying feet. You 
would think that they could graze the sea with un- 
wet feet and pass lightly over the ripened heads of 
the standing grain. The youth was cheered on by 
shouts of applause and the words of those who cried 
to him : " Now, now is the time to bend to the 
work, Hippomenes ! Go on ! Now use your utmost 
strength ! No tarrying ! You're sure to win ! " It 
is a matter of doubt whether the heroic son of 
Megareus or the daughter of Schoeneus took more 
joy of these words. Oh, how often, when she could 
have passed him, did she delay and after gazing long 
upon his face reluctantly leave him behind ! And 
now dry, panting breath came from his weary throat 
and the goal was still far away. Then at length did 
Neptune's scion throw one of the three golden 
apples. The maid beheld it with wonder and, eager 
to possess the shining fruit, she turned out of her 
course and picked up the rolling golden thing. 
Hippomenes passed her by while the spectators 
roared their applause. She by a burst of speed made 



ilia moram celeri cessataque tempora cursu 

corrigit atque iterum iuvenem post terga relinquit : 

et rursus pomi iactu remorata secundi 671 

consequitur transitque virum. pars ultima cursus 

restabat ; " nunc " inquit " ades, dea muneris auctor !" 

inque latus campi, quo tardius ilia rediret, 

iecit ab obliquo nitidum iuvenaliter aurum. 675 

an peteret, virgo visa est dubitare : coegi 

tollere et adieci sublato pondera malo 

inpediique oneris pariter gravitate moraque, 

neve meus serino cursu sit tardior ipso, 

praeterita est virgo : duxit sua praemia victor. CSO 

" ' Dignane, cui grates ageret, cui turis honorem 
ferret, Adoni, fui ? nee grates inmemor egit s 
nee mihi tura dedit. subitam converter in iram, 
contemptuque dolens, ne sim spernenda futuris, 
exemplo caveo meque ipsa exhortor in ambos : 6*85 
templa, deum Matri quae quondam clarus Echion 
fecerat ex voto, nemorosis abdita silvis, 
transibant, et iter longum requiescere suasit ; 
illic concubitus intempestiva cupido 
occupat Hippomenen a numine concita nostro. (>90 
luminis exigui fuerat prope templa recessus, 
speluncae similis, nativo pumice tectus, 
religione sacer prisca, quo multa sacerdog 



up for her delay and the time that she had lost, and 
again left the youth behind her. Again she delayed 
at the tossing of the second apple, followed and 
passed the man. The last part of the course remained. 
"Now be near me, goddess, author of my gift ! " he 
said, and obliquely into a side of the field, returning 
whence she would lose much time, with all his youth- 
ful strength he threw the shining gold. The girl 
seemed to hesitate whether or no she should go after 
it. I forced her to take it up, and added weight to 
the fruit she carried, and so impeded her equally 
with the weight of her burden and with her loss of 
time. And, lest my story be longer than the race 
itself, the maiden was outstripped ; the victor led 
away his prize. 

" ' And was 1 not worthy, Adonis, of being thanked 
and of having the honour of incense paid to me ? 
But, forgetful of my services, he neither thanked nor 
offered incense to me. Then was I changed to sudden 
wrath and, smarting under the slight, and reso! ved 
not to be slighted in the future, I decided to make 
an example of them, and urged myself on against 
them both. They were passing by a temple deep 
hidden in the woods, which in ancient times illus- 
trious Echion had built to the mother 1 of the gods in 
payment of a vow ; and the long journey persuaded 
them to rest. There incontinent desire seized on 
Hippomenes, who was kindled by my divinity. 
Hard by the temple was a dimly lighted, cave-like 
place, built of soft native rock, hallowed by ancient 
religious veneration, where the priest had set many 
wooden images of the olden gods. This place he 
entered ; this holy presence he defiled by lust. The 
sacred images turned away their eyes. The tower- 

1 Cybele. 



Iisjnea contulerat veterum simulacra deorura; 

hunc init et vetito temerat sacraria probro. 695 

sacra retorserunt oculos, turritaque Mater 

an Stygia sontes dubitavit mergeret unda : 

poena levis visa est ; ergo modo levia f'ulvae 

colla iubae velant, digiti curvantur in ungues, 

ex umeris armi fiunt, in pectora totum 700 

pondus abit, summae cauda verruntur harenae ; 

iram vultus habet, pro verbis murmura reddunt, 

pro thalamis celebrant silvas aliisque timendi 

dente premunt domito Cybeleia frena leones. 

hos tu, care mihi, cumque his genus omne ferarum, 705 

quod non terga fugae, sed pugnae pectora praebet, 

effuge, ne virtus tua sit damnosa duobus ! ' 

" Ilia quidem monuit iunctisque per aera cygnis 
carpit iter, sed stat monitis contraria virtus, 
forte suem latebris vestigia certa secuti 710 

excivere canes, silvisque exire parantem 
fixerat obi i quo iuvenis Cinyreius ictu : 
protinus excussit pando venabula rostro 
sanguine tincta suo trepidumque et tuta petentem 
trux aper insequitur totosque sub inguine dentes 715 
abdidit et fulva moribundum stravit harena. 
vecta levi curru medias Cytherea per auras 
Cypron olorinis nondum pervenerat alis: 
agnovit longe gemitum morientis et aibas 
flexit aves illuc, utque aethere vitlit ab alto 720 

exanimem inque suo iactantem sanguine corpus, 
desiluit pariterque sinum pariterque capillos 
rupit et ind ignis percussit pectora palmis 
questaque cum fatis ' at non tamen omnia vestri 


crowned Mother was on the verge of plunging the 
guilty pair beneath the waves of Styx ; but the 
punishment seemed light. And so tawny manes 
covered their necks but now smooth, their fingers 
curved into claws, their arms changed to legs, their 
weight went chiefly to their chests, with tails they 
swept the surface of the sandy ground. Harsh were 
their features, rough growls they gave for speech, 
and for marriage chamber they haunted the wild 
woods. And now as lions, to others terrible, with 
tamed mouths they champed the bits of Cybele. 
These beasts, and with them all other savage things 
which turn not their backs in flight, but offer their 
breasts to battle, do you, for my sake, dear boy, avoid, 
lest your manly courage be the ruin of us both.' "^ 
"Thus the goddess warned and through the air, 
drawn by her swans, she took her way; but the 
boy's manly courage would not brook advice. It 
chanced h's hounds, following a well-marked trail, 
roused up a wild boar from his hiding-place ; and, as 
he was rushing from the wood, the young grandson 
of Cinyras pierced him with a glancing blow. 
Straightway the fierce boar with his curved snout 
rooted out the spear wet with his blood, and pursued 
the youth, now full of fear and running for his life ; 
deep in the groin he sank his long tusks, and 
stretched the dying boy upon the yellow sand. 
Borne through the middle air by flying swans on 
her light car, Cytherea had not yet come to Cyprus, 
when she heard afar the groans of the dying youth 
and turned her white swans to go to him. And 
when from the high air she saw him lying lifeless 
and weltering in his blood, she leaped down, tore 
both her garments and her hair and beat her breasts 
with cruel hands. Reproaching fate, she said : ' But 



iuris erunt' dixit, 'luctus monimenta manebunt 

semper, Adoni, mei, repetitaque mortis imago 726 

annua plangoris peraget simulamina nostri ; 

at cruor in florem mutabitur. an tibi quondam 

femineos artus in olentes vertere mentas, 

Persephone, licuit : nobis Cinyreius heros 730 

invidiae mutatus erit ? ' sic fata cruorem 

nectare odorato sparsit, qui tactus ab illo 

intumuit sic, ut fulvo perlucida caeno 

surgere bulla solet, nee plena longior hora 

facta mora est, cum flos de sanguine concolor ortus, 

qualem, quae lento celant sub cortice granum, 736 

punica ferre solent ; brevis est tamen usus in illo ; 

namque male haerentem et nimia levitate caducum 

excutiunt idem, qui praestant nomina, venti." 



all shall not be in your power. My grief, Adonis, 
shall have an enduring monument, and each passing 
year in memory of your death shall give an imitation 
of my grief. But your blood shall be changed to a 
flower. Or was it once allowed to thee, Persephone, 
to change a maiden's 1 form to fragrant mint, and 
shall the change of my hero, offspring of Cinyras, be 
grudged to me?' So saying, with sweet-scented 
nectar she sprinkled the blood; and this, touched 
by the nectar, swelled as when clear bubbles rise up 
from yellow mud. With no longer than an hour's 
delay a flower sprang up of blood-red hue such as 
pomegranates bear which hide their seeds beneath 
the tenacious rind. But short-lived is their flower ; 
for the winds from which it takes its name 2 shake 
off the flower so delicately clinging and doomed too 
easily to fall." 

* The nymph Men the. 

! Anemone, " the wind-flower.* 




Carmine dura tali silvas ammosque f'erarum 

Threicius vates et saxa sequentia ducit, 

ecce nurus Ciconum tectae lymphata ferinis 

pectora velleribus tumuli de vertice cernunt 

Orphea percussis sociantem carmina nervis. 5 

e quibus una leves iactato crine per auras, 

" en," ait " en, hie est nostri contemptor !" et hastam 

vatis Apollinei vocalia misit in ora, 

quae foliis praesuta notam sine vulnere fecit ; 

alterius telurn lapis est, qui missus in ipso 10 

aere coneentu victus vocisque lyraeque est 

ac veluti supplex pro tam furialibus ausis 

ante pedes iacuit. sed enim temeraria crescimt 

bella modusque abiit insanaque regnat Erinys ; 

cunctaque tela forent cantu mollita, sed ingens 15 

clamor et infracto Berecyntia tibia cornu 

tympanaque et plausus et Bacchei ululatus 

obstrepuere sono citharae, turn denique saxa 

non exauditi rubuerunt sanguine vatis. 

ac primum attonitas etiamnum voce canentis 20 

innumeras volucres anguesque agmenque ferarum 

maenades Orphei titulum rapuere theatri ; 

inde cruentatis vertuntur in Orphea dextris 



While with such songs the bard of Thrace drew the 
trees, held beasts enthralled and constrained stones 
to follow him, behold, the crazed women of the 
Cicones, with skins flung over their breasts, saw 
Orpheus from a hill-top, fitting songs to the music of 
his lyre. Then one of these, her tresses streaming in 
the gentle breeze, cried out : " See, see, here is the 
man who scorns us ! " and hui'led her spear straight 
at the tuneful mouth of Apollo's bard ; but this, 
wreathed in leaves, marked without harming him. 
Another threw a stone, which, even as it flew through 
the air, was overcome by the sweet sound of voice and 
lyre, and fell at his feet as if 'twould ask forgiveness for 
its mad attempt. But still the assault waxed reckless ' 
their passion knew no bounds; mad fury reigned 
And all their weapons would have been harmless 
under the spell of song ; but the huge uproar of the 
Berecyntian flutes, mixed with discordant horns, the 
drums, and the breast-beatings and howlings of the 
Bacchanals, drowned the lyre's sound; and then at last 
the stones were reddened with the blood of the bard 
whose voice they could not hear. First away went the 
multitudinous birds still spellbound by the singer's 
voice, with the snakes and the train of beasts, the 
glory of Orpheus' audience, harried by the Maenads ; 
then these turned bloody hands against Orpheus 
and flocked around like birds when they see the bird 



et coeunt ut aves, si quando luce vagantem 

noctis avem cernunt, structoque utriinque theatro 25 

ceu matutina cervus periturus harena 

praeda canum est, vatemque petunt et fronde virentes 

coniciunt thyrsos non haec in munera factos. 

hae glaebas, illae direptos arbore ramos, 

pars torquent silices ; neu desint tela furori, 30 

forte boves presso subigebant vomere terra m, 

nee procul hinc multo fructum sudore parantes 

dura lacertosi fodiebant arva coloni, 

agmine qui viso fugiunt operisque relinquunt 

arma sui, vacuosque iacent dispersa per agros 85 

sarculaque rastrique graves longique ligones ; 

quae postquam rapuere ferae cornuque minaces 

divulsere boves, ad vatis fata recurrunt 

tendentemque manus et in illo tempore primum 

inrita dicentem nee quicquam voce moventem 40 

sacrilegae perimunt, perque os, pro Iuppiter! illud 

auditum saxis intellectumque ferarum 

sensibus in ventos anima exhalata recessit. 

Te maestae volucres, Orpheu, te turba ferarum, 
te rigidi silices, te carmina saepe secutae 45 

fleverunt silvae, positis te frondibus arbor 
tonsa comas luxit ; lacrimis quoque flumina dicunt 
increvisse suis, obstrusaque carbasa pullo 
naides et drj-ades passosque habuere capillos. 
membra iacent diversa locis, caput, Hebre, lyram~"ue 
excipis : et (mirum !) medio dum labitur amne, 5! 


of night wandering in the daylight ; and as when in 
the amphitheatre in the early morning of the spectacle 
the doomed stag in the arena is the prey of dogs. 
They rushed upon the bard and hurled at him their 
wands wreathed with green leaves, not made for such 
use as this. Some threw clods, some branches torn 
from trees, and some threw stones. And, that real 
weapons might not be wanting to their madness, it 
chanced that oxen, toiling beneath the yoke, were 
plowing up the soil ; and not far from these, stout 
peasants were digging the hard earth and sweating 
at their work. When these beheld the advancing 
horde, they fled away and left behind the imple- 
ments of their toil. Scattered through the deserted 
fields lay hoes, long mattocks and heavy grubbing- 
tools. These the savage women caught up and, first 
tearing in pieces the oxen who threatened them 
with their horns, they rushed back to slay the bard ; 
and, as he stretched out his suppliant hands, uttering 
words then, but never before, unheeded, and moving 
them not a whit by his voice, the impious women 
struck him down. And (oh, the pity of it !) through 
those lips, to which rocks listened, and to which the 
hearts of savage beasts responded, the soul, breathed 
out, went faring forth in air. 

The mourning birds wept for thee, Orpheus, the 
throng of beasts, the flinty rocks, and the trees which 
had so often gathered to thy songs ; yes, the trees 
shed their leaves as if so tearing their hair in grief 
for thee. They say that the rivers also were swollen 
with their own tears, and that naiads and dryads 
alike mourned with dishevelled hair and with dark- 
bordered garments. The poet's limbs lay scattered 
all around; but his head and lyre, O Hebrus, thou 
didst receive, and (a marvel !) while they floated in 



flebile nescio quid queritur lyra, flebile lingua 
murmurat exanimis, respondent flebile ripae. 
iamque mare invectae (lumen populare relinquunt 
et Methymnaeae potiuntur litore Lesbi : 55 

hie ferus expositum peregrinis anguis harenis 
os petit et sparsos stillanti rore capillos. 
tandem Phoebus adest morsusque inferre parantem 
arcet et in lapidem rictus serpentis apertos 
congelat et patulos, ut erant, indurat hiatus. 60 

Umbra subit terras, et quae loca viderat ante, 
cuncta recognoscit quaerensque per arva piorum 
invenit Eurydicen cupidisque amplectitur ulnis ; 
hie modo coniunetis spatiantur passibus ambo, 
nunc praecedentem sequitur, nunc praevius anteit 65 
Eurydicenque suam, iam tuto, respicit Orpheus. 

Non inpune tamen scelus hoc sinit esse Lyaeus 
amissoque dolens sacrorum vate suorum 
protinus in silvis matres Edonidas omnes, 
quae videre nefas> torta raclice ligavit ; 70 

quippe pedum digitos, in quantum est quaeque secuta, 
traxit et in solidam detrusit acumina terram, 
utque suura laqueis, quos callidus abdidit auceps, 
crus ubi commisit volucris sensitque teneri, 
plangitur ac trepidans adstringit vincula motu : 75 
sic, ut quaeque solo defixa cohaeserat harum, 
exsternata fugam frustra temptabat, at illam 
lenta tenet radix exsultantemque coercet, 
dumque ubi sint digiti, dum pes ubi,quaerit, et ungues, 
aspicit in teretes lignum succedere suras 80 



mid-stream the lyre gave forth some mournful 
notes, mournfully the lifeless tongue murmured, 
mournfully the banks replied. And now, borne 
onward to the sea, they left their native stream and 
gained the shore of Lesbos near the city of Methymna. 
Here, as the head lay exposed upon a foreign strand, 
a savage serpent attacked it and its streaming locks 
still dripping with the spray. But Phoebus at last 
appeared, drove off the snake just in the act to bite, 
and hardened and froze to stone, just as they were, 
the serpent's widespread, yawning jaws. 

The poet's shade Med beneath the earth, and recog- 
nized all the places he had seen before ; and, seeking 
through the blessed fields, found Eurydice and caught 
her in his eager arms. Here now side by side they 
walk ; now Orpheus follows her as she precedes, now 
goes before her, now may in safety look back upon 
his Eurydice. 

However, Lyaeus did not suffer such crime as this 
to go unavenged. Grieved at the loss of the bard of 
his sacred rites, he straightway bound fast all those 
Thracian women, who saw the impious deed, with 
twisted roots. For he prolonged their toes and, in 
so far as each root followed down, he thrust their tips 
into the solid earth. And as a bird, when it has caught 
its foot in the snare which the cunning fowler has set 
for it, and feels that it is caught, flaps and flutters, 
but draws its bonds tighter by its struggling ; so, as 
each of these women, fixed firmly in the soil, had 
stuck fast, with wild affright, but all in vain, she 
attempted to flee. The tough roots held her, and 
though she struggled, kept firm their grasp. And 
when she asked where were her fingers, where her 
feet, her nails, she saw the bark come creeping up 
her shapely legs ; striving to smite her thighs with 



et conata femur maerenti plangere dextra 
robora percussit, pectus quoque robora fiunt, 
robora sunt umeri ; longos quoque bracchia versa 
esse putes ramos, et non fallare putando. 

Nee satis hoc Baccho est, ipsos quoque deserit agros 
cunique choro meliore sui vineta Timoli 86 

Pactolonque petit, quamvis non aureus illo 
tempore nee caris erat invidiosus harenis. 
hunc adsueta cohors, satyri bacchaeque, frequentant, 
at Silenus abest : titubantem annisque meroque 90 
ruricolae cepere Phryges vinctumque coronis 
ad regem duxere Midan, cui Thracius Orpheus 
orgia tradiderat cum Cecropio Eumolpo. 
qui simul agnovit socium comitemque sacrorum, 
hospitis adventu festum genialiter egit 95 

per bis quinque dies et iunctas ordine noctes, 
et iam stellarum sublime coegerat agmen 
Lucifer undecimus, Lydos cum laetus in agros 
rex venit et iuveni Silenum reddit alumno. 

Huic deus optandi gratum, sed inutile fecit 100 
muneris arbitrium gaudens altore recepto. 
ille male usurus donis ait "effice, quiequid 
corpore contigero, fulvum vertatur in aurum." 
adnuit optatis nocituraque munera solvit 
Liber et indoluit, quod non meliora petisset. 10.5 

laetus abit gaudetque malo Berecyntius heros 
pollicitique fklem tangendo singula tempt at 
vixque sibi credens, non alta fronde virentem 
ilice detraxit virgam : virga aurea facta est ; 


hands of grief, she smote on oak. Her breasts also 
became of oak ; oaken her shoulders. Her arms you 

would think had been changed to long branches 

nor would your thought be wrong. 

Nor is this enough for Bacchus. He leaves their 
very fields and with a worthier band seeks the vine- 
yards of his own Timolus and his Pactolus ; although 
this was not at that time a golden stream, nor envied 
for its precious sands. His usual company, satyrs 
and bacchanals, thronged round him ; but Silenus was 
not there Him, stumbling with the weight of years 
and wine, the Phrygian rustics took captive, bound 
him with wreaths, and led him to Midas, their king. 
To this Midas, together with the Athenian Eumolpus, 
Thracian Orpheus had taught the rites of Bacchus. 
When now the king recognized the comrade and 
assistant of his revels, right merrily to celebrate the 
coming of his guest he ordered a festival which they 
kept for ten continuous days and nights. And now 
the eleventh dawn had driven away the ranks of 
stars on high, when the king with joyful heart came 
to the Lydian fields and gave Silenus back to his dear 

Then did the god, rejoicing in his foster-father" s 
safe return, grant to the king the free choice of a 
boon, a pleasing, but useless gift. Midas, fated to 
make an ill use of his gift, exclaimed : " Grant that 
whatsoever I may touch with my body may be 
turned to yellow gold." Bacchus granted his prayer 
and gave him the baleful gift, grieving the while 
that he had not asked better. The Berecyntian 
hero gaily went his way, rejoicing in his fatal gift, 
and tried its promised powers by touching this and 
that. Scarcely daring to believe, from a low oak- 
branch he broke off a green tAvig : the twip- was 



tollit humo saxum: saxum quoque palluit auro; 110 
contigit et glaebam : contactu glaeba potenti 
massa fit ; arentis Cereris decerpsit aristas : 
aurea messis erat ; demptum tenet arbore poraum : 
Hesperidas donasse putes ; si postibus altis 
admovit digitos, postes radiare videntur ; 115 

ille etiam liquidis palmas ubi laverat undis, 
unda Aliens palmis Danaen eludere posset ; 
vix spes ipse suas animo capit aurea fingens 
omnia, gaudenti mensas posuere ministri 
exstructas dapibus nee tostae frugis egentes : 120 
turn vero, sive ille sua Cerealia dextra 
munera contigerat, Cerealia dona rigebant, 
sive dapes avido convellere dente parabat, 
lammina fulva dapes admoto dente premebat ; 
miscuerat puris auctorem muneris undis : 125 

fusile per rictus aurum fluitare videres. 

Attonitus novitate mali divesque miserque 
effugere optat opes et quae modo voverat, odit. 
copia nulla famem relevat ; sitis arida guttur 
urit, et inviso meritus torquetur ab auro 130 

ad caelumque manus et splendida bracchia tollens 
"da veniam, Lenaee pater ! peccavimus " inquit, 
" sed miserere, precor, speciosoque eripe damno ! " 
mite deum numen : Bacchus peccasse fatentem 
restituit pactique fide data munera solvit 135 

" neve male optato maneas circumlitus auro, 


changed to gold. He picked up a stone from the 
ground : the stone, also, showed a light golden hue. 
He touched a clod : beneath that magic touch the 
clod became a mass of gold. He plucked some ripe 
wheat-heads : it was a golden harvest. He picked 
an apple from a tree and held it in his hand : you 
would suppose the Hesperides had given it. If he 
laid his fingers on the lofty pillars, the pillars gleamed 
before his eyes. When he bathed his hands in water, 
the water flowing over his hands could cheat a Danae. 
His mind itself could scarcely grasp its own hopes, 
dreaming of all things turned to gold. As he re- 
joiced, his slaves set a table before him loaded with 
meats ; nor was bread wanting. Then indeed, if he 
touched the gift of Ceres with his hand, the gift of 
Ceres went stiff and hard ; or if he tried to bite a 
piece of meat with hungry teeth, where his teeth 
touched the food they touched but yellow plates of 
£old. He mingled pure water with the wine of 
Bacchus, giver of his gift ; but through his jaws you 
would see the molten gold go trickling. 

Amazed by this strange mishap, rich and yet 
wretched, he seeks to flee his wealth and hates 
what he but now has prayed for. No store of 
food can relieve his hunger; his throat is parched 
with burning thirst, and through his own fault he is 
tortured by hateful gold. Lifting his hands and 
shining arms to heaven, he cries : " Oh, pardon me, 
Lenaeus, father! I have sinned. Yet have mercy, 
I pray thee, and save me from this curse that looks 
so fair." The gods are kind : Bacchus restored him 
to his former condition when he confessed his fault, 
and he relieved him of the boon which he had given 
in fulfilment of his pledge. "And, that you may 
not remain encased in gold which you have so 



vade " ait " ad magnis vicinum Sardibus amnein 
perque iugum Lydum labentibus obvius undis 
carpe viam, donee venias ad fluminis ortus, 
spumigeroque tuum fonti, qua plurimus exit, 140 
subde caput corpusque simul, simul elue crimen." 
rex iussae succedit aquae : vis aurea tinxit 
flunien et humano de corpore cessit in amnem ; 
nunc quoque iam veteris percepto semine venae 
arva rigent auro madidis pallentia glaebis. 145 

I lie perosus opes silvas et rura colebat 
Panaque montanis habitantem semper in antris, 
pingue sed ingenium mansit, nocituraque, ut ante, 
rursus erant domino stultae praecordia mentis. 
nam freta prospiciens late riget arduus alto 150 

Tmolus in ascensu clivoque extensus utroque 
Sardibus hinc, illinc parvis finitur Hypaepis. 
Pan ibi dum teneris iactat sua carmina nymph is 
et leve cerata modulatur harundine carmen 
ausus Apollineos prae se contemnere cantus, 155 

iudice sub Tmolo certamen venit ad inpar. 
Monte suo senior iudex consedit et aures 
liberat arboribus : quercu coma caerula tantum 
cingitur, et pendent circum cava tempora glandes. 
isque deum pecoris spectans "in iudice" dixit 160 
"nulla mora est." claims agrestibus insonat ille 
barbaricoque Midan (aderat nam forte canenti) 
carmine delenit ; post hunc sacer ora retorsit 
Tmolus ad os Plioebi : vultum sua silva secuta est 


foolishly desired," he said, "go to the stream which 
flows by mighty Sardis town, and take your way along 
the Lydian hills up the tumbling stream until you 
come to the river's source. There plunge your head 
and body beneath the foaming fountain where it 
comes leaping forth, and by that act wash your sin 
away." The king went to the stream as he was 
bid. The power of the golden touch imbued the 
water and passed from the man's body into the 
stream. And even to this day, receiving the seed of 
the original vein, the fields grow hard and yellow, 
their soil soaked with water of the golden touch. 

But Midas, hating wealth, haunted the woods and 
fields, worshipping Pan, who has his dwelling in the 
mountain caves. But stupid his wits still remained, 
and his foolish mind was destined again as once before 
to harm its master. For Tmolus, looking far out upon 
the sea, stands stiffand high, with steep sides extend- 
ing with one slope to Sardis, and on the other reaches 
down to little Hypaepae. There, while Pan was sing- 
ing his songs to the soft n\ mphs and playing airy 
interludes upon his reeds close joined with wax, he 
dared speak slightingly of Apollo's music in com- 
parison with his own, and came into an ill-matched 
contest with Tmolus as the judge. 

The old judge took his seat upon his own moun- 
tain-top, and shook his ears free from the trees. His 
dark locks were encircled by an oak-wreath only, and 
acorns hung around his hollow temples. He, looking 
at the shepherd-god, exclaimed : " There is no delay 
on the judge's part." Then Pan made music on his 
rustic pipes, and with his rude notes quite charmed 
King Midas, for he chanced to hear the strains. After 
Pan was done, venerable Tmolus turned his face to- 
wards Phoebus; and his forest turned with his face. 



ille caput flavura lauro Parnaside vinctus 165 

verrit huraum Tyrio saturata murice palla 
instrictamque fidem gemmis et dentibus Indis 
sustinet a laeva, tenuit manus altera plectrum ; 
artificis status ipse fuit. turn stamina docto 
pollice sollicitat, quorum dulcedine captus 170 

Pana iubet Tmolus citharae submittere cannas. 

Iudicium sanctique placet sententia montis 
omnibus, arguitur tamen atque iniusta vocatur 
unius sermone Midae ; nee Delius aures 
bumanam stolidas patitur retinere figuram, 175 

sed trahit in spatium villisque albentibus inplet 
instabilesque imas facit et dat posse moveri : 
cetera sunt hominis, partem damnatur in unara 
induiturque aures lente gradientis aselli. 
ille quidem eel are cupit turpisque pudore 180 

tempora purpureis temptat velare tiaris ; 
sed solitus longos ferro resecare capillos 
viderat hoc famulus, qui cum nee prodere visum 
dedecus auderet, cupiens efferre sub auras, 
nee posset reticere tamen, secedit humumque 185 
effbdit et, domini quales adspexerit aures, 
voce refert parva terraeque inmurmurat haustae 
indiciumque suae vocis tellure regesta 
obruit et scrobibus tacitus discedit opertis. 
creber harundinibus tremulis ibi surgere lucus 190 
coepit et, ut primum pleno maturuit anno, 
prodidit agricolam : leni nam motus ab austro 
obruta verba refert dominique coarguit aures. 

Ultus abit Tmolo liquidumque per aera vectus 
angustum citra pontum Nepheleidos Helles 195 



Phoebus' golden head was wreathed with laurel ol 
Parnasus, and his mantle, dipped in Tyrian dye, swept 
the ground. His lyre, inlaid with gems and Indian 
ivory, he held in his left hand, while his right hand 
held the plectrum. His very pose was that of an 
artist. Then with trained thumb he plucked the 
strings and, charmed by those sweet strains, Tmolus 
ordered Pan to lower his reeds before the lyre. 

All approved the judgment of the sacred mountain- 
god. And yet it was challenged and called unjust 
by Midas' voice alone. The Delian god did not suffer 
ears so dull to keep their human form, but lengthened 
them out and filled them with shaggy, grey hair; he 
also made them unstable at the base and gave them 
power of motion. Human in all else, in this one 
feature was he punished, and wore the ears of a slow- 
moving ass. Disfigured and ashamed, he strove to 
hide his temples beneath a purple turban, but the 
slave who was wont to trim his long hair beheld his 
shame. And he, since he dared not reveal the dis- 
graceful sight, yet eager to tell it out and utterly 
unable to keep it to himself, went off and dug a hole 
in the ground and into the hole, with low, muttered 
words, he whispered of his master's ears which he had 
seen. Then by throwing back the earth he buried the 
evidence of his voice and, having thus filled up the 
hole again, he silently stole away. But a thick growth 
of whispering reeds began to spring up there, and 
these, when at the year's end they came to their full 
size, betrayed the sower, for, stirred by the gentle 
breeze, they repeated his buried words and exposed 
the story of his master's ears. ^ 

His vengeance now complete, Latona's son retires 
from Tmolus and, borne through the liquid air, with- 
out crossing the narrow sea of Helle, daughter of 



Laomedonteis Latoius adstitit arvis. 

dextera Sigei, Rhoetei laeva profundi 

ara Panomphaeo vetus est sacrata Tonanti : 

inde novae primum moliri moenia Troiae 

Laomedonta videt susceptaque magna labore 200 

crescere difficili nee opes exposcere parvas 

cumque tridentigero tumidi genitore profundi 

mortalem induitur formam Phrygiaeque tyranno 

aedificat muros pactus pro moenibus aurum. 

stabat opus : pretium rex infitiatur et addit, 205 

perfidiae cumulura, falsis periuria verbis. 

" non inpune feres " rector maris inquit, et omiies 

inclinavit aquas ad avarae litora Troiae 

inque freti formam terras conplevit opesque 

abstulit agricolis et fluctibus obruit agros. 210 

poena ueque haec satis est : regis quoque filia monstro 

poscitur aequoreo, quam dura ad saxa revinctam 

vindicat Alcides promissaque munera dictos 

poscit equos tantique operis mercede negata 

bis periura capit superatae moenia Troiae. 215 

nee, pars militiae, Telamon sine honore recessit 

Hesioneque data potitur. nam coniuge Peleus 

clarus erat diva nee avi magis ille superbus 

nomine quam soceri, siquidem Iovis esse nepoti 

contigit haut uni, coniunx dea contigit uni. 220 



Nephele, he came to earth in the country of Lao- 
medon. Midway between the Sigean and Rhoetean 
promontories was an ancient altar sacred to the 
Panomphaean Thunderer. There Apollo saw Lao- 
medon beginning to build the walls of his new city, 
Troy; and, perceiving that the mighty task was 
proceeding with great difficulty, and demanded no 
slight resources, he, together with the trident- 
bearing father of the swollen sea, put on mortal 
form and built the walls for the Phrygian king, 
having first agreed upon a sum of gold for the walls. 
There stood the work. But the king repudiated his 
debt and, as a crowning act of perfidy, swore that he 
had never promised the reward. " But you shall 
not go unpunished," the sea-god said, and he set 
all his waters flowing against the shores of miserly 
Troy. He flooded the country till it looked like a 
sea, swept away the farmers' crops and whelmed their 
fields beneath his waters. Nor was this punishment 
enough ; the king's daughter also must be sacri- 
ficed to a monster of the deep. But while she was 
bound there to the hard rocks, Alcides set her free, 
and then demanded his promised wage, the horses 
that were agreed upon. But the great task's price 
was again refused, and so the hero took the twice- 
perjured walls of conquered Troy. Nor did Tela 
mon, the partner of his campaign, go without 
reward, and Hesione was given him. For Peleus * 
was honoured with a goddess for his bride, and was 
not more proud of his grandfather's name than of 
his father-in-law ; since it had fallen to not one alone 
to be grandson of Jove, but to him alone had it 
fallen to have a goddess for his wife. 

1 Peleus also had assisted Hercules in this exploit. 



Namque senex Thetidi Proteus " dea " dixerat 
" undae, 
concipe : mater eris iuvenis, qui fortibus annis 
acta patris vincet maiorque vocabitur illo." 
ergo, ne quicquam mundus love maius haberet, 
quamvis haut tepidos sub pectore senserat ignes, 225 
Iuppiter aeqjioreae Thetidis conubia fugit, 
in suaque Aeaciden succedere vota nepotem 
iussit et amplexus in virginis ire marinae. 

Est sinus Haemoniae curvos falcatus in arcus, 
bracchia procurrunt : ubi, si foret altior unda, 230 
portus erat ; summis inductum est aequor harenis ; 
litus babet solidum, quod nee vestigia servet 
nee remoretur iter nee opertum pendeat alga ; 
myrtea silva subest bicoloribus obsita bacis. 
est specus in medio, natura factus an arte, 235 

ambiguum, magis arte tarn en : quo saepe venire 
frenato delphine sedens, Theti, nuda solebas. 
illic te Peleus, ut somno vincta iacebas, 
occupat, et quoniam precibus temptata repugnas, 
vim parat, innectens ambobus colla Iacertis ; 240 

quod nisi venisses variatis saepe figuris 
ad solitas artes, auso foret ille potitus ; 
sed modo tu volucris : volucrem tamen ille tenebat ; 
nunc gravis arbor eras : haerebat in arbore Peleus ; 
tertia forma fuit maculosae tigridis : ilia 245 

territus Aeacides a corpore bracchia solvit, 
usque deos pelagi vino super aequora fuso 


For old Proteus had said to Thetis : " O god- 
dess of the waves, conceive : thou shalt be the mother 
of a youth who, when to manhood grown, shall outdo 
his father's deeds and shall be called greater than 
he." Because of this, lest the earth should produce 
anything greater than himself, though he had felt 
the hot fires of love deep in his heart, Jove shunned 
the arms of Thetis, goddess of the sea, and bade his 
grandson, the son of Aeacus, assume the place of 
lover in his stead, and seek a union with this virgin 
of the deep. 

There is a bay on the Thessalian coast, rounded like 
a curved sickle, with arms running out ; 'twould 
be a safe port for ships if the water were deeper. 
The sea spreads smooth over the sandy bottom ; the 
shore is firm, such as leaves no trace of feet, delays 
no journey, is free from seaweed. A myrtle wood 
grows close at hand, thick-hung with two-coloured 
berries. There is a grotto in this grove, whether 
made by nature or art one may not surely say, 
but rather by art. To this grot oftentimes, riding 
thy bridled dolphin, O Thetis, naked wast thou wont 
to come. There then did Peleus seize thee as thou 
layest wrapped in slumber ; and since, though en- 
treated by his prayers, thou didst refuse, he prepared 
to force thy will, entwining thy neck with both his 
arms. And hadst thou not, by changing oft thy form, 
had recourse to thine accustomed arts, he would 
have worked his daring will on thee. But now didst 
thou take the form of a bird : still he held fast to 
the bird. Now wast thou a sturdy tree : around 
the tree did Peleus tightly cling. Thy third dis- 
guise was a spotted tigress' form : in fear of that 
Peleus loosed his hold on thee. Then did he 
pray unto the sods of the sea with wine poured out 



et pceoris fibris et fumo turis adorat, 

donee Carpathius medio de gurgite vates 

" Aeacide," dixit " thalamis potiere petitis, 260 

tu modo, cum rigido sopita quiescet in antro, 

ignaram laqueis vincloque innecte tenaci. 

nee te decipiat centum mentita figuras, 

sed preme, quicquid erit, dum, quod fuit ante) 

dixerat haec Proteus et condidit aequore vultum 255 
admisitque suos in verba novissima fluctus. 
Pronus erat Titan inclinatoque tenebat 
Hesperium temone fretum, cum pulchra relecto 
Nereis ingreditur consueta cubilia saxo ; 
vix bene virgineos Peleus invaserat artus : 2o*0 

ilia novat formas, donee sua membra teneri 
sentit et in partes diversas bracchia tendi. 
turn demum ingemuit, "neque" ait "sine numine 

vincis " 
exhibita estque Thetis : eonfessam amplectitur heros 
et potitur votis ingentique inplet Achille. 265 

Felix et nato, felix et coniuge Peleus, 
et cui, si demas iugulati crimina Phoci, 
omnia contigerant : fraterno sanguine sontem 
expulsumque domo patria Trachinia tellus 
accipit. hie regnum sine vi, ^ine caede regebat 270 
Lucifero genitore satus patriumque nitorem 
ore ferens Ceyx, illo qui tempore maestus 
dissimilisque sui fratrem lugebat ademptum. 

quo postquam Aeacides fessus curaque viaque 



upon the water, with entrails of sheep, and with 
the smoke of incense ; until the Carpathian seer 
from his deep pools rose and said to him : " O son of 
Aeacus, thou shalt yet gain the hride thou dost 
desire. Only do thou, when she lies within the 
rocky cave, deep sunk in sleep, bind her in her un- 
consciousness with snares and close-clinging thongs. 
And though she take a hundred lying forms, let her 
not escape thee, but hold her close, whatever she 
may be, until she take again the form she had at 
first." So spoke Proteus and hid his face beneath 
the waves, as he let his waters flow back again 
over his final words. 

Now Titan was sinking low and kept the western 
sea beneath his down-sloping chariot, when the fair 
Nereid, seeking again the grot, lay down upon her 
accustomed couch. There scarce had Peleus well 
laid hold on her virgin limbs, when she began to 
assume new forms, until she perceived that she was 
held firmly bound and that her arms were pinioned 
wide. Then at length she groaned and said : " 'Tis 
not without some god's assistance that you conquer," 
and gave herself up as Thetis. Her, thus owning 
her defeat, the hero caught in his embrace, attained 
his desire, and begat on her the great Achilles. 

Peleus was blessed in his son, blessed in his wife, 
and to him only good befell, if you except the crime 
of the murdered Phocus. Driven from his father's 
house with his brother's blood upon his hands, he 
found asylum in the land of Trachis. Here ruled in 
peaceful, bloodless sway Ceyx, son of Lucifer, with 
all his father's bright gladness in his face. But at 
that time he was sad and unlike himself, for he was 
mourning the taking off of his brother. To him 
the son of Aeacus came, worn with his cares and 



venit et intravit paucis comitantibus urbem, 275 

quosque greges pecorum, quae secum armenta 

haut procul a muris sub opaca valle reliquit ; 
copia cum facta est adeundi prima tyranni, 
velamenta manu praetendens supplice, qui sit 
quoque satus, memorat, tan turn sua crimina celat 280 
mentiturque fugae causam ; petit, urbe vel agro 
se iuvet. hunc contra placido Trachinius ore 
talibus adloquitur : "mediae quoque commoda plebi 
nostra patent, Peleu, nee inhospita regna tencmus; 
adicis huic animo momenta potentia, clarum 285 

nomen avumque Iovem ; ne tempora perde precando ! 
quod petis, omne feres tuaque haec pro parte vocato, 
qualiacumque vides ! utinam meliora videres ! " 
et flebat : moveat tantos quae causa dolores, 289 
Peleusque comitesque rogant ; quibus ille profatur : 
"forsitan hanc volucrem, rapto quae vivit et omnes 
terret aves, semper pennas habuisse putetis : 
vir fuit (et — tanta est animi constantia — tantum 
acer erat belloque ferox ad vimque paratus) 
nomine Daedalion. illo genitore creatis, 295 

qui vocat Auroram caeloque novissimus exit, 
culta mihi pax est, pacis mihi cura tenendae 
coniugiique fuit, fratri fera bella placebant : 
illius virtus reges gentesque subegit, 
quae nunc Thisbaeas agitat mutata columbas. 300 
nata er*t b*Ae Cbione, quae dotatissima forma 


journeyings, and entered his city with but a few 
retainers following. He left the flocks of sheep and 
the cattle which he had brought with him in a shady 
vale not far from the city's walls ; then, when first he 
was allowed to approach the monarch, stretching out 
with suppliant hand an olive-branch wound with 
woollen fillets, he told him who he was and from 
what father sprung. He concealed only his crime, 
and lied concerning the reason for his flight. He 
begged for a chance to support himself in city or in 
field. To him the Trachinian monarch with kind 
words replied : " The opportunities of our realm lie 
open, Peleus, even to humble folk, and we do not 
rule an inhospitable kingdom. To this our kindly 
disposition you add the strong incentive of an illus- 
trious name and descent from Jove. Then waste no 
time in prayer. You shall have all you seek. Call 
all this your own whatsoever you see ; and I would that 
you saw better!" He spoke and wept. When Peleus 
and his companions asked him the cause of his great 
grief, he answered them : " Perchance you think 
that yonder bird, which lives on rapine and is the 
terror of all birds, was always a feathered creature. 
He was once a man (and, so fixed is character, his 
only qualities were harshness, eagerness for war, 
readiness for violence), by name Daedalion. We 
two were born of that god who wakes the dawn 
and passes last from the sky. I was by nature 
peaceful and my care was always for preserving 
peace and for my wife. Rut cruel war was my 
brother's pleasure. His fierce courage subdued kings 
and nations, and now in changed form it pursues the 
doves of Thisbe. 1 He had a daughter, Chione, a girl 

1 A little town on the coast of Boeotia, famous for its wild 



mille procos habuit, bis septem nubilis annis. 

forte revertentes Phoebus Maiaque creatus, 

ille suis Delphis, hie vertice Cylleneo, 

videre hanc pariter, pariter traxere calorem. 305 

spem veneris differt in tempo ra noctis Apollo; 

non fert ille moras virgaque movente soporem 

virginis os tangit : tactu iacet ilia potenti 

vimque dei patitur ; nox caelum sparserat astris : 

Phoebus anum simulat praereptaque gaudia sumit. 

ut sua maturus conplevit tempora venter, 31 1 

alipedis de stirpe dei versuta propago 

nascitur Autolycus furtum ingeniosus ad onine, 

Candida de nigris et de candentibus atra 

qui facere adsuerat, patriae non degener artis ; 315 

nascitur e Phoebo (namque est enixa gemellos) 

carmine vocali clarus citharaque Philammon. 

quid peperisse duos et dis placuisse duobus 

et forti genitore et progenitore nitenti 

esse satam prodest ? an obest quoque gloria ? multis 

obfuit, huic certe ! quae se praeferre Dianae 321 

sustinuit faciemque deae culpavit, at illi 

ira ferox mota est ' factis ' que ' placebimus ' inquit. 

nee mora, curvavit cornu nervoque sagittam 

inpulit et meritam traiecit harundine linguam. 3-25 

lingua tacet, nee vox temptataque verba sequuntur, 

conantemque loqui cum sanguine vita reliquit; 

quam miser amplexans ego turn patriumque dolorem 

corde tuli fratrique pio solacia dixi, 

quae pater haut aliter quam oautes murmura ponli 



most richly dowered with beauty, who had a thousand 
suitors when she had reached the marriageable age 
of fourteen years. It chanced that Phoebus and the 
son of Maia, returning the one from Delphi, the other 
from high Cyllene, beheld her both at or/e and both 
at once were filled with love of her. Apollo put off 
his hope of love till night-time, but the other brooked 
no delay, and touched the maiden's face with his 
sleep-compelling wand. She lay beneath the god's 
magic touch and endured his violence. Now night 
had spangled the heavens with the stars when 
Phoebus, assuming an old woman's form, gained his 
forestalled joy. When the fullness of time was come, 
a son was born to the wing-footed god, Autolycus, 
of crafty nature, well versed in cunning wiles. For 
he could make white of black and black of white, 
a worthy heir of his father's art. To Phoebus also, 
for the birth was twin, was born Philammon, famous 
for song and zither. But what profits it that she 
bore two sons, that she found favour with two 
gods, that she herself was sprung from a brave sire 
and shining grandsire ? Is not glory a bane as 
well ? It has been a bane to many, surely to her ! 
For she boldly set herself above Diana and criticized 
the goddess' beauty. But to her the goddess, moved 
by hot rage, exclaimed : ' Then by our deeds we'll 
please you.' Upon the word she bent her bow, sent 
an arrow swift flying from the string, and pierced that 
guilty tongue with the shaft. The tongue was stilled, 
nor voice nor attempted words came more. Even 
as she tried to speak her life fled forth with her 
blood. Wretched, I embraced her, feeling her 
father's grief in my heart, and to my dear brother I 
spoke words of comfort. The father heard them as 
the crags hear the murmurs of the sea, and kept 



accipit et natam delamentatur ademptam ; 331 

at vero ardentem vidit, quater impetus illi 
in medios fuit ire rogos, quater inde repulsus 
concita membra fugae mandat similisque iuvenco 
spicula crabronum pressa cervice gerenti, 335 

qua via nulla, ruit. iam turn mibi currere visus 
plus homine est, alasque pedes sumpsisse putares. 
effugit ergo omnes veloxque cupidine leti 
vertice Parnasi potitur ; miseratus Apollo, 
cum se Daedalion saxo misisset ab alto, 340 

fecit avem et subitis pendentem sustulit alis 
oraque adunca dedit, curvos dedit unguibus hamos, 
virtutem antiquam, maiores corpore vires, 
et nunc accipiter, nuili satis aequus, in omnes 
saevit aves aliisque dolens fit causa dolendi." 345 

Quae dum Lucifero genitus miracula narrat 
de consorte suo, cursu festinus anhelo 
advolat armenti custos Phoceus Onetor 
et " Peleu, Peleu ! magnae tibi nuntius adsum 
cladis " ait. quodcumque ferat, iubet edere Peleus, 
pendet et ipse metu trepidi Trachinius oris ; 351 

ille refert " fessos ad litora curva iuvencos 
adpuleram, medio cum Sol altissimus orbe 
tantum respiceret, quantum superesse videret, 
parsque boum fulvis genua inclinarat harenis 355 
latarumque iacens campos spectabat aquarum, 
pars gradibus tardis illuc errabat et illuc ; 
nant alii celsoque instant super aequora collo. 
templa mari subsunt nee marmore clara neque auro, 
sed trabibus densis lucoque umbrosa vetusto : 360 
Nereides Nereusque tenent (hos navita ponti 


ever bewailing his lost child. But when he saw her 
burning, four times he made to rush into the blazing 
pile. Four times thrust back, he took to mad flight 
and, like a bullock whose neck is pierced by hornets' 
stings, over trackless ways he rushed. Even then 
he seemed to me to run faster than human powers 
allow, and you would have thought his feet had taken 
wings. So then he fled us all and quickly, bent on 
destruction, he gained Parnasus' top. Apollo, pity- 
ing him, when Daedalion had hurled himself from 
that high cliff, made him a bird, held him sus- 
pended there on sudden wings, and gave him a 
hooked beak, gave him curved claws, but he left 
him his old-time courage and strength greater than 
his body. And now as a hawk, friendly to none, he 
vents his cruel rage on all birds and, suffering himself, 
makes others suffer, too." 

While the son of Lucifer was telling this marvel- 
lous story of his brother, Phocian Onetor, Peleus' 
herdsman, came running in with breathless haste, 
crying : " Peleus, Peleus ! 1 come to tell you news of 
dreadful slaughter." Peleus bade him tell his news, 
while the Trachinian king himself waited in trembling 
anxiety. The herdsman went on : "I had driven the 
weary herd down to the curving shore when the high 
sun was midway in his course, beholding as much 
behind him as still lay before. A part of the cattle 
had kneeled down upon the yellow sands, and lying 
there were looking out upon the broad, level sea; 
part was wandering slowly here and there, while 
others still swam out and stood neck-deep in water. 
A temple stood near the sea, not resplendent with 
marble and gold, but made of heavy timbers, and 
shaded by an ancient grove. The place was sacred 
to Nereus and the Nereids (these a sailor told me 



edidit esse deos, dum retia litore siceat) ; 

iuncta palus huic est densis obsessa salictis, 

quam restagnantis fecit maris unda paludem : 

inde fragore gravi strepitus loea proxima terret : 365 

belua vasta, lupus! mucisque palustribus exit 

oblitus, et spumis et sparsus sanguine rictus 

fulmineos, rubra suffusus lumina flamma. 

qui quamquam saevit pariter rabieque fameque, 

acrior est rabie : neque enim ieiunia curat 370 

caede bourn diramque famem finire, sed omne 

vulnerat armentum sternitque hostiliter omne. 

pars quoque de nobis funesto saucia morsu, 

dum defensamus, leto est data ; sanguine litus 

undaque prima rubet demugitaeque paludes. 375 

sed mora damnosa est, nee res dubitare remittit : 

dum superest aliquid, cuncti coeamus et anna, 

arma capessamus coniunctaque tela feramus ! " 

dixerat agrestis : nee Pelea damna movebant, 

sed memor admissi Nereida conligit orbam 380 

damna sua inferias exstincto mittere Phoco. 

induere arma viros violentaque sumere tela 

rex iubet Oetaeus ; cum quis simul ipse parabat 

ire, sed Alcyone coniunx excita tumultu 

prosilit et nondum totos ornata capillos 385 

disicit hos ipsos colloque infusa mariti, 

mittat ut auxilium sine se, verbisque precatur 



were the gods of that sea, as he dried his nets 
on the shore). Hard by this temple was a marsh 
thick-set with willows, which the backwater of 
the sea made into a marsh. From this a loud, 
crashing noise filled the whole neighbourhood with 
fear: a huge beast, a wolf! he came rushing out, 
smeared with marsh-mud, his great, murderous jaws 
all bloody and flecked with foam, and his eyes 
blazing with red fire. He was mad with rage and 
hunger, but more with rage. For he stayed not to 
sate his fasting and dire hunger on the slain cattle, 
but mangled the whole herd, slaughtering all in 
wanton malice. Some of us, also, while we strove to 
drive him off, were sore wounded by his deadly fangs 
and given over to death. The shore, the shallow 
water, and the swamps, resounding with the bellow- 
ings of the herd, were red with blood. But delay is 
fatal, nor is there time to hesitate. While still there's 
something left, let us all rush on together, and arms, 
let us take arms, and make a combined attack upon the 
wolf!" So spoke the rustic. Peleus was not stirred 
by the story of his loss; but, conscious of his crime, he 
well knew that the bereaved Nereid 1 was sending this 
calamity upon him as a sacrificial offering to her slain 
Phocus. The Oetaean king bade his men put on 
their armour and take their deadly spears in hand, 
and at the same time was making ready to go with 
them himself. But his wife, Alcyone, roused bv 
the loud outcries, came rushing out of her chamber, 
her hair not yet all arranged, and, sending this 
flying loose, she threw herself upon her husband's 
neck, and begged him with prayers and tears 
that he would send aid but not go himself, and 

1 Psamathe, the mother of Phocus whom Peleus had 
accidentally killed. 



et lacrimis, animasque duas ut servet in una. 
Aeacides illi : " pulchros, regina, piosque 
pone metus ! plena est promissi gratia vestri. 390 
non placet arma mihi contra nova monstra moveri ; 
numen adorandum pelagi est !" erat ardua turris, 
arce focus summa, fessis nota grata carinis : 
ascendunt illuc stratosque in litore tauros 
cum gemitu adspiciunt vastatoremque cruento 395 
ore ferum, longos infectum sanguine villos. 
inde manus tend ens in aperti litora ponti 
caeruleam Peleus Psamathen, ut finiat iram, 
orat, opemque ferat ; nee vocibus ilia rogantis 
flectitur Aeacidae, Thetis hanc pro coniuge supplex 
accepit veniam. sed enim revocatus ab acri 40 1 

caede lupus perstat, dulcedine sanguinis asper, 
donee inhaerentem lacerae cervice iuvencae 
marmore mutavit : corpus praeterque colorem 
omnia servavit, lapidis color indicat ilium 405 

iam non esse lupum, iam non debere timeri. 
nee tamen hac profugum consistere Pelea terra 
fata sinunt, Magnetas adit vagus exul et illic 
sumit ab Haemonio purgamina caedis Acasto. 

lnterea fratrisque sui fratremque secutis 410 

anxia prodigiis turbatus pectora Ceyx, 
consulat ut sacras, hominum oblectamina, sortes, 


so save two lives in one. Then said the son of 
Aeacus to her : " Your pious fears, O queen, 
become you ; but have no fear. I am not un- 
grateful for your proffered help; but I have no 
desire that arms be taken in my behalf against the 
strange monster. I must pray to the goddess of the 
sea." There was a tall tower, a lighthouse on the 
top of the citadel, a welcome landmark for storm- 
tossed ships. They climbed up to its top, and thence 
with cries of pity looked out upon the cattle lying 
dead upon the shore, and saw the killer revelling 
with bloody jawg, and with his long shaggy hair 
stained red with blood. There, stretching out his 
hands to the shores of the open sea, Peleus prayed 
to the sea-nymph, Psamathe, that she put away her 
wrath and come to his help. She, indeed, remained 
unmoved by the prayers of Peleus ; but Thetis, add- 
ing her prayers for her husband's sake, obtained the 
nymph's forgiveness. But the wolf, though ordered 
off from his fierce slaughter, kept on, mad with the 
sweet draughts of blood ; until, just as he was fasten- 
ing his fangs upon the torn neck of a heifer, the 
nymph changed him into marble. The body, save 
for its colour, remained the same in all respects ; but 
the colour of the stone proclaimed that now he was 
no longer wolf, that now he no longer need be feared. 
But still the fates did not suffer the banished Peleus 
to continue in this land. The wandering exile went 
on to Magnesia, and there, at the hands of the Hae- 
monian king, Acastus, he gained full absolution from 
his bloodguiltiness. 

Meanwhile King Ceyx was much disturbed and 
anxious, not alone about the strange thing that hap- 
pened to his brother, but also about others that had 
happened since his brother's fate. Accordingly, that 




ao £larirm parat ire deum ; nam templa profanus 

invia cum Phlegyis faciebat Delphica Phorbas. 

consilii tamen ante sui, fidissima, certam 415 

te facit, Alcyone ; cui protinus intima frigus 

ossa receperunt, buxoque simillimus ora 

pallor obit, lacrimisque genae maduere profusis. 

ter conata loqui ter fletibus ora rigavit 

singultuque pias interrumpente querellas 420 

"quae mea culpa tuam," dixit "carissime, mentem 

vertit ? ubi est quae cura mei prior esse solebat ? 

iam potes Alcyone securus abesse relicta? 

iam via longa placet ? iam sum tibi carior absens ? 

at, puto, per terras iter est, tantumque dolebo, 425 

non etiam me tuam, curaeque timore carebunt. 

aequora me terrent et ponti tristis imago : 

et laceras nuper tabulas in litore vidi 

et saepe in tumulis sine corpore nomina legi. 

neve tuum fallax animum fiducia tangat, 430 

quod socer Hippotades tibi sit, qui carcere fortes 

contineat ventos, et, cum velit, aequora placet. 

cum semel emissi tenuerunt aequora venti, 

nil illis vetitum est : incommendataque tellus 

omnis et omne fretum est, caeli quoque nubila vexant 

excutiuntque feris rutilos concursibus ignes. 436 

quo magis hos novi (nam novi et saepe paterna 

parva domo vidi), magis hos reor esse timendos. 



he might consult the sacred oracles, the refuge of 
mankind in trouble, he planned to journey to the 
Clarian god. For the infamous Phorbas with the 
followers of Phlegyas was making the journey to 
the Delphic oracle unsafe. But before he started 
he told his purpose to you, his most faithful wife, 
Alcyone. Straightway she was chilled to the very 
marrow of her bones, her face grew pale as boxwood 
and her cheeks were wet with her flowing tears. 
Three times she tried to speak, three times watered 
her face with weeping ; at last, her loving complaints 
broken by her sobs, she said : " What fault of mine, 

dearest husband, has brought your mind to this? 
Where is that care for me which used to stand first 
of all ? Can jou now abandon your Alcyone with no 
thought of her? Is it your pleasure now to go on a 
long journey ? Am I now dearer to you when absent 
from you ? But, I suppose, your journey is by land, 
and I shall only grieve, not fear for you, and my 
cares shall have no terror in them. The sea affrights 
me, and the stern visage of the deep ; and but lately 

1 saw some broken planks upon the beach, and often 
have I read men's names on empty tombs. And let 
not your mind have vain confidence in that the son 
of Hippotes is your father-in-law, who holds the stout 
winds behind prison bars, and when he will can 
calm the sea. For when once the winds have been 
let out and have gained the open deep, no power 
can check them, and every land and every sea is 
abandoned to their will. Nay, they harry the very 
clouds of heaven and rouse the red lightnings with 
their fierce collisions. The more I know them (for 
I do know them, and have often seen them when a 
child in my father's home) the more I think them 
to be feared. But if no prayers can change your 



quod tua si flecti precibus seutentia nullis, 
care, potest, coniunx, nimiumque es certus eundi, 440 
me quoque tolle simul ! certe iactabimur una, 
nee nisi quae patiar, metuam, pariterque feremus, 
quicquid erit, pariter super aequora lata feremur." 

Talibus Aeolidis dictis lacrimisque movetur 
sidereus coniunx : neque enim minor ignis in ipso est ; 
sed neque propositos pelagi dimittere cursus, 446 
nee vult Alcyonen in partem adhibere pericli 
multaque respondit timidum solantia pectus, 
non tamen idcirco causam probat ; addidit illis 
hoc quoque lenimen, quo solo flexit amantem : 4.50 
" longa quidem est nobis omnis mora, sed tibi iuro 
per patrios ignes, si me modo fata remittant, 
ante reversurum, quam luna bis inpleat orbem." 
his ubi promissis spes est admota recursus, 
protinus eductam navalibus aequore ttngui 4."> 5 

aptarique suis pinum iubet armamentis ; 
qua rursus visa veluti praesaga futuri 
horruit Alcyone lacrimasque emisit obortas 
amplexusque dedit tristique miserrima tandem 
ore "vale " dixit conlapsaque corpore toto est ; 4(i0 
ast iuvenes quaerente moras Ceyce reducunt 
ordinibus geminis ad fortia pectora remos 
aequalique ictu scindunt freta : sustulit ilia 
umentes oculos stantemque in puppe recurva 
concussaque manu dantem sibi signa maritum 465 
prima videt redditque notas ; ubi terra recessit 
longius, atque oculi nequeunt cognoscere vultus, 


purpose, dear husband, and if you are over-bent on 
going, take me with you, too ! For surely we shall 
then be storm-tossed together, nor shall I fear save 
only what I feel, and together we shall endure what- 
ever comes, together over the broad billows we shall 

With these words and tears of the daughter of 
Aeolus the star-born husband was deeply moved; 
for the fire of love burned no less brightly in his' 
heart. And yet he was unwilling either to give up 
his proposed journey on the sea or to take Alcyone 
as sharer of his perils. His anxious love strove to 
comfort her with many soothing words, but for all 
that he did not win her approval. He added this 
comforting condition, also, by which alone he gained 
his loving wife's consent : " Every delay, I Icnow, 
will seem long to us; but I swear to you by my 
father's fires, if only the fates will let me, I will 
return before the moon shall twice have filled her 
orb." When by these promises of return her hope 
had been awakened, straightway he ordered his ship 
to be launched and duly supplied with her equip. 
ment. But when Alcyone saw this, as if forewarned 
of what was to come, she fell to trembling again ; 
her tears flowed afresh and, embracing her husband' 
in the depth of woe, she said a sad farewell at last and 
then fainted away completely. But the young men, 
though Ceyx sought excuses for delay, in double 
rows drew back the oars to their strong breasts and 
rent the waters with their rhythmic strokes. Then 
Alcyone lifted her tear-wet eyes and saw her husband 
standing on the high-curved poop and waving his 
hand in first signal to her, and she waved tokens 
back again. When the land drew further off, and 
her eyes could no longer make out his features, 



dum licet, insequitur fugientem lumine piimm ; 
haec quoque ut haut poterat spatio submota videri, 
vela tamen spectat summo fluitantia malo; 470 

ut nee vela videt, vacuum petit anxia lectum 
seque toro ponit : renovat lectusque locusque 
Alcyonae lacrimas et quae pars admonet absit. 
Portibus exierant, et moverat aura rudentes : lateri pendentes navita remos 475 

conuiaque in summa locat arbore totaque malo 
carbasa deducit venientesque accipit auras, 
aut minus, aut certe medium non amplius aequor 
puppe secabatur, longeque erat utraque tellus, 
cum mare sub noctem tumidis albescere coepit 480 
fluctibus et praeceps spirare valentius eurus. 
"ardua iamdudum demittite cornua " rector 
clamat "et antemnis totum subnectite velum." 
hie iubet; inpediunt adversae iussa procellae, 
nee sinit audiri vocem fragor aequoris ullam : 485 
sponte tamen properant alii subducere remos, 
pars munire latus, pars ventis vela negare ; 
egerit hie fluctus aequorque refundit in aequor, 
hie rapit antemnas ; quae dum sine lege geruntur, 
aspera crescit hietns, omnique e parte feroces 490 
bella gerunt venti fretaque indignantia miscent. 
ipse pavet nee se, qui sit status, ipse fatetur 
scire ratis rector, nee quid iubeatve vetetve : 
tanta mali moles tantoque potentior arte est. 
quippe sonant clamore viri, stridore rudentes, 495 
undarum incursu gravis unda, tonitribus aether. 


while yet she could she followed with her gaze the 
fast-receding ship. When even this was now so dis- 
tant that it could not be seen, still she watched the 
sails floating along at the top of the mast. When 
she could not even see the sails, heavy-hearted she 
sought her lonely couch and threw herself upon it. 
The couch and the place renewed her tears, for they 
reminded her of the part that was gone from her. 

They had left the harbour and the breeze had set 
the cordage rattling. At that the captain shipped 
his oars, ran the yard up to the top of the mast and 
spread all his sails to catch the freshening breeze. 
The ship was now skimming along about midway of 
the sea, and the land on either side was faraway, when, 
as night came on, the water began to whiten with the 
roughening waves and the wind,driving ahead,to blow 
with increased violence. « Lower the yard at once," 
the captain cries, "and tight reef the sail." So he 
orders, but the blast blowing in his face drowns out 
his orders, nor does the uproar of the sea let his voice 
be heard. Still, of their own will, some hastily draw 
in the oars, some close the oar-holes, and some reef 
the sails. Here one is bailing out the water and 
pouring the sea into the sea, while another hastily 
secures the spars. While these things are being 
done, all in confusion, the storm is increasing in vio- 
lence and from every quarter the raging winds make 
their attacks and stir up the angry waves. The 
captain himself is in terror and admits that he does 
not know how the vessel stands, nor what either to 
order or forbid ; so great is the impending weight of 
destruction, so much more mighty than his skill. 
All is a confused uproar — shouts of men, rattling of 
cordage, roar of the rushing waves, and crash of 
thunder. The waves run mountain-high and seem 



fluctibus erigitur caelumque aequare videtur 
pontus et inductas aspergine tangere nubes; 
et modo, cum fulvas ex imo vertit harenas, 
concolor est ill is, Stygia modo nigrior unda, 500 

sternitur interdum spumisque sonantibus albet. 
ipsa quoque his agitur vicibus Trachinia puppis 
et nunc sublimis veluti de vertice montis 
despicere in valles imumque Acheronta videtur, 
nunc, ubi demissam curvum circumstetit aequor, 505 
suspicere inferno summum de gurgite caelum, 
saepe dat ingentem fluctu latus icta fragorem 
nee levius pulsata sonat, quam ferreus olim 
cum laceras aries balistave concutit arces, 
utque solent sumptis incursu viribus ire 510 

pectore in arma feri protentaque tela leones, 
sic, ubi se ventis admiserat unda coortis, 
ibat in arma ratis multoque erat altior illis ; 
iamque labant cunei, spoliataque tegmine cerae 
rima patet praebetque viam letalibus undis. 5 1 5 

ecce cadunt largi resolutis nubibus imbres, 
inque fretum credas totum descendere caelum, 
inque plagas caeli tumefactum ascendere pontum. 
vela madent nimbis, et cum caelestibus undis 
aequoreae miscentur aquae; caret ignibus aether, 520 
caecaque nox premitur tenebris hiemisque suisque. 
discutiunt tamen has praebentque micantia lumen 
fulmina : fulmineis ardescunt ignibus undae. 
dat quoque iam saltus intra cava texta carinae 


to reach the very heavens, and with their spray to 
sprinkle the lowering clouds. Now the water is 
tawny with the sands swept up from the bottom of 
the sea, and now blacker than the very waters of the 
Styx. At other times the waves spread out, white 
with the hissing foam. The Trachinrji ship herself 
also is driven on in the grasp of chance. Now, lifted 
high, as from a mountain-top she seems to look down 
into deep valleys and the pit of Acheron ; now, as 
she sinks far down and the writhing waters close her 
in, she seems to be looking up to the top of heaven 
from the infernal pools. Often with mighty thuds 
the vessel's sides resound, beaten by crashing waves 
as heavily as when sometimes an iron ram or ballista 
smites a battered fortress. And as savage lions, 
gaining new strength as they come rushing to the 
attack, are wont to breast the hunters' arms and 
ready spears ; so, when the waves had been lashed to 
fury by the opposing winds, they rushed against the 
bulwarks of the barque and towered high over them. 
And now the tightening wedges of the hull spring 
loose and yawning chinks appear, their covering of 
wax clean washed away, and give passage to the 
deadly tide. Behold, the rain falls in sheets from the 
bursting clouds ; and you would think that the whole 
heavens were falling down into the sea and that 
the swollen sea was leaping up into the regions of the 
sky. The sails are soaked with rain, and with the 
waters from the sky the ocean's floods are mingled. 
No stars gleam in the sky and the black night is 
murky with its own and the tempest's gloom. Still 
flashing lightnings cleave the shadows and give light, 
and the waves gleam red beneath the lightning's 
glare. Now also the flood comes pouring within 
the vessel's hollow hull ; and as a soldier, more eager 



fluctus ; et ut miles, numero praestantior omni, 525 
cum saepe adsiluit defensae moenibus urbis, 
spe potitur tandem laudisque accensus amore 
inter mille viros murum tamen occupat unus, 
sic ubi pulsarunt noviens latera ardua fluctus, 
vastius insurgens decimae ruit impetus undae 530 
nee prius absistit fessam oppugnare carinam, 
quam velut in captae descendat moenia navis. 
pars igitur temptabat adhuc invadere pinum, 
pars maris intus erat : trepidant haud setius omnes, 
quam solet urbs aliis murum fodientibus extra 535 
atque aliis murum trepidare tenentibus intus. 
deficit ars, animique cadunt, totidemque videntur, 
quot veniunt fluctus, ruere atque inrumpere mortes. 
non tenet hie lacrimas, stupet hie, vocat ille beatos, 
funera quos maneant, hie votis numen adorat 540 
bracchiaque ad caelum, quod non videt, inrita tollens 
poscit opem ; subeunt illi fraterque parensque, 
huic cum pignoribus domus et quodcunque relictum 

Alcyone Ceyca movet, Ceycis in ore 
nulla nisi Alcyone est et, cum desideret unam, 545 
gaudet abesse tamen ; patriae quoque vellet ad oras 
respicere inque domum supremos vertere vultus, 
verum, ubi sit, nescit : tanta vertigine pontus 
fervet, et inducta piceis e nubibus umbra 
omne latet caelum, duplicataque noctis imago est. 
frangitur incursu nimbosi turbinis arbor, 551 

frangitur et regimen, spoliisque animosa superstes 
unda, velut victrix, sinuataque despicit undas ; 
nee levius, quam siquis Athon Pindumve revulsos 
sede sua totos in apertum everterit aequor, 555 



than his fellows, when he has often essayed to scale a 
beleaguered city's walls, at last succeeds and, fired 
with the passion for praise, o'erleaps the wall and 
stands one man amidst a thousand ; so, when the waves 
nine times have battered at the lofty sides, the tenth 
wave, leaping with a mightier heave, comes on, nor 
does it cease its attack upon the weary ship until 
over the ramparts of the conquered barque it leaps 
within. So now a part of the sea still tries to invade 
the ship and part is already within its hold. All are 
in terrified confusion, just as a city is confused when 
some from without seek to undermine its walls and 
some hold the walls within. Skill fails and courage 
falls ; and as many separate deaths seem rushing on 
and bursting through as are the advancing waves. 
One cannot restrain his tears ; another is struck 
dumb ; still another cries they are fortunate whom 
burial rites await ; one calls on the gods in prayer 
and lifts unavailing arms to the unseen heavens, beg- 
ging for help ; one thinks upon his brothers and his 
sire, one on his home and children, and each on that 
which he has left behind. But Ceyx thinks on Alcyone: 
upon the lips of Ceyx there is no one save Alcyone ; 
and, though he longs for her alone, yet he rejoices that 
she is far away. How he would love to look towards 
his native shores again and turn his last gaze upon his 
home. But where he is he knows not ; for the sea 
boils in such whirling pools and the shadows of the 
pitchy clouds hide all the sky and double the dark- 
ness of the night. The mast is broken by a whirling 
rush of wind ; the rudder, too, is broken. One last 
wave, like a victor rejoicing in his spoils, heaves itself 
high and looks down upon the other waves ; and, as if 
one should tear from their foundations Athos and Pindus 
and hurl them bodily into the open sea, so fell this 



praecipitata cadit pariterque et pondere et ictu 
mergit in ima ratem ; cum qua pars magna virortim 
gurgite pressa gravi neque in aera reddita fato 
functa suo est, alii partes et membra carinae 
trunca tenent : tenet ipse manu, qua sceptra solebat, 
fragmina navigii Ceyx socerumque patremque 56l 
invocat heu ! frustra, sed plurima nantis in ore 
Alcyone coniunx : illam meminitque refertque, 
illius ante oculos ut agant sua corpora fluctus 
optat et exanimis manibus tumuletur amicis. 565 

dum natat, absentem, quotiens sinit hiscere fluctus, 
nominat Alcyonen ipsisque inmurmurat undis. 
ecce super medios fluctus niger arcus aquarum 
frangitur et rupta mersum caput obruit unda. — 
Lucifer obscurus nee quern cognoscere posses 570 
ilia luce fuit, quoniamque excedere caelo 
non licuit, densis texit sua nubibus ora. 

Aeolis interea, tantorum ignara malorum, 
dinumerat noctes et iam, quas induat ille, 
festinat vestes, iam quas, ubi venerit ille, 575 

ipsa gerat, reditusque sibi promittit inanes. 
omnibus ilia quidem superis pia tura ferebat, 
ante tamen cunctos Iunonis templa colebat 
proque viro, qui nullus erat, veniebat ad aras 
utque foret sospes coniunx suus utque rediret, 580 
optabat, nullamque sibi praeferret; at illi 
hoc de tot votis poterat contingere solum. 

At dea non ultra pro functo morte rogari 


wave headlong, and with its overwhelming weight 
plunged the ship down to the very bottom ; and with 
the ship the great part of the sailors perished, sucked 
down in the eddying flood, nevermore to see the 
light of" day. But some still clung to broken pieces 
of the vessel. Ceyx himself, with the hand that was 
wont to hold the sceptre, clung to a fragment of 
the wreck, and called upon his father-in-law and 
on his father, alas ! in vain. But most of all is the 
name of Alcyone on the swimmer's lips. He re- 
members her and names her o'er and o'er. He prays 
that the waves may bear his body into her sight and 
that in death he may be entombed by her dear hands. 
While he can keep afloat, as often as the waves 
allow him to open his month he calls the name of his 
Alcyone, far away, and murmurs it even as the waves 
close over his lips. See, a dark billow of waters 
breaks over the surrounding floods and buries his 
head deep beneath the seething waves. Dim and 
unrecognizable was Lucifer that dawn ; and since he 
might not leave his station in the skies, he wrapped 
his face in thick clouds. 

Meanwhile the daughter of Aeolus, in ignorance 
of this great disaster, counts off the nights ; now 
hastens on to weave the robes which he is to put on, 
and now those which she herself will wear when he 
comes back, and pictures to herself the home-coming 
which can never be. She dutifully burns incense to 
all the gods ; but most of all she worships at Juno's 
shrine, and approaches the altars on behalf of the man 
who is no more, that her husband may be kept safe 
from harm, that he may return once more, loving no 
other woman more than her. And only this prayer 
of all her prayers could be granted her. 

But the goddess could no longer endure these 



sustinet utque manus funestas arceat aris, 

" \r\, meae " dixit " fidissima nuntia vocis, 585 

vise soporiferam Somni velociter aulam 

exstinctique iube Ceycis imagine mittat 

somnia ad Alcyonen veros narrantia casus."* 

dixerat : induitur velamina mille colorum 

Iris et arcuato caelum curvamine signans 590 

tecta petit iussi sub nube latentia regis. 

Est prope Cimmerios longo spelunca recessu, 
mons cavus, ignavi domus et penetralia Somni, 
quo numquam radiis oriens mediusve cadensve 
Phoebus adire potest : nebulae caligine mixtae 595 
exhalantur humo dubiaeque crepuscula lucis. 
non vigil ales ibi cristati cantibus oris 
evocat Auroram, nee voce silentia rum punt 
sollicitive canes canibusve sagacior anser ; 
non fera, non pecudes, non moti flamine rami 600 
humanaeve sonum reddunt convicia linguae, 
muta quies habitat ; saxo tamen exit ab imo 
rivus aquae Lethes, per quem cum murmure labens 
invitat somnos crepitantibus unda lapillis. 
ante fores antri fecunda papavera florent 605 

innumeraeque herbae, quarum de lacte soporem 
Nox legit et spargit per opacas umida terras, 
ianua, ne verso stridores cardine reddat, 
nulla domo tota, custos in limine nullus ; 
at medio torus est ebeno sublimis in antro, 610 

plumeus, atricolor, pullo velamine tectus, 
quo cubat ipse deus membris languore solutis. 
hunc circa passim varias imitantia formas 
Somnia vana iacent totklem, quot messis aristas, 
silva gerit frondes, eiectas litus harenas. 615 



entreaties for the dead. And that she might free 
her altar from the touch of the hands of mourning, 
she said: " Iris, most faithful messenger of mine, go 
quickly to the drowsy house of Sleep, and bid him 
send to Alcyone a vision in dead Ceyx' form to tell 
her the truth about his fate." She spoke; and Iris 
put on her cloak of a thousand hues and, trailing across 
the sky in a rainbow curve, she sought the cloud- 
concealed palace of the king of sleep. 

Near the land of the Cimmerians there is a deep 
recess within a hollow mountain, the home and 
chamber of sluggish Sleep. Phoebus can never 
enter there with his rising, noontide, or setting rays. 
Clouds of vapour breathe forth from the earth, and 
dusky twilight shadows. There no wakeful, crested 
cock with his loud crowing summons the dawn : no 
careful watch-dog breaks the deep silence with his 
voice, or goose, still shrewder than the dog. There is 
no sound of wild beast or of cattle, of branches 
rustling in the breeze, no clamorous tongues of men. 
There mute silence dwells. But from the bottom of 
the cave there flows the stream of Lethe, whose waves, 
gently murmuring over the gravelly bed, invite to 
slumber. Before the cavern's entrance abundant 
poppies bloom, and countless herbs, from whose juices 
dewy night distils sleep and spreads its influence over 
the darkened lands. There is no door in all the house, 
lest some turning hinge should creak ; no guardian 
on the threshold. But in the cavern's central space 
there is a high couch of ebony, downy-soft,black-hued, 
spread with a dusky coverlet. There lies the god him- 
self, his limbs relaxed in languorous repose. Around 
him on all sides lie empty dream-shapes, mimicking 
many forms, many as ears of grain in harvest-time, as 
leaves upon the trees, as sands cast on the shore. 



Quo simul intravit manibusque obstantia virgo 
Somnia dimovit, vestis fulgore reluxit 
sacra domus, tardaque deus gravitate iacentes 
vix oculos tollens iterumque iterumque relabens 
summaque percutiens nutanti pectora mento 620 
excussit tandem sibi se cubitoque levatus, 
quid veniat, (cognovit enim) scitatur, at ilia : 
" Somne, quies rerum, placidissime, Somne, deorum, 
pax animi, quem cura fugit, qui corpora duris 
fessa ministeriis mulces reparasque labori, 625 

Somnia, quae veras aequant imitamine formas, 
Herculea Trachine iube sub imagine regis 
Alcyonen adeant simulacraque naufraga fingant. 
imperat hoc Iuno." postquam mandata peregit, 
Iris abit : neque enim ulterius tolerare soporis 6.30 
/im poterat, labique ut somnum sensit in artus, 
effugit et remeat per quos modo venerat arcus. 

At pater e populo natorum mille suorum 
excitat artificem simulatoremque figurae 
Morphea : non illo quisquam sollertius alter 635 

exprimit incessus vultumque sonumque loquendi ; 
adicit et vestes et consuetissima cuique 
verba ; sed hie solos homines imitatur, at alter 
fit fera, fit volucris, fit longo corpore serpens: 
hunc Icelon superi, mortale Phobetora vulgus 64-0 
nominat ; est etiam diversae tertius artis 
Phantasos : ille in humum saxumque undamque tra- 

quaeque vacant anima, fallaciter omnia transit; 
regibus hi ducibusque suos ostendere vultus 
nocte solent, populos alii plebemque pererrant. 645 
praeterit hos senior cunctisque e fratribus unura 


When the maiden entered there and with her 
hands brushed aside the dream-shapes that blocked 
her way, the awesome house was lit up with the gleam- 
ing of her garments. Then the god, scarce 1 1 fting his 
eyelids heavy with the weight of sleep, sinking back 
repeatedly and knocking Ms breast with his nodding 
chin, at last shook himself free of himself and, resting 
on an elbow, asked her (lor he recognized her) why she 
came. And she replied : « O Sleep, thou rest of all 
things,Sleep,mildest ofthe gods, balm of the soul, who 
puttest care to flight, soothest our bodies worn with 
hard ministries, and preparest them for toil again ! 
Fashion a shape that shall seem true form, and bid it 
go in semblance of the king to Alcyone in Trachis, 
famed for Hercules. There let it show her the 
picture ofthe wreck. This Juno bids." When she 
had done her task Iris departed, for she could no 
longer endure the power of sleep, and when she felt 
the drowsiness stealing upon her frame she fled away 
and retraced her course along the arch over which she 
had lately passed. 

But the father rouses Morpheus from the throng of 
his thousand sons, a cunning imitator of the human 
form. No other is more skilled than he in represent- 
ing the gait, the features, and the speech of men ; 
the clothing also and the accustomed words of each 
he represents. His office is with men alone : another 
takes the form of beast or bird or the long-bodied 
serpent. Him the gods call Icelos, but mortals name 
him Phobetor. A third is Phantasos, versed in 
different arts. He puts on deceptive shapes of earth 
rocks, water, trees, all lifeless things. These shapes 
show themselves by night to kings and chieftains, the 
rest haunt the throng of common folk. These 
the old sleep-god passes by, and chooses out of all the 



Morphea, qui peragat Thaumantidos edita, Somnus 
eligit et rursus molli languore solutus 
deposuitque caput stratoque recondidit alto. 

Ille volat nullos strepitus facientibus alis 6.50 

per tenebras intraque morae breve tempus in urbem 
pervenit Haemoniam, positisque e corpore pennis 
in faciem Ceycis abit sumptaque figura 
luridus, exanimi similis, sine vestibus ullis, 
coniugis ante torum miserae stetit : uda videtur 655 
barba viri, madidisque gravis fluere unda capillis. 
turn lecto incumbens fletu super ora profuso 
haec ait: " agnoscis Ceyea, miserrima coniunx, 
an mea mutata est facies nece ? respice : nosces 
inveniesque tuo pro coniuge coniugis umbram ! 660 
nil opis, Alcyone, nobis tua vota tulerunt ! 
occidimus ! falso tibi me promittere noli ! 
nubilus Aegaeo deprendit in aequore navem 
Auster etingenti iactatam flamine solvit, 
oraque nostra tuum frustra clamantia nomen 665 
inplerunt fluctus. — non haec tibi nuntiat auctor 
ambiguus, non ista vagis rumoribus audis : 
ipse ego fata tibi praesens mea naufragus edo. 
surge, age, da lacrimas lugubriaque indue nee me 
indeploratum sub inania Tartara mitte ! " 670 

adicit his vocem Morpheus, quam coniugis ilia 
crederet esse sui (fletus quoque fundere veros 
visus erat) gestumque manu Ceycis habebat. 
ingemit Alcyone, lacrimas movet atque lacertos 
per somnum corpusque petens amplectitur auras 675 
exclamatque : "mane! quo te rapis? ibimus una." 


brethren Morpheus alone to do the bidding of Iris, 
Thaumas' daughter. This done, once more in soft 
drowsiness he droops his head and settles it down 
upon his high couch. 

But Morpheus flits away through the darkness on 
noiseless wings and quickly comes to the Haemonian 
city. There, putting off his wings, he takes the face 
and form of Ceyx, wan like the dead, and stands 
naked before the couch of the hapless wife. His 
beard is wet, and water drips heavily from his sodden 
hair. Then with streaming eyes he bends over her 
couch and says : " Do you recognize your Ceyx, O 
most wretched wife? or is my face changed in death? 
Look on me ! You will know me then and find in 
place of husband your husband's shade. No help, 
Alcyone, have your prayers brought to me : I am 
dead. Cherish no longer your vain hope of me. 
For stormy Auster caught my ship on the Aegean 
sea and, tossing her in his fierce blasts, wrecked her 
there. My lips, calling vainly upon your name, 
drank in the waves. And this tale no uncertain 
messenger brings to you, nor do you hear it in the 
words of vague report ; but I myself, wrecked as 
you see me, tell you of my fate. Get you up, then, 
and weep for me ; put on your mourning garments 
and let me not go unlamented to the cheerless 
land of shades." These words spoke Morpheus, 
and that, too, in a voice she might well believe her 
husband's; he seemed also to weep real tears, 
and had the very gesture of her Ceyx' hands! 
Alcyone groaned, shed tears, and in sleep seeking 
his arms and to clasp his body, held only air in 
her embrace. She cried aloud : « Wait for me ! 
Whither do you hasten? I will go with you." 
Aroused by her own voice and by the image of her 



voce sua specieque viri turbata soporem 

excutit et primo, si sit, circumspicit, illic, 

qui modo visus erat ; nam moti voce ministri 

intulerant lumen, postquam non invenit usquam, 

percutit ora manu laniatque a pectore vestes 681 

pectoraque ipsa ferit nee crines solvere curat : 

scindit et altrici, quae luctus causa, roganti 

"nulla est Alcyone, nulla est" ait. " occidit una 

cum Ceyce suo. solantia tollite verba ! 685 

naufragus interiit : vidi agnovique manusque 

ad discedentem cupiens retinere tetendi. 

umbra fuit, sed et umbra tamen manifesta virique 

vera mei. non ille quidem, si quaeris, habebat 

adsuetos vultus nee quo prius, ore nitebat : 690 

pallentem nudumque et adhuc umente capillo 

infelix vidi. stetit hoc miserabilis ipse 

ecce loco " ; (et quaerit, vestigia siqua supersint). 

"hoc erat, hoc, animo quod divinante timebam, 

et ne me fugeres, ventos sequerere, rogabam. 6.95 

at certe vellem, quoniam periturus abibas, 

me quoque duxisses : multum fuit utile tecum 

ire mihi ; neque enim de vitae tempore quicquam 

non simul egissem, nee mors discreta fuisset. 

nunc absens perii, iactor quoque fluctibus absens, 700 

et sine me me pontus habet. crudelior ipso 

sit mihi mens pelago, si vitam ducere nitar 

longius et tanto pugnem superesse dolori ! 

sed neque pugnabo nee te, miserande, relinquam 

et tibi nunc saltern veniam comes, inque sepulcro 705 



husband, she started wide awake. And first she 
looked around to see it' he was there whoni but now 
she had seen. For her attendants, startled by her 
cries, had brought a lamp into her chamber. When 
she did not find him anywhere, she smote her cheeks, 
tore off" her garment from her breast and beat her 
breasts themselves. She stayed not to loose her 
hair, but rent it, and to her nurse, who asked what 
was her cause of grief, she cried : "Alcyone is no 
more, no more ; she has died together with her Ceyx. 
Away with consoling words ! He's shipwrecked, 
dead ! I saw him and I knew him, and I stretched 
out my hands to him as he vanished, eager to hold 
him back. It was but a shade, and yet it was my 
husband's true shade, clearly seen. He had not, to 
be sure, his wonted features, nor did his face light as 
it used to do. But wan and naked, with hair still 
dripping, oh, woe is me, I saw him. See there, on 
that very spot, he himself stood, piteous" — and she 
strove to see if any footprints still remained. "This, 
this it was which with foreboding mind I feared, and 
I begged you not to leave me and sail away. But 
surely I should have wished, since you were going to 
your death, that you had taken me as well. How 
well had it been for me to go with you ; for in that 
case neither should I have spent any of my life apart 
from you, nor shoultl we have been separated in our 
death. But now far from myself I have perished ; far 
from myself also I am tossed about upon the waves, 
and without me the sea holds me. My heart would 
be more cruel to me than the sea itself if I should 
strive still to live on and struggle to survive my 
sorrow. But I shall neither struggle nor shall I 
leave you, my poor husband. Now at least I shall 
come to be yov companion ; and if not the 



si non urna, tamen iunget nos littera : si non 
ossibus ossa meis, at nomen nomine tangam." 
plura dolor prohibet, verboque intervenit omni 
plangor, et attonito gemitus a corde trahuntur. 

Mane erat : egreditur tectis ad litus et ilium 7 10 
maesta locum repetit, de quo spectarat euntem, 
dumque moratur ibi dumque " hie retinacula solvit, • 
hoc mihi discedens dedit oscula litore " dicit 
dumque notata locis reminiscitur acta fretumque 
prospicit, in liquida, spatio distante, tuetur 715 

nescio quid quasi corpus aqua, primoque, quid illud 
esset, erat dubium ; postquam paulum adpulit unda, 
et, quanivis aberat, corpus tamen esse liquebat, 
qui foret, ignorans, quia naufragus, omine mota est 
et, tamquam ignoto lacrimam daret, " heu ! miser," 

inquit 720 

" quisquis es, et siqua est coniunx tibi ! " fluctibus 

fit propius corpus : quod quo magis ilia tuetur, 
hoc minus et minus est mentis, vae ! iamque pro- 

admotum terrae, iam quod cognoscere posset, 
cernit : erat coniunx ! " ille est ! " exclamat et una 
ora, comas, vestem lacerat tendensque trementes 7 C 26 
ad Ceyca manus " sic, o carissime coniunx, 
sic ad me, miserande, redis ? " ait. adiacet undis 
facta manu moles, quae primas aequoris undas 
frangit et incursus quae praedelassat aquarum. 7S0 


entombed urn, at least the lettered stone shall join 
us ; if not your bones with mine, still shall J touch 
you, name with name." Grief checked further 
speech, wailing took place of words, and groans 
drawn from her stricken heart. 

Morning had come. She went forth from her 
house to the seashore and sadly sought that spot 
again from which she had watched him sail. And 
while she lingered there and while she was saying : 
" Here he loosed his cable, on this beach he kissed 
me as he was departing " ; while she was thus 
recalling the incidents and the place and gazing sea- 
ward, away out upon the streaming waters she saw 
something like a corpse. At first she was not sure 
what it was ; but after the waves had washed it a 
little nearer, although it was still some distance off, 
yet it clearly was a corpse. She did not know whose 
it was ; yet, because it was a shipwrecked man, she 
was moved by the omen and, as if she would weep 
for the unknown dead, she cried : " Alas for you, 
poor man, whoever you are, and alas for your wife, 
if wife you have ! " Meanwhile the body had been 
driven nearer by the waves, and the more she 
regarded it the less and still less could she contain 
herself. Ah ! and now it had come close to land, 
now she could see clearly what it was. It was her 
husband ! " Tis he ! " she shrieked and, tearing her 
cheeks, her hair, her garments all at once, she 
stretched out her trembling hands to Ceyx, crying: 
"Thus, O dearest husband, is it thus, poor soul, you 
come back to me ? " Near by the water was a mole 
built which broke the first onslaught of the waters, 
and took the force of the rushing waves. Thither she 
ran and leaped into the sea ; 'twas a wonder that she 
could ; she flew and, fluttering through the yielding 



insilit hue, mirinnqiie futt potllisse ! volabat 

percutienaque levem modo natia aera pennia 
atiingebat sumraaa ales miserabilia undas, 
duroque, maesto similem plenumque querellae 
ora dedere sonum tenui crepitant!* rostro. T 

ut yero tetigit uuituni et sine aanguine corpaii 
dilectoa artua amplexa recentibua alis 
frigida nequiquam dura dedit oscula rostro, 
aenserit hoc Ceyx, an vultum motiboa undao 
tollere sit visus, populua dubitabat, at [He 740 

sfiisorat : ot. tandem superia miserantibasj ambo 
alito mutantur ; t'atis obnoxius Isdem 
tune quoque mansit Mnor nee coniugiale subitum 
fbedua in alitibua : coeunt fiuntque parentes, 
perque dies placidos hiberno tempore aeptem 74o 
iiuubat Alcyone pemlentibus aequore nidis. 
tOIIC iaeet inula maris : ventos COStodit et areet 

Aeolus egreaau praestatque nepotibua aequor. 

llos aliquis senior iunctim tieta lata vol.mtes 

apectet et ad finem aerratoa laudal amores : 750 

proximus, aut idem, si tors tulit, " hie quoque," ihxit 
" quem mare carpontom substrietaque erura gerent< in 

aspicis," (ostendena spattosum In gutters mergum) 

•• regia progenies, et si descendere ad ipsiim 

ordine perpeteo quaeris, sunt boioa origo 753 

llus et Assaracua raptuaque Iovi Ganymodes 

l aomedonqne tenex Prismusque novissima Iroiae 

tempora aortitaa : firater fait Efeetoria iste : 

qui nisi sensisset prima nova fata iuventa, 

forsitan inierius Don Hectore nouien haberet, 760 



air on sudden wings, she skimmed the surface of 
the water, a wretched bird. And as she dew, her 
croaking mouth, with long slender beak, uttered 
sounds like one in grief and full of complaint. But 
when she reached the silent, lifeless body, she 
embraced the dear limbs with her new-found wings 
and strove vainly to kiss the cold lips with her rough 
bill. Whether Ceyx felt this, or whether he but 
seemed to lift his face by the motion of the waves, 
men were in doubt. But he did feel it. And at 
last, through the pity of the gods, both changed to 
birds. Though thus they suffered the same fate, still 
even thus their love remained, nor were their con- 
jugal bonds loosened because of their ft-athered 
shape. Still do they mate and rear their young; 
and for seven peaceful days in the winter season 
Alcyone broods upon her nest floating upon the 
surface of the waters. At such a time the waves of 
the sea are still ; for Aeolus guards his winds and 
forbids them to go abroad and for his grandsons' sake 
gives peace upon the sea. 

Seeing these birds flying in loving harmony over 
the broad waters, some old man spoke in praise of 
their affection kept unbroken to the end. Then one 
near by, or perhaps the same speaker, pointing to a 
long-necked diver, said : "That bird also, which you 
see skimming along over the water and trailing his 
slender legs, is of royal birth, and his ancestors, if 
you wish in unbroken line to come down to him him- 
self, were Ilus and Assaracus, Ganymede, whom Jove 
Stole away, old Laomedon and Priam, who came by 
fate on Troy's last days. He there was the brother 
of Hector; and had he not met his strange fate in 
early manhood, perhaps he would have a name no 
less renowned than Hector's. While the daughter 



quamvis est ilium proles enixa Dymantis, 
Aesacon umbrosa furtim peperisse sub Ida 
fertur Alexiroe, Granico nata bicorni. 
oderat hie urbes nitidaque remotus ab aula 
secretos montes et inambitiosa colebat 765 

ruranee Iliacos coetus nisi rarus adibat. 
non agreste tamen nee inexpugnabile aniori 
pectus habens silvas eaptatam saepe per omnes 
aspicit Hesperien patria Cebrenida ripa 
iniectos umeris siccantem sole capillos. 770 

visa fugit nymphe, veluti perterrita fulvum 
cerva lupum longeque lacu deprensa relicto 
accipitrem fluvialis anas; quain Troius heros 
insequitur celeremque metu celer urguet amore. 
ecce latens herba coluber fugientis adunco 775 

dente pedem strinxit virusque in corpore liquit ; 
cum vita suppressa fuga est : amplectitur aniens 
exanimem clamatque ' piget, piget esse secutum ! 
sed non hoc timui, neque erat mihi vincere tanti. 
perdidimus miseram nos te duo : vulnus ab angue, 
a me causa data est ! ego sum sceleratior illo, 78 J 
qui tibi morte mea mortis solacia mittam.' 
dixit et e scopulo, quem rauca subederat unda, 
decidit in pontum. Tethys miserata cadentem 
molliter excepit nantemque per aequora pennis 785 
texit, et optatae non est data copia mortis, 
indignatur amans, invitum vivere cogi 
obstarique animae misera de sede volenti 


of Dymas l bore the one, the other, Aesacus, is said to 
have been borne in secret beneath the shades of Ida 
by Alexiroe, daughter of the horned Granicus. He 
hated towns and, far from glittering palace halls, 
dwelt on remote mountain-sides and in lowly country 
places, and rarely sought the company of the men of 
Ilium. Still his heart was not boorish nor averse to 
love, and often he pursued through all the woody 
glades Hesperia, daughter of Cebren, whom he beheld 
drying her hair tossed on her shoulders in the sun upon 
her father's bank. The nymph fled at sight of him 
as the frightened hind flees the tawny wolf, or as the 
wild duck, surprised far from her forsaken pool, flees 
from the hawk. But the Trojan hero followed her, 
swift on the wings of love as she was swift on the 
wings of fear. Behold, a serpent, hiding in the 
grass, pierced her foot with his curved fangs as she 
fled along, and left his poison in her veins. Her 
flight stopped with life. Beside himself, her lover 
embraced the lifeless form and cried : 'Oh, I repent 
me, I repent that I followed you ! But I had no fear 
of this, nor was it worth so much to me to win you. 
We have destroyed you, poor maid, two of us : the 
wound was given you by the serpent, by me was 
given the cause ! I am more guilty than he. But 
by my death will I send death's consolation to you.' 
So saying, from a lofty cliff, where the hoarse waves 
had eaten it out below, he hurled himself down into 
the sea. But Tethys, pitying his case, received him 
gently as he fell, covered him with feathers as he 
floated on the waters, and so denied him the privilege 
of the death he sought. The lover was wroth that 
he was forced to live against his will and that his 
spirit was thwarted as it desired to leave its Avretched 

1 Hecuba. 



exire, utque novas umeris adsumpserat alas, 789 

subvolat atque iterum corpus super aequora mittit. 
pluma levat casus : furit Aesacos inque profundum 
pronus abit letique viam sine fine retemptat. 
fecit amor maciem : longa internodia crurum, 
longa manet cervix, caput est a cor pore longe; 79* 
aequora amat nomenque tenet, quia mergitur illo." 



seat. And when he had gained on his shoulders his 
new-sprung wings, he flew aloft and once mure 
hurled his body down to the sea ; but his light 
plumage broke his fall. In wild rage Aesacus dived 
deep down below the water and tried endlessly to 
find the way to death. His passion made him lean; 
his legs between the joints are long, his long neck is 
still long, his head is far from his body. He still 
loves the sea and lias his name l because he dives 
beneath it." 

1 Mergus, a diver. 




Nescivs adsumptis Priamus pater Aesacon ahs 

vivere lugebat: tumulo quoque, nomen habenti, 

inferias dederat cum fratribus Hector inani ; 

defuit officio Paridis praesentia tristi, 

postmodo qui rapta longum cum coniuge bellum 5 

attulit in patriam : coniurataeque sequuntur 

mille rates gentisque simul commune Pelasgae ; 

nee dilata foret vindicta, nisi aequora saevi 

invia fecissent venti, Boeotaque tellus 

Aulide piscosa puppes tenuisset ituras. 10 

hie patrio de more Iovi cum sacra parassent, 

ut vetus accensis incanduit ignibus ara, 

serpere caeruleum Danai videre draconem 

in platanum, coeptis quae stabat proxima sacris. 

nidus erat volucrum bis quattuor arbore summa : 15 

quas simul et matrem circum sua damna volantem 

corripuit serpens avidoque recondidit ore, 

obstipuere omnes, at veri providus augur 

Thestorides "vincemus"; ait, "gaudete, Pelasgi ! 

Troia cadet, sed erit nostri mora longa laboris," 20 

atque novem volucres in belli digerit annos. 



Father Priam, not knowing that Aesacus was still 
alive in feathered form, mourned for his son. At an 
empty tomb also, inscribed with the lost one's name, 
Hector with his brothers had offered sacrifices in 
honour of the dead. Paris was not present at the 
sad rite, Paris, who a little later brought a long-con- 
tinued war upon his country with his stolen wife. A 
thousand ships and the whole Pelasgian race, banded 
together, pursued him, nor would vengeance have 
been postponed had not stormy winds made the sea 
impassable, and had not the land of Boeotia kept the 
ships, though ready to set sail, at fish-haunted Aulis. 
When here, after their country's fashion, they had 
prepared to sacrifice to Jove, and just as the ancient 
altar was glowing with the lighted fires, the Greeks 
saw a dark -green serpent crawling up a plane-tree 
which stood near the place where they had begun 
their sacrifices. There was a nest with eight young 
birds in the top of the tree, and these, together with 
the mother, who was flying around her doomed nest- 
lings, the serpent seized and swallowed in his 
greedy maw. They all looked on in amazement. 
But Thestorides, the augur, who saw clearly the 
meaning of the portent, said : " We shall conquer. 
Rejoice, ye Greeks, Troy shall fall, but our task will 
be of long duration " ; and he interpreted the nine 
birds as nine years of war. Meanwhile the serpent, 



Me, ut erat virides amplexus in avbore ramos, 
fit lapis et servat serpentis imagine nixum. 

Permanet Aoniis Nereus violentus in undis 
bellaque non transfert, et sunt, qui parcere Troiae 25 
Neptunum credant, quia moenia fecerat urbi ; 
at non Thestorides : nee enim nescitve tacetve 
sanguine virgineo piacandam virginis iram 
esse deae. postquam pietatem publica causa 
rexque patrem vicit, castumque datura cruorem SO 
flentibus ante aram stetit Iphigenia ministris, 
victa dea est nubemque oculis obiecit et inter 
officium turbamque sacri vocesque precantum 
supposita fertur mutasse Mycenida cerva. 
ergo ubi, qua decuit, lenita est caede Diana, 35 

et pariter Phoebes, pariter maris ira recessit, 
accipiunt ventos a tergo mille carinae 
multaque perpessae Phrygia potiuntur harena. 

Orbe locus medio est inter terrasque fretumque 
caelestesque plagas, triplicis confinia mundi ; 40 

unde quod est usquam, quamvis regionibus absit, 
inspicitur, penetratque cavas vox omnis ad aures : 
Fama tenet summaque domum sibi legit in arce, 
innumerosque aditus ac mille foramina tectis 
addidit et nullis inclusit limina portis ; 45 

nocte dieaue patet : tota est ex aere sonanti, 


just as he was, coiled round the green branches of 
the tree, was changed to stone, and the stone kept 
the form of the climbing serpent. 

But Nereus continued to be boisterous on the 
Aonian waters, and refused to transport the war. 
And there were some who held that Neptune was 
sparing Troy because he had built its walls. But not 
so the son of Thestor. For he was neither ignorant 
of the truth nor did he withhold it, that the wrath of 
the virgin goddess * must be appeased with a virgin's 
blood. After consideration for the public weal had 
overcome affection, and the father had been van- 
quished by the king, and just as midst the weeping 
attendants Iphigenia was standing before the altar 
ready to shed her innocent blood, the goddess was 
moved to pity and spread a cloud before their eyes ; 
and there, while the sacred rites went on, midst the 
confusion of the sacrifice and the cries of suppliants, 
she is said to have substituted a hind for the maiden 
of Mycenae. When therefore, as 'twas fitting, Diana 
had been appeased by the sacrifice of blood, when 
Phoebe's and the ocean's wrath had subsided to- 
gether, the thousand ships found the winds blowing 
astern and, after suffering many adventures, they 
reached the shores of Phrygia. 

There is a place in the middle of the world, 'twixt 
land and sea and sky, the meeting-point of the three- 
fold universe. From this place, whatever is, how- 
ever far away, is seen, and every word penetrates to 
these hollow ears. Rumour dwells here, having chosen 
her house upon a high mountain-top ; and she gave 
the house countless entrances, a thousand apertures, 
but with no doors to close them. Night and day 
the house stands open. It is built all of echoing 

1 Diana. 



tota fremit vocesque refert iteratque quod audit ; 

nulla quies intus nullaque silentia parte, 

nee tamen est clamor, sed parvae murmura vocis, 

qualia de pelagi, siquis procul audiat, undis 50 

esse solent, qualemve sonum, cum Iuppiter atras 

increpuit nubes, extrema tonitrua reddunt. 

atria turba tenet : veniunt, leve vulgus, euntque 

mixtaque cum veris passim commenta vagantur 

milia rumorum confusaque verba volutant ; 55 

e quibus hi vacuas inplent sermonibus aures, 

hi narrata ferunt alio, mensuraque ficti 

crescit, et auditis aliquid novus adicit auctor. 

illic Credulitas, illic temerarius Error 

vanaque Laetitia est consternatique Timores 60 

Seditioque recens dubioque auctore Susurri ; 

ipsa, quid in caelo rerum pelagoque geratur 

et tellure, videt totumque inquirit in orbem. 

Fecerat haec notum, Graias cum milite forti 
adventare rates, neque inexspectatus in armis 65 
hostis adest : prohibent aditus litusque tuentur 
Troes, et Hectorea primus fataliter hasta, 
Protesilae, cadis, commissaque proelia magno 
stant Danais, fortisque animae nece cognitus Hector, 
nee Phryges exiguo, quid Achaica dextera posset, 70 
sanguine senserunt, et iam Sigea rubebant 
litora, iam leto proles Neptunia, Cygnus, 
mille viros dederat, iam curru instabat Achilles 
totaque Peliacae stemeb»»t cuspidis ictu 


brass. The whole place is full of noises, repeats 
all words and doubles what it hears. There is 
no quiet, no silence anywhere within. And yet 
there is no loud clamour, but only the subdued 
murmur of voices, like the murmur of the waves of 
the sea if you listen afar off, or like the last rum- 
blings of thunder when Jove has made the dark 
clouds crash together. Crowds fill the hall, shifting 
throngs come and go, and everywhere wander thou- 
sands of rumours, falsehoods mingled with the truth, 
and confused reports flit about. Some of these fill 
their idle ears with talk, and others go and tell 
elsewhere what they have heard; while the story 
grows in size, and each new teller makes contribu- 
tion to what he has heard. Here is Credulity, 
here is heedless Error, unfounded Joy and panic 
Fear; here sudden Sedition and unauthentic Whis- 
perings. Rumour herself beholds all that is done in 
heaven, on sea and land, and searches throughout the 
world for news. 

Now she had spread the tidings that the Greek 
fleet was approaching full of brave soldiery ; and so 
not unlooked for did the invading army come. The 
Trojans were ready to prevent the enemy's landing 
and to protect their shores. You first fell, Pro- 
tesilaiis, before Hector's deadly spear. Those early 
battles proved costly to the Greeks and they soon 
learned Hector's warlike mettle by the slaughter 
that he dealt. And the Phrygians learned too, at no 
slight cost of blood, how puissant was the Grecian 
hand. And now the Sigean shores grew red ; now 
Neptune's son, Cygnus, had given a thousand men to 
death ; now was Achilles pressing on in his chariot 
and laying low whole ranks with the stroke of his 
spear that grew on Pelion ; and, as he sought through 



agmina perque acies aut Cygnum aut Hectora 

quaerens 75 

congreditur Cygno (decimum dilatus in annum 
Hector erat): turn colla iugo canentia pressos 
exhortatus equos currum direxit in hostem 
concutiensquesuis vibrantia tela lacertis 
"quisquis es, o iuvenis," dixit "solamen habeto 80 
mortis, ab Haemonio quod sis iugulatus Achille ! " 
hactenus Aeacides : vocem gravis hasta secuta est, 
sed quamquam certa nullus fuit error in hasta, 
nil tamen emissi profecit acumine ferri 
utque hebeti pectus tantummodo contudit ictu. 85 
"nate dea, nam te fama praenovimus," inquit 
ille " quid a nobis vulnus miraris abesse ? 
(mirabatur enim.) "non haec, quam cernis, equinis 
fulva iubis cassis neque onus, cava parma, sinistrae 
auxilio mihi sunt : decor est quaesitus ab istis ; 90 
Mars quoque ob hoc capere arma solet! removebitur 

tegminis officium : tamen indestrictus abibo ; 
est aliquid non esse satum Nereide, sed qui 
Nereaque et natas et totum temperat aequor." 
dixit et haesurum clipei curvamine telum 9$ 

misit in Aeaciden, quod et aes et proxima rupit 
terga novena boum, decimo tamen orbe moratum est. 
excutit hoc heros rursusque trementia f'orti 
tela manu torsit: rursus sine vulnere corpus 
sincerumque fuit ; nee tertia cuspis apertum 100 

et se praebentem valuit destringere Cygnum. 
haut secus exarsit, quam circo taurus aperto, 


the battle's press either Cygnus or Hector, he met 
with Cygnus. (Hector's fate had been postponed 
until the tenth year.) Then Achilles, shouting to 
his horses whose snowy necks were straining at the 
yoke, drove his chariot full at the enemy and, 
brandishing his spear with his strong arm, cried : 
" Whoever you are, O youth, have it for solace of 
your death that you were slain by Achilles of 
Thessaly." So spoke Aeacides. His heavy spear 
followed on the word ; but, although there was no 
swerving in the well-aimed spear, the flying weapon 
struck with its sharp point without effect, and only 
bruised his breast as by a blunt stroke. Then Cygnus 
said : " O son of Thetis, for rumour has already made 
you known to me, why do you marvel that I am 
unscathed?" for he was amazed. "Neither this 
helmet which you behold, yellow with its horse-hair 
crest, nor yet this hollow shield which burdens my 
left arm is intended for a protection ; 'tis ornament 
that is sought from them. Mars, too, for this cause, 
wears his armour. Remove the protection of thiscover- 
ing : still shall I escape unharmed. It is something to 
be the son, not of Nereus' daughter, but of him who 
rules both Nereus and his daughters and the whole 
sea besides." He spoke and hurled against Aeacides 
his spear, destined only to stick in the curving shield. 
Through brass and through nine layers of bull's hide 
it tore its way, but stopped upon the tenth. Shaking 
the weapon off, the hero again hurled a quivering spear 
with his strong hand. Again his foeman's body was 
unwounded and unharmed ; nor did a third spear 
avail to scratch Cygnus, though he offered his body 
quite unprotected. Achilles raged at this just like 
a bull in the broad arena when with his deadly horns 
he rushes on the scarlet cloak, the object of his 



cum sua tenibili petit inritamina cornu. 
poeniceas vestes, elusaque vulnera sentit: 
num tamen exciderit ferrum considerat hastae : 105 
haerebat ligno. " manus est mea debilis ergo, 
quasque " ait " ante habuit vires, effudit in uno? 
nam certe valuit, vel cum Lyrnesia primus 
moenia deieci, vel cum Tenedonque suoque 
Eetioneas inplevi sanguine Thebas, 110 

vel cum purpureus populari caede Caicus 
fluxit, opusque meae bis sensit Telephus liastae. 
hie quoque tot caesis, quorum per litus acervos 
et feci et video, valuit mea dextra valetque." 
dixit et, ante actis veluti male crederet, hastam 1 15 
misit in adversum Lycia de plebe Menoeten 
loricamque simul subiectaque pectora rupit. 
quo plangente gravem moribundo vertice terrain 
extrahit illud idem calido de vulnere telum 
atque ait : "haec manus est, haec, qua modo vicimus, 
hasta: 120 

utar in hoc isdem ; sit in hoc, precor, exitus idem ! " 
sic fatus Cygnum repetit, nee fraxinus errat 
inque umeio sonuit non evitata sinistro, 
inde velut muro solidaque a caute repulsa est; 
qua tamen ictus erat, si gnat um sanguine Cygnum 1 25 
viderat et frustra fuerat gavisus Achilles : 
vulnus erat nullum, sanguis fuit ille Menoetael 
turn vero praeceps curru fremebundus ab alto 
desilit et nitido securum comminus hostem 
ense petens parmam gladio galeamque cavari 130 

cernit, at in duro laedi quoque corpore ferrum. 



wrath, and finds it ever eluding his fierce attack. 
He examined the spear to see if the iron point had 
not been dislodged. It was still on the wooden 
shaft. "Is my hand then so weak," he said, "and 
has the strength, which it once had, ebbed away in 
this case alone ? For surely I had strength enough 
when I as leader of the attack overthrew Lyrnesus' 
walls, or when I caused Tenedos and Thebes, the 
city of Eetion, to flow with their own blood, when 
the Caicus ran red with the slaughter of its neigh- 
bouring tribes, and when Telephus twice felt the 
strength of my spear. On this field also, with so many 
slain, heaps of whose corpses upon the shore I have 
both made and see, my right hand has been mighty 
and still is mighty." He spoke and, as if he dis- 
trusted his former prowess, he hurled the spear full at 
Menoetes, one of the Lycian commons, and smote 
clean through his breastplate and his breast beneath. 
\.s his dying victim fell clanging down head first 
upon the solid earth, Achilles plucked out the spear 
from the hot wound and cried : "This is the hand, 
this the spear with which I have just conquered. I 
likewise shall use it on this foeman, and may the 
outcome be the same on him, I pray." So saying, 
he hurled again at Cygnus, and the ashen spear went 
straight and struck, unshunned, with a thud upon the 
left shoulder, whence it rebounded as from a wall or 
from a solid cliff. Yet where the spear struck, Achilles 
saw Cygnus marked with blood, and rejoiced, but 
vainly : there was no wound ; it was Menoetes' 
blood ! Then truly in headlong rage he leaped down 
from his lofty chariot and, seeking his invulnerable 
foe in close conflict with his gleaming sword, he saw 
both shield and helmet pierced through, but on the 
unyielding body his sword was even blunted. The 



haut tulit ulterius clipeoque adversa retecti 

ter quater ora viri, capulo cava tempora pulsat 

cedentique sequens instat turbatque ruitque 

attonitoque negat requiem : pavor occupat ilium, 1 35 

ante oculosque natant tenebrae retroque ferenti 

aversos passus medio lapis obstitit arvo ; 

quern super inpulsum resupino corpore Cygnum 

vi multa vertit terraeque adflixit Achilles. 

turn clipeo genibusque premens praecordia duris 1 40 

vincla trahit galeae, quae presso subdita mento 

elidunt fauces et respiramen utrumque 

eripiunt animae. victum spoliare parabat : 

arma relicta videt ; corpus deus aequoris albam 

contulit in volucrem, cuius modo nomen habebat. 1 4.5 

Hie labor, haec requiem multorum pugna dieruin 
attidit et positis pars utraque substitit armis. 
dumque vigil Phrygios servat custodia muros, 
et vigil Argolicas servat custodia fossas, 
festa dies aderat, qua Cygni victor Achilles 150 

Pallada mactatae placabat sanguine vaccae ; 
cuius ut inposuit prosecta calentibus aris, 
et dis acceptus penetravit in aethera nidor, 
sacra tulere suam, pars est data cetera mensis. 
discubuere toris proceres et corpora tosta 155 

came replent vinoque levant curasque sitimque. 
non illos citharae, non illos carmina vocum 
longave multifori delectat tibia buxi, 
sed noctem sermone trahunt, virtusque loqueudi 


hero could brook no more, but with shield and sword- 
hilt again and again he beat upon the face and hollow 
temples of his uncovered foe. As one gives way the 
other presses on, buffets and rushes him, gives him 
no pause to recover from the shock. Fear gets hold 
on Cygnus ; dark shadows float before his eyes, and 
as he steps backward a stone lying on the plain 
blocks his way. As he lies with bent body pressed 
back upon this, Achilles whirls him with mighty 
force and dashes him to the earth. Then, pressing 
with buckler and hard knees upon his breast, he un- 
laces his helmet-thongs. With these applied beneath 
his chin he chokes his throat and cuts off the passage 
of his breath. He prepares to strip his conquered 
foe : he sees the armour empty ; for the sea-god has 
changed the body into the white bird whose name 
he lately bore. / 

This struggle, this battle, brought a truce of many 
days, and each side laid its weapons down and rested. 
And while a watchful guard was patrolling the Phry- 
gian walls and a watchful guard patrolled the trenches 
of the Greeks, there came a festal day when Cygnus' 
conqueror, Achilles, was sacrificing to Pallas with blood 
of a slain heifer. When now the entrails had been 
placed upon the blazing altars and the odour which 
gods love had ascended to the skies, the holy beings 
received their share and the rest was set upon the 
tables. The chiefs reclined upon the couches and ate 
their fill of the roasted flesh while they relieved 
their cares and quenched their thirst with wine. 
Nor were they entertained by sound of cithern, 
nor by the voice of song, nor by the long flute of 
boxwood pierced with many holes ; but they drew 
out the night in talk, and valour was the theme of 
their conversation. Of battles was their talk, the 



materia est : pugnas referunt hostisque suasque, lfiO 
inque vices adita atque exhausta pericnla saepe 
commemorare iuvat ; quid enim loqueretur Achilles, 
aut quid apud magnum potius loquerentur Achillem? 
proxima praecipue doinito victoria Cygno 
ill sermone fuit : visum mirabile cunctis, l6o 

quod iuveni corpus nullo penetrabile telo 
invictumque a vulnere erat ferrumque terebat. 
hoc ipse Aeacides, hoc mirabantur Aehivi, 
cum sic Nestor ait: "vestro fuit unicus aevo 
contemptor ferri nulloque forabilis ictu 170 

Cygnus. at ipse olim patientem vulnera mille 
corpore non laeso Perrhaebum Caenea vidi, 
Caenea Perrhaebum, qui factis inclitus Othryn 
incoluit, quoque id mirum magis esset in illo, 
femina natus erat." monstri novitate moventur 175 
quisquis adest, narretque rogant : quos inter Achilles : 
" die age ! nam cunctis eadem est audii e voluntas, 
o facunde senex, aevi prudentia nostri, 
quis fuerit Caeneus, cur in contraria versus, 
qua tibi militia, cuius certamine pugnae 1 80 

cognitus, a quo sit victus, si victus ab ullo est." 
turn senior : " quamvis obstet mihi tarda vetustas, 
multaque me fugiant primis spectata sub annis, 
plura tamen memini. nee quae magis haereat ulla 
pectore res nostro est inter bellique domiaue 185 
acta tot, ac si quem potuit spatiosa senectus 
spectatorem operum multorum reddere, vixi 
annos bis centum ; nunc tertia vivitur aetas. 

" Clara decore fuit proles Elateia Caenis, 


enemy's and their own, and 'twas joy to tell over and 
over again in turn the perils they had encountered and 
endured. For of what else should Achilles speak, or 
of what else should others speak in great Achilles' 
presence? Especially did the talk turn on Achilles' 
last victory and Cygnus' overthrow. It seemed a 
marvel to them all that a youth should have a body 
which no spear could penetrate, invulnerable, which 
blunted the sword's edge. Aeacides himself and 
the Greeks were wondering at this, when Nestor 
said : " In this your generation there has been one 
only, Cygnus, who could scorn the sword, whom no 
stroke could pierce ; but I myself long ago saw 
one who could bear a thousand strokes with body 
unharmed, Thessalian Caeneus : Caeneus of Thessaly, 
I say, who once dwelt on Mount Othrys, famed for 
his mighty deeds ; and to enhance the marvel of 
him, he had been born a woman." All who heard 
were struck with wonder at this marvel and begged 
him to tell the tale. Among the rest Achilles said : 
" Tell on, old man, eloquent wisdom of our age, for 
all of us alike desire to hear, who was this Caeneus, 
why was he changed in sex, in what campaign did 
you know him and fighting against whom ; by whom 
he was conquered if he was conquered by anyone." 
Then said the old man : " Though time has blurred 
my memory, though many things which I saw in my 
young years have quite gone from me, still can I 
remember much ; nor is there anything, midst so 
many deeds of war and peace, that clings more 
firmly in my memory than this. And, if long- 
extended age could have made anyone an observer 
of many deeds, I have lived for two centuries and 
now am living in my third. 

" Famous for beauty was Elatus' daughter, Caenis, 



Thessalidum virgo puleherrima, perque propinquas 
perque tuas urbes (tibi enim popularis, Achille), 191 
multorumque fuit spes invidiosa procorum. 
temptasset Peleus thalamos quoque forsitan illos: 
sed iam aut contigerant illi conubia matris 
aut fuerant promissa tuae, nee Caenis in ullos 195 
denupsit thalamos secretaque litora carpens 
aequorei vim passa dei est (ita fama ferebat), 
utque novae Veneris Neptunus gaudia cepit, 
' sint tua vota licet ' dixit c secura repulsae : 
elige, quid voveas ! " (eadem hoc quoque fama ferebat) 
'magnum' Caenis ait 'facithaec iniuria votum, 201 
tale pati nil posse ; mihi da, femina ne sim : 
omnia praestiteris.' graviore novissima dixit 
verba sono poteratque viri vox ilia videri, 
sicut erat ; nam iam voto deus aequoris alti 205 

adnuerat dederatque super, nee saucius ullis 
vulneribus fieri ferrove occumbere posset, 
munere laetus abit studiisque virilibus aevum 
exigit Atracides Peneiaque arva pererrat. 

" Duxerat Hippodamen audaci Ixione natus 210 
nubigenasque feros positis ex ordine mensis 
arboribus tecto diseumbere iusserat antro. 
Haemonii proceres aderant, aderamus et ipsi, 
festaque confusa resonabat regia turba. 
ecce canunt Hymenaeon, et ignibus atria fumant, 215 
clnctaque adest virgo matrum nuruumque caterva, 


most lovely of all the maids of Thessaly, both through- 
out the neighbouring cities and your own (for she 
was of your city, Achilles), and she was the longed-for 
hope of many suitors. Peleus, too, perchance, would 
have tried to win her ; but he had either already wed 
your mother or she was promised to him. And Caenis 
would not consent to any marriage ; but, so report had 
it, while walking along a lonely shore she was ravished 
by the god of the sea. When Neptune had tasted 
the joys of his new love, he said : ' Make now your 
prayers without fear of refusal. Choose what you 
most desire.' This, also, was a part of the same 
report. Then Caenis said: 'The wrong that you 
have done me calls for a mighty prayer, the prayer 
that I may never again be able to suffer so. Grant 
me that I be not woman : then you will have granted 
all.' She spoke the last words with a deeper tone 
which could well seem to be uttered by a man. And 
so it was; for already the god of the deep ocean had 
assented to her prayer, and had granted her besides 
that she should be proof against any wounds and 
should never fall before any sword. Atracides l 
went away rejoicing in his gift, spent his years in 
manly exercises, and ranged the fields of Thessaly. 

" Bold Ixion's son 2 had wed Hippodame and had 
invited the cloud-born centaurs to recline at the 
tables, set in order in a well -shaded grotto. The 
Thessalian chiefs were there anil I myself was there. 
The palace, in festal array, resounded with the noisy 
throng. Behold, they were singing the nuptial song, 
the great hall smoked with the fires, and in came the 
maiden escorted by a throng of matrons and young 
wives, herself of surpassing beauty. We congratu- 

1 i.e. the Thessalian, Caeneus, the transformed Caenis. 
8 Pirithoiis. 



praesignis facie ; felicem diximus ilia 
coniuge Pirithoum, quod paene fefellimus omen, 
nam tibi, saevorum saevissime Centaurorum, 
Euryte, quam vino pectus, tam virgine visa 220 

ardet, et ebrietas geminata libidine regnat. 
protinus eversae turbant convivia mensae, 
raptaturque comis per vim nova nupta prehensis. 
Eurytus Hippodamen, alii, quam quisque probabant 
aut poterant, rapiunt, captaeque erat urbis imago. 225 
femineo clamore sonat domus : ocius omnes 
surgimus, et primus ' quae te vecordia,' Theseus 
' Euryte, pulsat,' ait, ' qui me vivente lacessas 
Pirithoum vio'.esque duos ignarus in uno ? ' 
[neve ea magnanimus frustra memoraverit ore, 230 
submovet instantes raptamque furentibus aufert.] 
ille nihil contra, (neque enim defendere verbis 
talia facta potest) sed vindicis ora protervis 
insequitur manibus generosaque pectora pulsat. 
forte fuit iuxta signis exstantibus asper 235 

antiquus crater ; quern surgens vastior ipse 
sustulit Aegides adversaque misit in ora: 
sanguinis ille globos pariter cerebrumque merumque 
vulnere et ore vomens madida resupinus harena 
calcitrat. ardescunt germani caede bimembres 240 
certatimque omnes uno ore ' anna, arma ' loquuntur. 
vina dabant animos, et prima pocula pugna 
missa volant fragilesque cadi curvique lebetes, 
res epulis quondam, turn bello et caedibjjg aptae. 


lated Pirithous upon his bride, an act which all but 
undid the good omen of the wedding. For your heart, 
Eurytus, wddest of the wild centaurs, was inflamed as 
well by the sight of the maiden as with wine, and it 
was swayed by drunken passion redoubled by lust. 
Straightway the tables were overturned and the 
banquet in an uproar, and the bride was caught 
by her hair and dragged violently away. Eurytus 
caught up Hippodame, and others, each took one for 
himself according as he fancied or as he could, and 
the scene looked like the sacking of a town. The 
whole house resounded with the women's shrieks. 
Quickly we all sprang up and Theseus first cried 
out: 'What madness, Eurytus, drives you to this, 
that while I still live you dare provoke Pirithous 
and, not knowing what you do, attack two men in 
one? ' The great-souled hero, that he might justify 
his threat, thrust aside the opposing centaurs and 
rescued the ravished maid from their mad hands. 
The other made no reply, for with words he could 
not defend such deeds; but with unruly hands he 
rushed upon the avenger and beat upon his face 
and noble breast. There chanced to stand near 
by an antique mixing-vat, rough with high-wrought 
figures ; this, Theseus, rising to his fullest height, 
himself caught up and hurled full into the other's 
face. He, spouting forth gouts of blood along with 
brains and wine from wound and mouth alike,stumbled 
backward upon the reeking ground. His twi-formed 
brothers, inflamed with passion at his death, cried all 
with one accord, ' To arms ! to arms ! ' vying with one 
another. Wine gave them courage, and in the first on- 
slaught wine-cups and brittle flasks went flyingthrough 
the air, and deep rounded basins, utensils once meant 
for use of feasting, but now for war and slaughter. 



" Primus Ophionides Amycus penetralia donis 245 
haut timuit spoliare suis et primus ab aede 
lampadibus densum rapuit funale coruscis 
elatumque alte, veluti qui Candida tauri 
rumpere sacrifica molitur colla securi, 
inlisit fronti Lapithae Celadontis et ossa 250 

non cognoscendo confusa relinquit in ore. 
exsiluere oculi, disiectisque ossibus oris 
acta retro naris medioque est fixa palato. 
hunc pede convulso mensae Pellaeus acernae 
stravit humi Pelates deiecto in pectora mento 255 
cumque atro mixtos sputantem sanguine dentes 
vulnere Tartareas geminato mittit ad umbras. 

" Proximus ut steterat spectans altaria vultu 
fumida terribili * cur non ' ait ' utimur istis ? ' 
cumque suis Gryneus inmanem sustulit aram 260 

ignibus et medium Lapitharum iecit in agmen 
depressitque duos, Brotean et Orion : Orio 
mater erat Mycale, quam deduxisse canendo 
saepe reluctantis constabat cornua lunae. 
f non impune feres, teli modo copia detur ! ' 265 

dixerat Exadius telique habet instar, in aita 
quae fuerant pinu votivi cornua cervi. 
figitur hinc duplici Gryneus in lumina ramo 
eruiturque oculos, quorum pars cornibus haeret, 
pars fluit in barbam concretaque sanguine pendet. 270 

u Ecce rapit mediis flagrantem Rhoetus ab aris 
pruniceum torrem dextraque a parte Charaxi 
tempora perstringit fulvo protecta capillo. 
correpti rapida, veluti seges arida, flamirta 


" First Amycus, Ophion's son, scrupled not to rob 
the inner sanctuary of its gifts, and first snatched 
from the shrine a chandelier thick hung with glitter- 
ing lamps. This, lifted on high, as when one strives 
to break a bull's white neck with sacrificial axe, 
he dashed full at the head of Celadon, one of the 
Lapithae,crushing his face past recognition. His eves 
leaped from their sockets, the bones of his face were 
shattered, and his nose driven back and fastened in 
his throat. But Pelates of Pella, wrenching off the 
leg of a table of maple-wood, hurled Amycus to the 
ground, his chin driven into his breast ; and, as he 
spat forth dark blood and teeth commingled, his 
enemy with a second blow dispatched him to the 
shades of Tartarus. 

" Then Gryneus, gazing with wild eyes upon the 
smoking altar near which he stood, cried out, ' Why 
not use this? ' and, catching up the huge altar, fire 
and all, he hurled it amidst a throng of Lapithae and 
crushed down two, Broteas and Orios. Now Orios' 
mother was Mycale, who, men said, had by her 
incantations oft-times drawn down the horns of the 
moon, despite her struggles. 'You shall not escape 
unscathed, if I may but lay hand upon a weapon.' So 
cried Exadius, and found for weapon the antlers of a 
stag hung on a tall pine-tree as a votive offering. 
Gryneus' eyes were pierced by the double branching 
horns and his eyeballs gouged out. One of these 
stuck to the horn and the other rolled down upon 
his beard and hung there in a mass of clotted blood. 

"Then Rhoetus caught up a blazing brand of 
plum-wood from the altar and, whirling it on the right, 
smashed through Charaxus' temples covered with 
yellow hair. The hair, caught by the greedy flames, 
burned fiercely, like a dry field of grain, and the blood 



arserunt crines, et vulnere sanguis inustus 275 

terribilem stridore sonum dedit, ut dare ferrum 
igne rubens plerumque solet, quod forcipe curva 
cum faber eduxit, lacubus demittit : at illud 
stridet et in tepida submersum sibilat unda. 
saucius hirsutis avidum de crinibus ignem 280 

excutit inque umeros limen tellure revulsum 
tollit, onus plaustri, quod ne permittat in hostem, 
ipsa facit gravitas : socium quoque saxea moles 
oppressit spatio stantem propiore Cometen. 
gaudia nee retinet Rhoetus : ' sic, conprecor,' inquit 
' cetera sit fortis castrorum turba tuorum ! ' 286 

semicremoque novat repetitum stipite vulnus 
terque quaterque gravi iuncturas verticis ictu 
rupit, et in liquido sederunt ossa cerebro. 

"Victor ad Euagrum Corythumque Dryantaque 
transit ; 290 

e quibus ut prima tectus lanugine malas 
procubuit Corythus, 'puero quae gloria fuso 
parta tibi est ? ' Euagrus ait, nee dicere Rhoetus 
plura sinit rutilasque ferox in aperta loquentis 
condidit ora viri perque os in pectora flammas 2.95 
te quoque, saeve Drya, circum caput igne rotato 
insequitur, sed non in te quoque constitit idem 
exitus : adsiduae successu caedis ovantem, 
qua iuncta est umero cervix, sude figis obusta. 
ingemuit duroque sudem vix osse revulsit 300 

Rhoetus et ipse suo madefactus sanguine fugit. 
fugit et Orneus Lycabasque et saucius armo 


scorching in the wound gave forth a horrid sizzling 
sound ; such as a bar of iron, glowing red in the fire, 
gives when the smith takes it out in his bent pincers 
and plunges it into a tub of water ; it sizzles and hisses 
as it is thrust into the tepid pool. The wounded man 
shook off the greedy fire from his shaggy locks, then 
tore up from the ground and heaved upon his shoulders 
a threshold-stone, a weight for a team of oxen. But 
its very weight prevented him from hurling it to reach 
his enemy. The massive stone, however, did reach 
Charaxus' friend, Cometes, who stood a little nearer, 
and crushed him to the ground. At this Rhoetus could 
not contain his joy and said : ' So, I pray, may the 
rest of the throng on your side be brave ! ' and he 
redoubled his attack with the half-burned brand, and 
with heavy blows thrice and again he broke through 
the joinings of his skull until the bones sank down 
into his fluid brains. 

" The victor next turned against Euagrus, Corythus, 
and Dryas. When one of these, young Corythus, 
whose first downy beard was just covering his cheeks, 
fell forward, Euagrus cried : 'What glory do you get 
from slaying a mere boy ? ' Rhoetus gave him no 
chance to say more, but fiercely thrust the red, 
flaming brand into the man's mouth while still open 
in speech, and through his mouth clear down into his 
breast. You also, savage Dryas, he pursued, whirling 
the brand about his head ; but his attack upon you 
did not have the same result. As he came on, re- 
joicing in his successive killings, with a charred stake 
you thrust him through where neck and shoulder 
join. Rhoetus groaned aloud, with a mighty effort 
wrenched the stake out from the hard bone, and then 
fled, reeking with his own blood. Orneus also fled and 
Lycabas and Medon, wounded in his right shoulder, 



dexteriore Medon et cum Pisenore Thaumas, 
quique pedum nuper certamine vicerat omnes 
Mermeros, accepto turn vulnere tardius ibat; 305 
et Pholus et Melaneus et Abas praedator aproruni, 
quique suis frustra bellum dissuaserat augur 
Asbolus : ille etiam metuenti vulnera Nesso 
' ne fuge ! ad Herculeos' inquit ' servaberis arcus.' 
at non Eurynomus Lycidasque et Areos et Imbreus 
effugere necem ; quos omnes dextra Dryantis 31 1 
perculit adversos. adversum tu quoque, quamvis 
terga fugae dederas, vulnus, Crenaee, tulisti : 
nam grave respiciens inter duo lumina ferrum, 
qua naris fronti committitur, accipis, imae. 315 

" In tanto fremitu cunctis sine fine iacebat 
sopitus venis et inexperrectus Aphidas 
languentique manu carchesia mixta tenebat, 
fusns in Ossaeae villosis pellibus ursae ; 
quern procul ut vidit frustra nulla anna moventem. 
inserit amento digitos 'miscenda' que dixit 321 

' cum Styge vina bibes ' Phorbas ; nee plura moratus 
in iuvenem torsit iaculum, ferrataque colic 
fraxinus, ut casu iacuit resupinus, adacta est. 
mors caruit sensu, plenoque e gutture fluxit 325 

inque toros inque ipsa niger carchesia sanguis. 

" Vidi ego Petraeum conantem tollere terra 
glandiferam quercum ; quam dum conplexibus ambit 
etquatit hue illuc labefactaque robora iactat, 
lancea Pirithoi costis inmissa Petraei 830 

pectora cum duro luctantia robore fixit. 


and Thaumas and Pisenor ; and Mermeros, who 
but lately had surpassed all in speed of foot, now 
fared more slowly because of the wound he had re- 
ceived ; Pholus also fled and Melaneus and Abas, 
hunter of the boar, and Asbolus, the augur, who had 
in vain attempted to dissuade his friends from battle. 
He said to Nessus, who also fled with him in fear of 
wounds : ' Do not you flee ; you will be reserved for 
the bow of Hercules.' But Eurynomus and Lycidas, 
Areos and Imbreus did not escape death ; for all 
these the right hand of Dry as slew as they fought 
fronting him. In front you, also, Crenaeus, received 
your wound, although you had turned in flight ; for, 
as you looked back, you received a heavy javelin 
between the eyes where nose and forehead join. 

" Midst all this uproar Aphidas lay, buried in end- 
less sleep which filled all his veins, unawakened, still 
holding his cup full of mixed wine in his sluggish 
hand and stretched at full length upon an Ossaean 
bear's shaggy skin. Him, all in vain striking no 
blow, Phorbas spied at a distance and, fitting his 
fingers in the thong of his javelin, cried out : ' Mingle 
your wine with the Styx and drink it there.' 
Straightway he hurled his javelin at the youth, and 
the iron-tipped ash was driven through his neck as 
he chanced to lie with head thrown back. He was 
not conscious of death, and from his full throat out 
upon the couch and into the very wine-cup the dark 
blood flowed. 

" I saw Petraeus striving to tear from the earth an 
acorn-laden oak. While he held this in both his 
arms, bending it this way and that, and just as he 
was wrenching forth the loosened trunk, Pirithoiis 
hurled a spear right through his ribs and pinned his 
writhing body to the hard oak. They say that Lycus 



Pirithoi cecidisse Lycum virtute ferebant, 
Pirithoi virtute Chromin, sed uterque minorem 
victori titulum quam Dictys Helopsque dederunt, 
fixus Helops iaculo, quod pervia tempora fecit 335 
et missum a dextra laevam penetravit ad aurem, 
Dictys ab ancipiti delapsus acumine montis, 
dum fugit instantem trepidans Ixione natum, 
decidit in praeceps et pondere corporis ornum 
ingentem fregit suaque induit ilia fractae. 340 

" Ultor adest Aphareus saxumque e monte revul- 
mittere conatur ; mittentem stipite querno 
occupat Aegides cubitique ingentia frangit 
ossa nee ulterius dare corpus inutile leto 
aut vacat aut curat tergoque Bienoris alti 345 

insilit, haut solito quemquam portare nisi ipsum, 
opposuitque genu costis prensamque sinistra 
caesariem retinens vultum minitantiaque ora 
robore nodoso praeduraque tempora fregit. 
robore Nedymnum iaculatoremque Lycopen 350 

sternit et inmissa protectum pectora barba 
Hippason et summis exstantem Riphea silvis 
Thereaque, Haemoniis qui prensos montibus ursos 
ferre domum vivos indignantesque solebat. 
haut tulit utentem pugnae successibus ultra 355 

Thesea Demoleon : solido divellere dumo 
annosam pinum magno molimine temptat ; 
quod quia non potuit, praefractam misit in hostem, 
sed procul a telo Theseus veniente recessit 
Pallados admonitu : credi sic ipse volebat. 360 



fell by the might of Pirithoiis ; by the might of 
Pirithoiis, Chromis. But Dictys and Helops gave 
greater fame to the conqueror than either of these. 
Helops was thrust through by a javelin which passed 
through his temples and, hurled from the right, 
pierced to his left ear. Dictys, while fleeing in 
desperate haste from Ixion's son who pressed him 
hard, stumbled on the edge of a steep precipice 
and, falling headlong, crashed into a huge ash- 
tree's top with all his weight and impaled his body 
on the broken spikes. 

" Aphareus, at hand to avenge him, essays to hurl 
a rock torn from the mountain-side ; but, even as he 
hurled it, the son of Aegeus caught him with an oaken 
club and broke the great bones of his elbow-joint. 
Having no time nor care to inflict further injury on 
his maimed body, he sprang on tall Bienor's back, 
that never before had carried any but himself; and, 
pressing his knees into the centaur's sides and with 
his left hand clutching his flowing locks, he crushed 
face and mouth, screaming out threatenings, and 
hard temples with his knotty club. With the 
club he slew Nedymnus and Lycopes, famed for the 
javelin throw, Hippasos, his breast covered by his 
flowing beard, and Ripheus, who overtopped the trees 
in height ; Thereus as well, who used to catch bears 
upon the Thessalian mountains and carry them home 
alive and struggling. Demoleon could no longer 
brook Theseus' unchecked success. He had been 
wrenching away with all his might at an old pine, 
trying to tear it up, trunk and all ; failing in 
this, he broke it off and hurled it at his foe. But 
Theseus, seeing the weapon coming, withdrew beyond 
its range, for so had Pallas directed him; at least 
that is what he himself would have us understand. 



non tamen arbor iners cecidit ; nam Crantoris alti 
abscidit iugulo pectusque umerumque sinistrum : 
armiger ille tui fuerat genitoris, Achille, 
quem Dolopum rector, bello superatus, Amyntor 
Aeacidae dederat pacis pignusque fidemque. 365 

Hunc procul ut foedo disiectum vulnere Peleus 
vidit, 'at inferias, iuvenum gratissime Crantor, 
accipe ' ait validoque in Demoleonta lacerto 
fraxineam misit, mentis quoque viribus, hastam, 
quae laterum cratem praerupit et ossibus haerens 370 
intremuit: trahit ille manu sine cuspide lignum 
(id quoque vix sequitur), cuspis pulmone retenta est ; 
ipse dolor vires animo dabat : aeger in hostem 
erigitur pedibusque virum proculcat equinis. 
excipit ille ictus galea clipeoque sonanti 375 

defensatque umeros praetentaque sustinet arma 
perque armos uno duo pectora perforat ictu. 
ante tamen leto dederat Phlegraeon et Hylen 
eminus, Iphinoum conlato Marte Claninque ; 
additur his Dorylas, qui tempora tecta gerebat 380 
pelle lupi saevique vicem praestantia teli 
cornua vara boum multo rube facta cruore. 

" Huic ego (nam viris animus dabat) ' aspice,' dixi 
' quantum concedant nostro tua cornua ferro ' 
et iaculum torsi : quod cum vitare nequiret, 385 

opposuit dextram passurae vulnera fronti : 
adfixa est cum fronte manus ; fit clamor, at ilium 


But the tree-trunk did not fall without effect, for it 
shore off tall Crantor's breast and left shoulder from 
the neck. He had been your father's armour-bearer, 
Achilles, whom Amyntor, king of the Dolopians, 
when overcome in war had given to Aeacides as a 
faithful pledge of peace. When Peleus at some space 
away saw him so horribly dismembered, he cried: 
'At least receive a funeral offering, Crantor, dearest 
of youths.' So saying, with his sturdy arm and with 
all his might of soul as well, he hurled his ashen 
spear at Demoleon; and this burst through his frame- 
work of ribs and hung there quivering in the bones. 
Without the head the centaur wrenched out the 
wooden shaft (even the shaft scarce yields) ; the 
head stuck fast within his lungs. His very 
anguish gave him frantic courage : wounded as 
he was, he reared up against his foe and beat the 
hero down with his hoofs. But Peleus received 
the blows on helm and resounding shield and, 
while protecting himself, he held his own weapon 
ready. With this he thrust the centaur through 
the shoulder, with one blow piercing his two 
breasts 1 Before this encounter Peleus had already 
slain Phlegraeos and Hyles, hurling from a distance, 
and, in close conflict, Iphinous and Clanis. To these 
he now addea Dorylas, who wore a cap of wolfs hide 
on his head and, in place of deadly spear, a notable 
pair of curving bull's horns, reeking red with blood. 
"To him (for my courage gave me strength) I 
cried : ' See now how little your horns avail against 
my spear'; and I hurled the spear. Since he could 
not dodge this, he threw up his right hand to protect 
his forehead from the wound. And there his hand 
was pinned against his forehead. A mighty shout 
1 i.e. where horse-form and man-form meet. 



haerentem Peleus et acerbo vulnere victum 
(stabat enim propior) mediam ferit ense sub alvum. 
prosiluit terraque ferox sua viscera traxit 390 

tractaque calcavit calcataque rupit et illis 
crura quoque inpediit et inani concidit alvo. 

" Nee te pugnantem tua, Cyllare, forma redemit, 
si modo naturae formam concedimus illi. 
barba erat incipiens, barbae color aureus, aurea 395 
ex umeris inedios coma dependebat in armos. 
gratus in ore vigor ; cervix umerique manusque 
pectoraque artificum laudatis proxima signis, 
et quacurnque vir est; nee equi mendosa sub illo 
deteriorque viro facies ; da colla caputque, 400 

Castore dignus erit : sic tergum sessile, sic sunt 
pectora celsa toris. totus pice nigrior atra, 
Candida cauda tamen; color est quoque cruribus albus. 
multae ilium petiere sua de gente, sed una 
abstulit Hvlonome, qua nulla decentior inter 405 
semiferos altis habitavit femina silvis; 
haec et blanditiis et amando et amare fatendo 
Cyllaron una tenet, cultu quoque, quantus in illis 
esse potest membris, ut sit coma pectine levis, 
ut modo rore maris, modo se violave rosave 410 

inplicet, interdum candentia lilia gestet, 
bisque die lapsis Pagasaeae vertice silvae 
fontibus ora lavet, bis flumine corpora tinguat, 
nee nisi quae deceant electarumque ferarum 
aut umero aut lateri praetendat vellera laevo. 415 


arose, but Peleus, for he was near him, while the 
centaur stood pinned and helpless with that sore 
wound, smote him with his sword full in the belly. 
He leaped fiercely forward, trailing his entrails on 
the ground ; and as he trailed he trod upon them 
and burst them as he trod, tangled his legs in them, 
and fell with empty belly to the earth. 

" But your beauty, Cyllarus, did not save you from 
death in that great fight, if indeed we grant beauty 
to your tribe. His beard was just in its first growth, 
a golden beard, and golden locks fell down from his 
neck upon his shoulders. He had a pleasing spright- 
liness of face ; and his neck, shoulders, breast, and 
hands, and all his human parts you would praise as 
equal to an artist's perfect work. His equine part, 
too, was without blemish, no way less perfect than his 
human part. Give him but neck and head, and he will 
be worthy of Castor's use : so shaped for the seat his 
back, so bold stood out the muscles on his deep chest. 
All blacker than pitch he was ; yet his tail was white ; 
his legs also were snowy white. Many females of 
his own kind sought him, but Hylonome alone had 
won him, than whom there was no other centaur- 
maid more comely in all the forest depths. She, by 
her coaxing, ways, by loving and confessing love, 
alone possessed Cyllarus ; and by her toilet, too, so 
far as such a thing was possible to such a form ; for 
now she smoothed her long locks with a comb, now 
twined rosemary, now violets or roses in her hair, 
and sometimes she wore white lilies. Twice each 
day she bathed her face in the brook that fell down 
from a wooded height by Pagasa, and twice dipped 
her body in the stream. Nor would she wear on 
shoulder or left side aught but becoming garments, 
skins of well-chosen beasts. They both felt equal love. 



par amor est illis : errant in montibus una, 
antra simul subeunt ; et turn Lapitheia tecta 
intrarant pariter, pariter fera bella gerebant : 
(auctor in incerto est) iaculum de parte sinistra 
venit et inferius, quam collo pectora subsunt, 420 
Cyllare, te fixit ; parvo cor vulnere laesum 
corpore cum toto post tela educta refrixit. 
protinus Hylonome morientes excipit artus 
inpositaque manu vulnus fovet oraque ad ora 
admovet atque animae fugienti obsistere temptat ; 
ut videt exstinctum, dictis, quae clamor ad aures 426 
arcuit ire meas, telo, quod inhaeserat illi, 
incubuit moriensque suum conplexa maritum est. 

" Ante oculos stat et ille meos, qui sena leonum 
vinxerat inter se conexis vellera nodis, 430 

Phaeocomes,homiiiemque simul protectus equumque; 
codice qui misso, quern vix iuga bina moverent, 
Tectaphon Oleniden a summo vertice fregit; 
fracta volubilitas capitis latissima, perque os 
perque cavas nares oculosque auresque cerebrum 435 
molle fluit, veluti concretum vimine querno 
lac solet utve liquor rari sub pondere cribri 
manat et exprimitur per densa foramina spissus. 
ast ego, dum parat hie armis nudare iacentem, 
(scit tuus hoc genitor) gladium spoliantis in ima 440 
ilia demisi. Chthonius quoque Teleboasque 
ense iacent nostra : ramum prior ille bifurcum 


Together they would wander on the mountain-sides, 
together rest within the caves. On this occasion 
also they had come together to the palace of the 
Lapithae, and were waging fierce battle side by side. 
Thrown from an unknown hand, a javelin came from 
the left and pierced you, Cyllarus, below where the 
chest rises to the neck. The heart, though but 
slightly wounded, grew cold and the whole body also 
after the weapon had been drawn out. Straightway 
Hylonome embraced the dying body, fondled the 
wound with her hand and, placing her lips upon his 
lips, strove to hold from its passing the dying breath. 
But when she saw that he was dead, with some words 
which the surrounding uproar prevented me from 
hearing, she threw herself upon the spear which had 
pierced Cyllarus and fell in a dying embrace upon 
her lover. 

" Still there stands clear before my eyes one who 
had with knotted thongs bound together six lion- 
hides, Phaeocomes, thus protecting both man and 
horse. Hurling a log which two yokes of cattle 
could scarce move, he struck Tectaphos, the son of 
Olenus, a crushing blow upon the head. The broad 
dome of his head was shattered, and through his 
mouth, through hollow nostrils, eyes, and ears oozed 
the soft brains, as when curdled milk drips through 
oaken withes, 1 or a thick liquid mass trickles through 
a coarse sieve weighted down, and is squeezed out 
through the crowded apertures. But I, even as he 
made ready to spoil his fallen victim — your father 
can testify to this — thrust my sword deep into the 
spoiler's groin. Chthonius also and Teleboas fell by 
my sword. The one had carried a forked stick as 

1 Referring to the process of straining curds in cheese- 



gesserat, hie iaculum ; iaculo mihi vulnera fecit: 
signa vides ! adparet adhuc vetus inde cicatrix, 
tunc ego debueram capiendo Pergama mitti ; 445 
turn poteram magni, si non superare, morari 
Hectoris arma meis ! illo sed tempore nullus, 
aut puer, Hector erat, nunc me mea deficit aetas. 
quid tibi victorem gemini Periphanta Pyraethi, 
Ampyca quid referam, qui quadrupedantis Eehecli 
fixit in adverso cornum sine cuspide vultu ? 451 

vecte Pelethronium Macareus in pectus adacto 
stravit Erigdupum ; memini et venabula condi 
inguine Nesseis manibus coniecta Cymeli. 
nee tu credideris tantum cecinisse futura 455 

Ampyciden Mopsum : Mopso iaculante biformis 
accubuit frustraque loqui temptavit Hodites 
ad mentum lingua mentoque ad guttura fixo. 

" Quinque neci Caeneus dederat Styphelumque 

Antimachumque Elymumque securiferumque Pyrac- 

mon : 460 

vulnera non memini, numerum nomenque notavi. 
provolat Emathii spoliis armatus Halesi, 
quern dederat leto, membris et corpore Latreus 
maximus : huic aetas inter iuvenemque senemque, 
vis iuvenalis erat, variabant tempora cani. 465 

qui clipeo gladioque Macedoniaque sarisa 
conspicuus faciemque obversus in agmen utrumque 
armaque concussit certumque equitavit in orbem 


weapon ; the other had a spear, and with this spear 
he gave me a wound — you see the mark .'—the old 
scar is still visible. Those were the days when I 
should have been sent to capture Pergama ; then 
with my arms I could have checked, if not sur- 
passed, the arms of Hector. But at that time mighty 
Hector was either not yet born or was but a little 
boy ; and now old age has sapped my strength What 
need to tell you how Periphas overcame the double- 
formed Pyraethus ? Why tell of Ampyx, who with 
a pointless shaft thrust through the opposing front 
of the four-footed Echeclus? Macareus hurled a 
crow-bar at the breast of Pelethronian Erigdupus and 
laid him low. And I remember also how a hunting 
spear, thrown by the hand of Nessus, was buried in 
the groin of Cymelus. Nor must you deem that 
Mopsus, the son of Ampycus, was only a seer l telling 
what was to come ; for by Mopsus' weapon the two- 
formed Hodites fell, striving in vain to speak, for his 
tongue had been pinned to his chin and his chin to 
his throat. 

" Caeneus had already put five to death : Styphelus 
and Bromus, Antimachus and Elymus and Pyracmos, 
armed with a battle-axe. I do not remember their 
wounds, but their number and names I marked 
well. Then forth rushed one, armed with the spoils 
of Emathian Halesus whom he had slain, Latreus, of 
enormous bulk of limb and body. His years were 
midway between youth and age, but his strength was 
youthful. Upon his temples his hair was turning 
grey. Conspicuous for his shield and sword and 
Macedonian lance, and facing either host in turn, he 
clashed his arms and rode round in a circle, insolently 

1 He did indeed have prophetic powers, but here he is 
pictured as a mighty warrior. 



verbaque tot fudit vacuas animosus in auras : 
' et te, Caeni, feram ? nam tu mihi femina semper, 
tu mihi Caenis eris. nee te natalis origo 471 

commonuit, mentemque subit, quo praemia facto 
quaque viri falsam speciem mercede parasti ? 
vel quid nata, vide, vel quid sis passa, columque, 
i, cape cum calathis et stamina pollice torque; 475 
bella relinque viris.' iactanti talia Caeneus 
extentum cursu missa latus eruit hasta, 
qua vir equo commissus erat. furit ille dolore 
nudaque Phyllei iuvenis ferit ora sarisa : 
non secus haec resilit, quam tecti a culmine grando, 
aut siquis parvo feriat cava tympana saxo. 481 

comminus adgreditur laterique recondere duro 
luctatur gladium : gladio loca pervia non sunt. 
' haut tamen effugies ! medio iugulaberis ense, 
quandoquidem mucro est hebes' inquit et in latus 
ensem 485 

obliquat longaque amplectitur ilia dextra. 
plaga facit gemitus in corpore marmoris icti, 
fractaque dissiluit percusso lammina callo. 
ut satis inlaesos miranti praebuit artus, 
' nunc age ' ait Caeneus ' nostro tua corpora f'erro 490 
temptemus ! ' capuloque tenus demisit in armos 
ensem fatiferum caecumque in viscera movit 
versavitque manu vulnusque in vulnere fecit, 
ecce ruunt vasto rabidi clamore bimembres 
telaque in hunc omnes unum mittuntque feruntque. 
tela retusa cadunt : rnanet inperfussus ab omni 49b 
inque cruentatus Caeneus Elateius ictu. 


pouring out many boasts on the empty air : ' You too, 
Caenis, shall I brook ? For woman shall you always 
be to me, Caenis shall you be. Does not your birth 
remind you, do you not remember for what act you 
were rewarded, at what price you gained this false 
appearance of a man ? Heed well what you were 
born or what you have endured. Go then, take 
distaff and wool-basket and twist the spun thread 
with practised thumb ; but leave wars to men.' As 
he thus boasted, Caeneus, hurling his spear, plowed 
up the centaur's side stretched in the act of running, 
just where man and horse were joined. Mad with 
the pain, the other smote the Phylleian youth full in 
the naked face with his long lance ; but this leaped 
back again like a hailstone from a roof, or a pebble 
from a hollow drum. Then he closed up and strove 
to thrust his sword in his unyielding side. The sword 
found no place of entrance. ' But you shall not 
escape ! with the sword's edge I'll slay you, though its 
point be blunt,' the centaur cried ; then turned his 
sword edgewise and reached with his long right arm 
for his foeman's loins ; the blow resounded on the 
flesh as if on stricken marble, and the blade, striking 
the hardened skin, broke into pieces. When long 
enough he had stood unharmed before his amazed 
enemy, Caeneus exclaimed : ' Come now, let me try 
your body with my steel ! ' and clear to the hilt he 
drove his deadly sword in the other's side, and there 
in his vitals twisted and turned the buried weapon, 
inflicting wound within wound. Now, quite beside 
themselves, the double monsters rushed on with huge 
uproar, and all together against that single foe they 
aimed and drove their weapons. The spears fell 
blunted, and Caeneus, the son of Elatus, still stood, 
for all their strokes, unwounded and unstained. The 



fecerat attonitos nova res. ' heu dedecus ingens ! ' 
Monychus exclamat. ' populus superamur ab uno 499 
vixque viro ; quamquam ille vir est, nos segnibus actis, 
quod fuit ille, sumus. quid membra inmania prosunt ? 
quid geminae vires et quod fortissima rerum 
in nobis duplex natura animalia iunxit? 
nee nos matre dea, nee nos Ixione natos 
esse reor, qui tantus erat, Iunonis ut altae 505 

spem caperet : nos semimari superamur ab hoste ! 
saxa trabesque super totosque involvite montes 
vivacemque animam missis elidite silvis ! 
silva premat fauces, et erit pro vulnere pondus.' 
dixit et insanis deiectam viribus austri 510 

forte trabem nactus validum coniecit in hostem 
exemplumque fuit, parvoque in tempore nudus 
arboris Othrys erat, nee habebat Pelion umbras, 
obrutus inmani cumulo sub pondere Caeneus 
aestuat arboreo congestaque robora duris 515 

fert umeris, sed enim postquam super ora caputque 
crevit onus neque habet, quas ducat, spiritus auras, 
deficit interdum, modo se super aera frustra 
tollere conatur iactasque evolvere silvas 
interdumque movet, veluti, quam cernimus, ecce, 520 
ardua si terrae quatiatur motibus Ide. 
exitus in dubio est : alii sub inania corpus 
Tartara detrusum silvarum mole ferebant; 
abnuit Ampycides medioque ex aggere fulvis 
vidit avem pennis liquidas exire sub auras, 525 

quae mihi turn primum, tunc est conspecta supremum- 
hanc ubi lustrantem leni sua castra volatu 


strange sight struck them speechless. Then Mony- 
chus exclaimed : * Oh, what a shame is this ! We, 
a whole people, are defied by one, and he scarcely 
a man. And yet he is the man, while we, with our 
weak attempts, are what he was before. Of what 
advantage are our monster-forms ? What our two- 
fold strength ? What avails it that a double nature 
has united in our bodies the strongest living things ? 
We are not sons of any goddess nor Ixion's sons, I 
think. For he was high-soul ed enough to aspire to 
be great Juno's mate, while we are conquered by an 
enemy but half-man ! Come then, let us heap stones 
and tree-trunks on him, mountains at a time ! let's 
crush his stubborn life out with forests for our 
missiles ! Let forests smother his throat, and for 
wounds let weight suffice.' He spoke and, chancing 
on a tree-trunk overthrown by mad Auster's might, 
he hurled it at his sturdy foe. The others followed 
him; and in short time Othrys was stripped of trees 
and Pelion had lost his shade. Buried beneath that 
huge mound, Caeneus heaved against the weight of 
trees and bore up the oaken mass upon his sturdy 
shoulders. But indeed, as the burden mounted over 
lips and head, he could get no air to breathe. Gasping 
for breath, at times he strove in vain to lift his head 
into the air and to throw off the heaped-up forest ; at 
times he moved, just as if lofty Ida, which we see 
yonder, should tremble with an earthquake. His 
end is doubtful. Some said that his body was 
thrust down by the weight of woods to the Tar- 
tarean pit ; but the son of Ampycus denied this. 
For from the middle of the pile he saw a bird with 
golden wings fly up into the limpid air. I saw it too, 
then for the first time and the last. As Mopsus 
watched him circling round his camp in easy flight 



Mopsus et ingenti circum clangore sonantem 
adspexit pariterque animis oculisque secutus 
'o salve/ dixit ' Lapithaeae gloria gentis, 530 

maxime vir quondam, sed nunc avis unica, Caeneu 1 ' 
credita res auctore suo est : dolor addidit iram, 
oppressumque aegre tulimus tot ab hostibus unum ; 
nee prius abstitimus ferro exercere dolorern, 
quam data pars leto, partem fuga noxque removit." 

Haec inter Lapithas et semihomines Centauros 536 
proelia Tlepolemus Pylio referente dolorem 
praeteriti Alcidae tacito non pertulit ore 
atque ait : " Herculeae mirum est oblivia laudis 
acta tibi, senior; certe mihi saepe referre 540 

nubigenas domitos a se pater esse solebat." 
tristis ad haec Pylius : " quid me meminisse malorum 
cogis et obductos annis rescindere luctus 
inque tuum genitorem odium offensasque fateri ? 
ille quidem maiora fide, di ! gessit et orbem 545 

inplevit meritis, quod mallem posse negare ; 
sed neque Deiphobum nee Polydamanta nee ipsum 
Hectora laudamus : quis enim laudaverit hostem ? 
ille tuus genitor Messenia moenia quondam 
stravit et inmeritas urbes Elimque Pylumque 550 
diruit inque meos ferrum flammamque penatis 
inpulit, utque alios taceam, quos ille peremit, 
bis sex Nelidae fuimus, conspecta iuventus, 
bis sex Herculeis ceciderunt me minus uno 
viribus ; atque alios vinci potuisse ferendum est: 555 
mira Periclymeni mors est, cui posse figuras 
sumere, quas vellet, rursusque reponere sumptas 


and heard the loud clangour of his wings, he followed 
him both with soul and eyes and cried: 'All hail, 
Caeneus, thou glory of the Lapithaean race, once 
most mighty hero, now sole bird of thy kind!' 
This story was believed because of him who told it. 
Then grief increased our wrath and we were indig- 
nant that one man should be overwhelmed by so 
many foes. Nor did we cease to ply sword on behalf 
of our mad grief till half our foes were slain and 
flight and darkness saved all the rest." 

As Pylian Nestor told this tale of strife betwixt the 
Lapithae and half-human Centaurs, Tlepolemus could 
not restrain his resentment that Alcides had been 
passed by without a word, and said : " Old sir, 'tis 
strange that you have forgotten to speak in praise of 
Hercules ; for surely my father used often to tell me 
of the cloud-horn l creatures he had overcome." And 
sternly the Pylian answered him : " Why do you 
force me to remember wrongs, to reopen a grief that 
was buried by the lapse of years, and to rehearse the 
injuries that make me hate your father? He has 
done deeds beyond belief, Heaven knows! and filled 
the earth with well-earned praise, which I would 
gladly deny him if I could. But neither Dei'phobus 
nor Polydamas nor even Hector do we praise ; for 
who cares to praise his enemy ? That sire of yours 
once laid low Messene's walls, brought undeserved 
destruction upon Elis and Pylos, and devastated my 
own home with fire and sword. To say nothing of 
the others whom he slew, there were twelve of us 
sons of Neleus, a noble band of youths ; and all 
twelve, save me alone, fell by Hercules' might. 
That others could be conquered must be borne ; but 
strange was the death of Periclymenus ; for to him 
dee Index i.v. " Centaurs." 
H 219 


Neptunus dederat, Nelei sanguinis auctor. 

hie ubi nequiquam est formas variatus in omnes, 

vertitur in faciem volucris, quae fulmina curvis 560 

ferre solet pedibus divum gratissima regi; 

viribus usus avis pennis rostroque redunco 

hamatisque viri laniaverat unguibus ora. 

tendit in hanc nimium certos Tirynthius arcus 

atque inter nubes sublimia membra ferentem 565 

pendentemque ferit, lateri qua iungitur ala ; 

nee grave vulnus erat, sed rupti vulnere nervi 

deficiunt motumque negant viresque volandi. 

decidit in terram, non concipientibus auras 

infirmis pennis, et qua levis haeserat alae 570 

corporis adfixi pressa est gravitate sagitta 

perque latus summum iugulo est exacta sinistro 

nunc videor debere tui praeconia rebus 

Herculis, o Rhodiae ductor pulcherrime classis ? 

nee tamen ulterius, quam fortia facta siiendo 575 

ulciscor fratres : solida est mihi gratia tecum." 

Haec postquam dulci Neleius edidit ore, 
a sermone senis repetito munere Bacchi 
surrexere toris : nox est data cetera somno. 

At deus, aequoreas qui cuspide temperat undas, 580 
in volucrem corpus nati Phaethontida versum 
mente dolet patria saevumque perosus Achillem 
exercet memores plus quam civiliter iras. 
iamque fere tracto duo per quinquennia bello 


Neptune, father of Neleus, had given power to 
assume any form he pleased and to put it off again 
at will. When now he had vainly changed to each 
of his forms in turn, he took the form of the bird 
which carries the thunderbolts in his hooked talons, 
a bird most dear to the king of the gods. With all 
his might of wings, of curved beak and hooked claws, 
he had torn the hero's face. Then the Tirynthian 
aimed his too unerring bow at him as he bore his 
body high into the clouds and hung poised there, 
and smote him where wing joins side. The wound 
was not severe ; but the sinews severed by the wound 
failed of their office and refused motion and power 
of flight. Down to the earth he fell, his weakened 
wings no longer catching the air; and the arrow, 
where it had lightly pierced the wing, pressed by 
the weight of the body in which it hung, was driven 
clear through the upper breast from the left side 
into the throat. And now, O fairest leader of the 
Rhodian fleet, what cause have I, think you, to sing 
the praises of your Hercules? Yet for my brothers 
I seek no other vengeance than to ignore his mighty 
deeds. 'Twixt me and you there is unbroken 

When Nestor with sweet speech had told this 
tale, at the conclusion of the old man's words the 
wine-cup went around once more and they rose 
from the couches. The remainder of the night was 
given to sleep. 

But the god who rules the waters of the sea with 
his trident was still filled with a father's grief for his 
son whose body he had changed into the bird * of 
Phaethon. And, hating the murderous Achilles, he 
indulged his unforgetting wrath excessively. And 
i The swan. See Index $.v. " Phaethon." 



talibus intonsum conpellat Smintliea dictis: 585 

"o mihi de fratris longe gratissime natis, 

inrita qui mecum posuisti moenia Troiae, 

ecquid, ubi has iamiam casuras adspicis arces, 

ingemis ? aut ecquid tot defendentia muros 

milia caesa doles ? ecquid, ne persequar omnes, 5<)0 

Hectoris umbra subit circum sua Pergama tracti ? 

cum tamen ille ferox belloque cruentior ipso 

vivit adhuc, operis nostri populator, Achilles. 

det mihi se : faxo, triplici quid cuspide possim, 

sentiat ; at quoniam concurrere comminus hosti 595 

non datur, occulta necopinum perde sagitta ! " 

adnuit atque animo pariter patruique suoque 

Delius indulgens nebula velatus in agmen 

pervenit Iliacum mediaque in caede virorum 

rara per ignotos spargentem cernit Achivos 600 

tela Parin fassusque deum, "quid spicula perdis 

sanguine plebis ? " ait. " sique est tibi cura tuorum 

vertere in Aeaciden caesosque ulciscere fratres ! " 

dixit et ostendens sternentem Troica ferro 

corpora Peliden, arcus obvertit in ilium 605 

certaque letifera direxit spicula dextra. 

quod Priamus gaudere senex post Hectora posset, 

hoc fuit ; ille igitur tantorum victor, Achille, 

victus es a timido Graiae raptore maritae ! 

at si femineo fuerat tibi Marte cadendum, 610 

Thermodontiaca malles cecidisse bipenni. 



now for nigh ten years the war had been prolonged, 
when he thus addressed Sminthean Apollo of the 
unshorn locks : " O thou, by far the best beloved of 
my brother's sons, thou who with me (though vainly) 
didst build the walls of Troy, dost thou not groan 
at sight of these battlements so soon to fall ? Dost 
thou not grieve that so many thousands have been 
slain in defending these walls ? Not to name them 
all, does not Hector's image come before thee, 
dragged around his own Pergama ? But Achilles, 
fierce and more cruel than war itself, still lives, the 
destroyer of our handiwork. Let him but come 
within my reach. I'll make him feel what I can do 
with my three-forked spear. But since it is not 
granted me to meet my enemy face to face, do thou 
bring him to sudden death by thy unseen arrow !" 
The Delian nodded assent and, indulging equally his 
own and his uncle's desire, wrapped in a cloud came 
to the Trojan lines. There midst the bloody strife 
of heroes he saw Paris taking infrequent shots at 
the nameless crowd. Revealing his divinity, he 
said : " Why do you waste your arrows in killing 
common folk ? If you would serve your people, aim 
at Aeacides and avenge your slaughtered brothers !" 
He spoke and, pointing where Pelides was working 
havoc on the Trojans with his spear, he turned the 
bow in his direction and guided the well-aimed 
shaft with his death-dealing hand. This was the 
first cause for joy which old Priam had since Hector's 
death. So then, Achilles, thou conqueror of the 
mightiest, thou art thyself o'ercome by the cowardly 
ravisher of a Grecian's wife ! But if thou hadst been 
fated to fall by a woman's battle-stroke, how gladly 
wouldst thou have fallen by the Amazon's double 



lam timor ille Phrjgum, decus et tutela Pelasgi 
nominis, Aeacides, caput insuperabile bello, 
arserat : armarat deus idem idemque cremarat ; 
lam cinis est, et de tarn magno restat Achille 6l 5 
nescio quid parvum, quod non bene conpleat urnam, 
at vivit totum quae gloria conpleat orbem. 
haec ill i mensura viro respondet, et hac est 
par sibi Pelides nee inania Tartara sentit. 
ipse etiam, ut, cuius fuerit, cognoscere possis, 620 
bella movet clipeus, deque armis arma feruntur. 
non ea Tydides, non audet Oileos Aiax, 
non minor Atrides, non bello maior et aevo 
poscere, non alii : solis Telamone creato 
Laerteque fuit tantae fiducia laudis. 625 

a se Tantalides onus invidiamque removit 
Argolicosque duces mediis considere castris 
iussit et arbitrium litis traiecit in omnes. 



And now that terror of the Phrygians, that orna- 
ment and bulwark of the Pelasgian name, Aeacides, 
the invincible captain of the war, was burned. One 
and the same god armed him and consumed him too. 
Now he is but dust ; and of Achilles, once so great, 
there remains a pitiful handful, hardly enough to fill 
an urn. But his glory lives, enough to fill the whole 
round world. This is the true measure of the man ; 
and in this the son of Peleus is still his real self, and 
does not know empty Tartarus. His very shield, 
that you might know to whom it once belonged, still 
wages war, and for his arms arms are taken up. 
Neither Tydides nor Ajax, Oileus' son, dares to claim 
them, nor the lesser 1 Atrides, nor the greater 2 in 
prowess and in age, nor other chieftains. Only the 
son 3 of Telamon and Laertes' son 4 were bold enough 
to claim so great a prize. To escape the hateful 
burden of a choice between them, Tantalides 6 bade 
the Grecian captains assemble in the midst of the 
camp, and he referred to all the decision of the 

1 Menelaiia 2 Agamemnon. * Ajax. 

* Ulyssea. 8 Agamemnon, 




Consedere duces et vulgi stante corona 

Mirgit ad hos clipei dominus septemplicis Aiax, 

utque erat inpatiens irae, Sigeia torvo 

litora respexit classemque in litore vultu 

intendensque manus " agimus, pro Iuppiter ! " inquit 

"ante rates causam, et mecum confertur Ulixes ! 6 

at non Hectoreis dubitavit cedere flammis, 

quas ego sustinui, quas hac a classe fugavi. 

tutius est igitur fictis contendere verbis, 

quam pugnare manu, sed nee mihi dicere promptum, 

nee facere est isti : quantumque ego Marte feroci 1 1 

inque acie valeo, tantum valet iste loquendo. 

nee memoranda tamen vobis mea facta, Pelasgi, 

esse reor : vidistis enim ; sua narret Ulixes, 

quae sine teste gerit, quorum nox conscia sola est ' 1 5 

praemia magna peti fateor ; sed demit honorem 

aemulus : Aiaci non est tenuisse superbum, 

sit licet hoc ingens, quicquid speravit Ulixes ; 

iste tulit pretium iam nunc temptaminis huius, 

quod, cum victus erit, mecum certasse feretur. 20 

" Atque ego, si virtus in me dubitabilis esset, 
nobilitate potens essem, Telamone creatus, 
moenia qui forti Troiana sub Hercule cepit 
litoraque intravit Pagasaea Colcha carina ; 


The chiefs took their seats, while the commons stood 
in a ring about them. Then up rose Ajax, lord of 
the sevenfold shield. With uncontrolled indignation 
he let his lowering gaze rest awhile on the Sigean 
shores and on the fleet; then, pointing to these, 
" By Jupiter ! " he cried, " in the presence of these 
ships 1 plead my cause, and my competitor is — 
Ulysses ! But he did not hesitate to give way before 
Hector's torches, which I withstood, nay, which I 
drove away from this fleet. 'Tis safer, then, to 
fight with lying words than with hands. But 1 am 
not prompt to speak, as he is not to act ; and I am 
as much his master in the fierce conflict of the battle- 
line as he is mine in talk. As for my deeds, O 
Greeks, I do not think I need rehearse them to you, 
for you have seen them. Let Ulysses tell of his, 
done without witness, done with the night alone 
to see them ! I own that it is a mighty prize I 
strive for ; but such a rival takes away the honour 
of it. It is no honour for Ajax to have gained a 
prize, however great, to which Ulysses has aspired. 
Already he has gained reward enough in this contest 
because, when conquered, he still can say he strove 
with me. 

" And even if my valour were in doubt, I should still 
be his superior in birth ; for Telamon was my father, 
who in company with valiant Hercules took the walls 
of Troy and with the Pagasaean ship sailed to Colchis. 



Aeacus huic pater est, qui iura silentibus illic 25 

reddit, ubi Aeoliden saxum grave Sisyphon urget ; 
Aeacon agnoscit summus prolemque fatetur 
Iuppiter esse suam : sic ab love tertius Aiax. 
nee tamen haec series in causam prosit, Achivi, 
si mihi cum magno non est communis Achille : 30 
frater erat, fraterna peto ! quid sanguine cretus 
Sfsyphio furtisque et fraude simillimus illi 
inseris Aeacidis alienae nomina gentis ? 

" An quod in arma prior nulloque sub indice veni, 
arma neganda mihi, potiorque videbitur ille, 35 

ultima qui cepit detractavitque furore 
militiam ficto, donee sollertior isto, 
sed sibi inutilior timidi commenta retexit 
Naupliades animi vitataque traxit ad arma ? 
optima num sumat, quia sumere noluit ulla : 40 

nos inhonorati et donis patruelibus orbi, 
obtulimus quia nos ad prima pericula, simus? 

" Atque utinam aut verus furor ille, aut creditus 
nee comes hie Phrygias umquam venisset ad arces 
hortator scelerum ! non te, Poeantia proles, 45 

expositum Lemnos nostro cum crimine haberet . 
qui nunc, ut memorant, silvestribus abditus antris 
saxa moves gemitu Laertiadaeque precaris, 
quae meruit, quae, si di sunt, non vana precaris. 
et nunc ille eadem nobis iuratus in arma, 50 

heu ! pars una ducum, quo successore sagittae 
Herculis utuntur, fractus morboque fameque 
velaturque aliturque avibus, volucresque petendo 


His father was Aeacus, who is passing judgment in 
that silent world where Sisyphus Aeolides strains to 
his heavy stone ; and most high Jupiter acknow- 
ledges Aeacus as his son. Thus Ajax is the third 
remove from Jove. But let this descent be of no 
avail to my cause, O Greeks, if I do not share it with 
the great Achilles. He was my cousin ; a cousin's 
arms I seek. Why do you, the son of Sisyphus, 
exactly like him in his tricks and fraud, seek to asso- 
ciate the Aeacidae with the name of an alien family? 

" Aye, is it because I came first to arms needing 
no detection, 1 that arms are denied me ? And shall 
he appear the better man who came last to arms and 
by feigned madness shirked the war, till one more 
shrewd than he, but not to his own advantage, the son 
of Nauplius, uncovered this timid fellow's trick and 
dragged him forth to the arms that he shunned ? Shall 
he take the best because he wanted to take none ? 
And shall I go unhonoured, denied my cousin's gifts, 
just because I was the first to front the danger? 

" And oh, that his madness either had been real, or 
had never been detected, and that this criminal had 
never come with us against the Phrygians ! Then, son 
of Poeas, Lemnos would not possess you, landed there 
to our sin and shame, you who, they say, hidden in 
forest lairs, move the very rocks with your groans and 
call down curses on Laertes' son which he has richly 
merited, and which, if there are any gods, you do not 
call down in vain. And now he, who took oath with 
us for this same war, alas ! one of our chieftains, who 
fell heir to Alcides' shafts, now, broken with disease 
and hunger, is clothed and fed by the birds, and in 
pursuit of birds uses those arrows which fate intended 

» Referring to Palamedes, who had exposed Ulysses' feigned 
madness and brought him to the war. See Index. 



debita Troianis exercet spicula fatis. 

ille tamen vivit, quia non comitavit Ulixen ; 55 

mallet et infelix Palamedes esse relictus : 

viveret aut certe letum sine crimine haberet ; 

quem male convicti nimium memor iste furoris 

prodere rem Danaam finxit fictumque probavit 

crimen et ostendit, quod iam praefoderat, aurum. 60 

ergo aut exilio vires subduxit Achivis, 

aut nece : sic pugnat, sic est metuendus Ulixes ! 

w Qui licet eloquio fidum quoque Nestora vincat, 
haut tamen efficiet, desertum ut Nestora crimen 
esse rear nullum ; qui cum inploraret Ulixen 65 

vulnere tardus equi fessusque senilibus annis, 
proditus a socio est ; non haec mihi crimina fingi 
scit bene Tydides, qui nomine saepe vocatum 
corripuit trepidoque fugam exprobravit amico. 
aspiciunt oculis superi mortalia iustis ! 70 

en eget auxilio, qui non tulit, utque reliquit, 
sic linquendus erat : legem sibi dixerat ipse, 
conclamat socios : adsum videoque trementem 
pallentemque metu et trepidantem morte futura ; 
opposui molem clipei texique iacentem 75 

servavique animam (minimum est hoc laudis) inertem. 
si perstas certare, locum redeamus in ilium : 
redde hostem vulnusque tuum solitumque timorem 
post clipeumque late et mecum contende sub illo ! 
at postquam eripui, cui standi vulnera vires 80 

non dederant, nullo tardatus vulnere fugi* 


for Troy ! But yet he lives at least, because he did 
not keep on with Ulysses. Ill-fated Palamedes, too, 
would prefer to have been left behind. He would 
be living still, or at least would have died without dis- 
honour, whom that fellow there, all too mindful of 
the unfortunate exposure of his madness, charged 
with betraying the Greek cause, and in proof of 
his false charge showed the gold which he had 
already hidden there. So then, either by exile 
or by death he has been drawing off the Grecian 
strength. So does Ulysses fight, so must he be 
feared ! 

" Though he should surpass even trusty Nestor in 
his eloquence, he will never make me believe that his 
desertion of Nestor was other than a crime. For 
when he, slow from his horse's wound and spent with 
extreme age, appealed to Ulysses, he was deserted by 
his friend. And that I am not making up this tale 
Tydides knows full well, for he repeatedly called upon 
him by name and chided his timid friend for flight. 
But the gods regard the affairs of men with righteous 
eyes. Behold he is in need of aid who rendered none ; 
and as he left another, so was he fated to be left. 
He had established his own precedent. He cried 
aloud upon his friends. I came and saw him trem- 
bling, pale with fear, shrinking from impending death 
I thrust forward my massive shield and covered him 
where he lay, and I saved his worthless life — small 
praise in that. If you persist in this contention let 
us go back to that spot ; bring back the enemy, your 
wound and your accustomed fear ; hide behind my 
shield and contend with me beneath it. But after I 
rescued him, he,who because of his wounds had had no 
strength to stand, now fled away not hindered by his 
wounds at all ' 



" Hector adest secumque deos in proelia ducit, 
quaque ruit, non tu tantum terreris, Ulixe, 
sed fortes etiam : tantum trahit ille timoris. 
hunc ego sanguineae successu catdis ovantem 8.5 
eminus ingenti resupinum pondere fudi, 
hnnc ego poscentem, cum quo concurreret, unus 
sustinui : sortemque meam vovistis, Achivi, 
et vestrae valuere preces. si quaeritis huius 
fortunam pugnae, r.on sum superatus ab illo. 90 

ecce ferunt Troes ferrumque ignesque Iovemque 
in Danaas classes : ubi nunc facundus Ulixes ? 
nempe ego mille meo protexi pectore puppes, 
spem vestri reditus : date pro tot navibus arma. 

" Quodsi vera licet mihi dicere, quaeritur istis 95 
quam mihi maior honos,coniunctaque gloria nostra est, 
atque Aiax armis, non Aiaci arma petuntur. 
conferat his Ithacus Rhesum inbellemque Dolona 
Priamidenque Helenum rapta cum Pallade captum : 
luce nihil gestum, nihil est Diomede remoto ; 100 
si semel ista datis meritis tarn vilibus arma, 
dividite, et pars sit maior Diomedis in illis. 

" Quo tamen haec Itliaco, qui clam, qui semper 
rem gerit et furtis incautum decipit hostem ? 
ipse nitor galeae claro radiantis ab auro 105 

insidias prodet manifestabitque latentem ; 
sed neque Dulichius sub Achillis casside vertex 
pondera tanta feret, nee non onerosa gravisque 
Pelias hasta potest inbellibus esse lacertis, 
nee clipeus vasti caelatus imagine mundi 1 1 



" Here is Hector, and he brings the gods with him 
into battle ; and where he rushes on, not you alone 
are terrified, Ulysses, but brave men also ; so much 
terror does he inspire. Him, rejoicing in the success 
of his bloody slaughter, I laid low upon the ground 
with a huge stone which I threw ; and when he 
challenged one to meet him, I alone bore the brunt 
of his attack. You prayed, O Greeks, that the lot 
might fall to me, and your prayers were heard. If 
you ask the outcome of the battle, at least I was not 
overcome by him. Behold, the Trojans bring sword 
and fire and Jove against the Greek ships. Where 
now is the eloquent Ulysses? But I with my own 
breast stood bulwark for the thousand ships, the hope 
of your return. Grant me these arms for all those 

" But if I may speak truth, the arms claim greater 
honour than do I ; they share my glory, and the 
arms seek Ajax, not Ajax the arms. Let the Ithacan 
compare with these deeds his Rhesus and unwarlike 
Dolon, his Helenus, Priam's son, taken captive, and 
the stolen Palladium : nothing done in the light of 
day, nothing apart from Diomede If you are really 
giving that armour for so cheap deserts, divide it and 
let the larger share in them be Diomede's. 

" But why give them to the Ithacan, who always 
does things stealthily, always unarmed, relying upon 
tricks to catch the enemy off his guard ? The very 
glint of the helmet gleaming with bright gold will 
betray his snares and discover him as he hides. But 
neither will the Dulichian'shead beneath the helmet 
of Achilles be able to bear so great a weight, norcan the 
spear-shaft, cut on Pelion, be otherwise than burden- 
some and heavy to his unwarlike arm. The shield 
also, a moulded picture of the vast universe, will not 



conveniet timidae nataeque ad furta sinistrae : 
debilitaturum quid te petis, inprobe, munus, 
quod tibi si populi donaverit error Achivi, 
cur spolieris, erit, non, cur metuaris ab hoste, 
et fuga, qua sola cunctos, timidissime, vincis, 1 1 5 

tarda futura tibi est gestamina tanta trahenti ? 
adde quod iste tuus, tarn raro proelia passus, 
integer est clipeus ; nostro, qui tela ferendo 
mille patet plagis, novus est successor habendus. 

"Denique (quid verbis opus est?) spectemur 
agendo ! 1 20 

arma viri fortis medios mittantur in hostes : 
inde iubete peti et referentem ornate relatis." 

Finierat Telamone satus, vulgique secutuin 
ultima murmur erat, donee Laertius heros 
adstitit atque oculos paulum tellure moratos 1 25 

sustulit ad proceres exspectatoque resolvit 
ora sono, neque abest facundis gratia dictis. 

" Si mea cum vestris valuissent vota, Pelasgi, 
non foret ambiguus tanti certaminis heres, 
tuque tuis armis, nos te poteremur, Achille, 1 30 

quem quoniam non aequa mihi vobisque negarunt 
fata^" (manuque simul veluti lacrimantia tersit 
lumina) " quis magno melius succedit Achilli, 
quam per quem magnus Danais successit Achilles ? 
huic modo ne prosit, quod, uti est, hebes esse vide- 
tur, 135 

neve mihi noceat, quod vobis semper, Achivi, 
profuit ingenium, meaque haec facundia, siqua est 


become his timid hand, the left one, made for stealing, 
Why do you seek a prize, you shameless fellow, that 
will overtax your strength ; a prize which, if by some 
mistake the Greeks should give it to you, will be 
reason for the foe to spoil, not fear you ? And flight, 
in which alone you surpass all others, most timid as 
you are, will prove but slow for you if you carry such 
a weight. Consider also that that shield of yours, so 
rarely used in battle, is quite uninjured; while mine, 
pierced in a thousand places by the thrusts of spears, 
needs a fresh shield to take its place. 

" Finally, what need of words? Let us be seen in 
action ! Let the brave hero's arms be sent into the 
enemy's midst ; bid them be recovered, and to their 
rescuer present the rescued arms." 

The son of Telamon finished, and the applause 
of the crowd followed his closing words. At length 
Laertes' heroic son stood up and, holding his eyes for 
a little on the ground, he raised them to the chiefs 
and broke silence with the words for which they 
waited ; nor was grace of manner lacking to his 
eloquent speech. 

"If my prayers and yours had availed, O Greeks, 
there would be no question as to the next heir in this 
great strife, and you, Achilles, would still have your 
own armour, and we should still have you. But since 
the unjust fates have denied him to me and you" 
(and with his hand he made as if to wipe tears from 
his eyes), " who would better receive the great 
Achilles' arms than he through whom the Greeks 
received the great Achilles ? Only let it not be to 
this fellow's profit that he seems to be, as indeed he 
is, slow of wit ; and let it not be, O Greeks, to my 
hurt that I have always used my wit for youi 
advantage. And let this eloquence of mine, if 3 


quae nunc pro domino, pro vobis saepe locuta est, 
invidia careat, bona nee sua quisque recuset. 

" Nam genus et proavos et quae non fecimus ipsi, 
vix ea nostra voco, sed enim, quia rettulit Aiax 141 
esse Iovis pronepos, nostri quoque sanguinis auctor 
Iuppiter est, totidemque gradus distamus ab illo : 
nam mihi Laertes pater est, Arcesius illi, 
Iuppiter huic, neque in his quisquam damnatus et 
exul ; 145 

est quoque per matrem Cyllenius addita nobis 
altera nobilitas : deus est in utroque pai ente. 
sed neque materno quod sum generosior ortu, 
nee mihi quod pater est fraterni sanguinis insons, 
proposita arraa peto : meritis expendite causarn, 1 .00 
dummodo, quod fratres Telamon Peleusque fuerunt, 
Aiacis meritum non sit nee sanguinis ordo, 
sed virtutis honor spoliis quaeratur in istis ! 
aut si proximitas primusque requiritur heres, 
est genitor Peleus, est Pyrrhus filius illi : 155 

quis locus Aiaci ? Phthiam haec Scyrumve ferantur ! 
nee minus est isto Teucer patruelis Achilli : 
num petit ille tamen ? num, si petat, auferat ilia ? 
ergo, operum quoniam nudum certamen habetur, 
plura quidem feci, quam quae conprendere dictis 160 
in promptu mihi sit, rerum tamen ordine ducar. 

" Praescia venturi genetrix Nereia leti 
dissimulat cultu natum, et deceperat omnes, 
in quibus Aiacem, sumptae fallacia vestis : 
arma ego femineis animum motura virilem 165 



have any, which now speaks for its owner, but often 
for you as well, incur no enmity, and let each man 
make the most of his own powers. 

" For as to race and ancestry and the deeds that 
others than ourselves have done, I call those in no 
true sense our own. But the truth is, since Ajax 
claims to be great-grandson of Jove, Jove is the 
founder of my race as well, and I am just as many 
steps removed from him. For Laertes is my father, 
Arcesius, his, and he, the son of Jupiter; nor in 
this line is there any exiled criminal. I have 
also on my mother's side another claim to noble 
birth, Cyllenius. 1 Through both my parents have I 
divine descent. But, neither because through my 
mother I am more nobly born, nor because my father 
is guiltless of his brother's blood, do I seek the 
armour that lies there. Weigh the cause on desert 
alone. Only count it not any desert of Ajax that 
Telamon and Peleus were brothers, and let not 
strains of blood, but the honour of manhood be con- 
sidered in the award. Or, if you seek for next of 
kin and lawful heir, Peleus is Achilles' father, 
Pyrrhus his son. What room is there for Ajax? 
Bear the armour hence to Phthia 2 or to Scyrus. 3 And 
Teucer is no less Achilles' cousin than he. Yet does 
he seek the arms, and if he did seek would he gain 
them ? So then, since 'tis a sheer strife of deeds, I 
have done more deeds than I can well enumerate. 
Still I will tell them in their order. 

"Achilles' Nereid mother, foreseeing her son's 

destruction, had disguised him, and the trick of the 

clothing that he wore deceived them all, Ajax among 

the rest. But I placed among women's wares some 

1 Mercury. 2 The home of Peleus. 

8 The home of Pyrrhus. 



mercibus inserui, neque adhuc proiecerat heros 
virgineos habitus, cum parmam hastamque tenenti 
' nate dea,' dixi ' tibi se peritura reservant 
Pergama ! quid dubitas ingentem evertere Troiam ? ' 
iniecique manum fortemque ad fortia misi. 1 70 

ergo opera illius mea sunt : ego Telephon hasta 
pugnantem domui victum orantemque refeci ; 
quod Thebae cecidere, meum est ; me credite Lesbon, 
me Tenedon Chrysenque et Cillan, Apollinis urbes, 
et Scyrum cepisse ; mea concussa putate 175 

procubuisse solo Lyrnesia moenia dextra, 
utque alios taceam, qui saevum perdere posset 
Hectora, nempe dedi : per me iacet inclitus Hector ! 
illis haec armis, quibus est inventus Achilles, 
anna peto : vivo dederam, post fata reposco. 180 

" Ut dolor unius Danaos pervenit ad omnes, 
Aulidaque Euboicam conplerunt mille carinae, 
exspectata diu, nulla aut contraria classi 
damina erant, duraeque iubent Agamemnona sortes 
inmeritam saevae natam mactare Dianae. 185 

denegat hoc genitor divisque irascitur ipsis 
atque in rege tamen pater est, ego mite parentis 
ingenium verbis ad publica commoda verti : 
hanc equidem (fateor, fassoque ignoscat Atrides) 
difficilem tenui sub iniquo iudice causam. 190 

hunc tamen utilitas populi fraterque datique 
summa movet sceptri, laudem ut cum sanguine penset; 
mittor et ad matrem, quae non hortanda, sed astu 


arms such as would attract a man. The hero still 
wore girl's clothing when, as he laid hands on shield 
and spear, I said to him : ' O son of Thetis, Pergama, 
doomed to perish, is keeping herself for you ! Why 
do you delay the fall of mighty Troy ? ' And 1 laid 
my hand on him and sent the brave fellow forth to 
do brave deeds. So then, all that he did is mine. 
'Twas I who conquered the warring Telephus with 
my spear and healed him, vanquished and begging 
aid. That Thebes fell is my deed ; credit Lesbos 
to me, to me Tenedos, Chryse and Cilia, cities of 
Apollo, and Scyrus too. Consider that by my hand 
the walls of Lyrnesus were battered to the ground. 
And, not to mention others, 'twas I, indeed, who 
gave the man who could destroy the warlike Hector. 
Through me illustrious Hector lies low ! These arms 
I seek in return for those by which Achilles was 
discovered. Arms I gave the living ; after his death 
I ask them back. 

" When the sorrow of one man came to all the 
Greeks, and a thousand ships were gathered at 
Euboean Aulis, there were no winds, though they 
waited for them long, or they blew contrary to the 
fleet. Then a cruel oracle bade Agamemnon sacrifice 
his innocent daughter to pitiless Diana. This the 
father refused to do and was angry at the gods them- 
selves, having a father's feelings though he was a 
king. It was I who by my words turned the kind 
father-heai*t to a consideration of the public weal ; I 
indeed (I confess it, and may Atrides pardon as I con- 
fess) had a difficult cause to plead, and that, too, before 
a partial judge; still the people's good, his brother, 
and the chief" place of command assigned to him, all 
moved upon him to balance praise with blood. Then 
I was sent to the mother, who was not to be exhorted, 



decipienda fuit, quo si Telamonius isset, 

orba suis essent etiarn nunc lintea ventis. 195 

" Mittor et Iliacas audax orator ad arces, 
visaque et intrata est altae mihi curia Troiae, 
plenaque adhuc erat ilia viris ; interritus egi, 
quam mihi mandarat communis Graecia, causam 199 
accusoque Parin praedamque Helenamque reposco 
et moveo Priamum Priamoque Antenora iunctum ; 
at Paris et fratres et qui rapuere sub illo, 
vix tenuere manus (scis hoc, Menelae) nefandas, 
primaque lux nostri tecum fuit ilia pericli. 

" Longa referre mora est, quae consilioque manuque 
utiliter feci spatiosi tempore belli. 206 

post acies primas urbis se moenibus hostes 
continuere diu, nee aperti copia Martis 
ulla fuit ; decimo demum pugnavimus anno : 
quid facis interea, qui nil nisi proelia nosti ? 210 

quis tuus usus erat ? nam si mea facta requiris, 
hostibus insidior, fossa munimina cingo, 
consolor socios, ut longi taedia belli 
mente ferant placida, doceo, quo simus alendi 
armandique modo, mittor, quo postulat usus. 2 1 5 

"Ecce Iovis monitu deceptus imagine somni 
rex iubet incepti curam dimittere belli; 
ille potest auctore suam defendere vocem : 
non sinat hoc Aiax delendaque Pergama poscat, 219 
quodque potest, pugnet ! cur non remoratur ituros ? 


but deceived by craft. But if the son of Telamon 
had gone to her, our sails would even now be destitute 
of their winds. 

" I was sent also as a bold ambassador to Ilium's 
stronghold and visited and entered the senate-house 
of lofty Troy. It was still full of heroes. Undaunted, 
I pleaded the cause which united Greece had en- 
trusted to me, I denounced Paris, demanded the 
return of Helen and the booty, and I prevailed on 
Priam and Antenor who sided with Priam. But 
Paris and his brothers and his companions in the 
robbery scarce restrained their impious hands from 
me (you know that, Menelaiis). That was the first 
day of my dangers shared with you. 

" It would take a long time to tell the things 1 
accomplished for your good both with thought and 
deed during the long-drawn war. After the first 
battles the enemy kept himself for a long time 
within his city's walls and there was no chance for 
open conflict. At last in the tenth year we fought. 
What were you doing in the meantime, you whose 
only knowledge is of battles ? Of what service were 
you then? If you ask what I was doing, I laid 
snares for the enemy, I surrounded the fortifications 
with a trench, I encouraged our allies so that they 
might bear patiently the tedium of the long war, I 
advised as to how we should be fed and armed, I was 
sent on missions where circumstance demanded. 

" Behold, at Jove's command, being deceived by a 
vision of the night, the king bids us give up the 
burden of the war we have undertaken. He can 
defend his order by quoting the source of it. Now 
let Ajax prevent this movement ; let him demand 
that Pergama be destroyed and, what he can do, let 
him fight ! Why does he not stay those who are 



cur non arma capit, dat, quod vaga turba sequatur ? 
non erat hoc nimium numquam nisi magna loquenti. 
quid, quod et ipse fugit? vidi, puduitque videre, 
cum tu terga dares inhonestaque vela parares ; 
nee mora, ' quid facitis ? quae vos dementia ' dixi 
' concitat, o socii, captam dimittere Troiam, 226 

quidque domum f'ertis decimo, nisi dedecus, anno ? ' 
talibus atque aliis, in quae dolor ipse disertum 
fecerat, aversos profuga de classe reduxi. 
convocat Atrides socios terrore paventes : 230 

nee Telamoniades etiamnunc hiscere quicquam 
audetj at ausus erat reges incessere dictis 
Thersites etiam, per me haut inpune protervus ' 
erigor et trepidos cives exhortor in hostem 
amissamque mea virtutem voce repono. 235 

tempore ab hoc, quodcumque potest fecisse videri 
fortiter iste, meum est, qui dantem terga retraxi. 
**. Denique de Danais quis te laudatve petitve ? 
at sua Tydides mecum communicat acta, 
me probat et socio semper confidit Ulixe. 240 

est aliquid, de tot Graiorum milibus unum 
a Diomede legi! nee me sors ire iubebat: 
sic tamen et spreto noctisquc hostisque periclo 
ausum eadem, quae nos, Phrygia de gente Dolona 
intcrimo, non ante tamen, quam cuncta coegi 245 
prodere et edidici, quid perfida Troia pararet. 


starting home ? Why does he not take arms and 
give something for the straggling mob to rally 
round ? This was not too much for one who never 
speaks except in boasting. But what of the fact 
that he himself fled also ? I saw you, and I was 
ashamed to see, when you turned your back and were 
for spreading your dishonoured sails. Instantly I 
cried : ' What are you doing ? What madness, my 
friends, is driving you to abandon Troy, which is 
already captured? What are you taking home after 
ten years of war except disgrace ? ' With such and 
other words, to which my very grief had made me 
eloquent, I turned them from their intended flight 
and led them back. Atrides assembled the allies 
still perturbed and fearful ; and even then the son 
of Telamon did not dare utter a single syllable. But 
Thersites dared, indeed, and chid the kings with 
words, unruly fellow, but, thanks to me, not without 
punishment ! I arose and urged my faint-hearted 
comrades against the enemy, and by my words I 
aroused again their courage. From that time on, 
whatever brave deed my rival here can claim to 
have accomplished belongs to me who brought him 
back from flight. 

" Finally, who of the Greeks praises you or seeks 
your company ? But Diomede shares his deeds with 
me, approves me, and is ever confident with Ulysses 
at his side. Surely, 'tis something, alone out of the 
many thousand Greeks, to be picked out by Diomede ! 
And it was not the casting of lots that bade me go. 
Still, spurning all perils of night and of the enemy, I 
went forth and slew Phrygian Dolon, who was on the 
same perilous errand with ourselves. And yet I did 
not slav him till I had forced him to tell all he knew 
and had learned what treacherous Troy was planning. 



omnia cognoram nee, quod specularer, habebam 

et iam promissa poteram cum laude reverti : 

haut contentus eo petii tentoria Rhesi 

inque suis ipsum castris comitesque peremi 250 

atque ita captivo, victor votisque potitus, 

ingredior curru laetos imitante triumphos; 

cuius equos pretium pro nocte poposcerat hostis, 

anna negate mihi, fueritque benignior Aiax. — 

quid Lycii referam Sarpedonis agmina ferro 255 

devastata meo ? cum multo sanguine fudi 

Coeranon Iphitiden et Alastoraque Chromiumque 

Alcandrumque Hnliumque Noemonaque Prytanimque 

exitioque dedi cum Chersidamante Thoona 

et Charopem fatisque inmitibus Ennomon actum 260 

quique minus celebres nostra sub moenibus urbis 

procubuere manu. sunt et mihi vulnera, cives, 

ipso pulchra loco ; nee vanis credite verbis, 

aspicite ! en " vestemque manu deduxit et " haec sunt 

pectora semper" ait "vestris exercita rebus! 265 

at nil inpendit per tot Telamonius annos 

sanguinis in socios et habet sine vulnere corpus! 

" Quid tamen hoc refert, si se pro classe Pelasga 
arma tulisse refert contra Troasque Iovemque? 
confiteorque, tulit (neque enim benefacta maligne 270 
detractare meum est), sed ne communia solus 
occupet atque aliquem vobis quoque reddat honorem, 
reppulit Actorides sub imagine tutus Achillis 


I had found out all and had no further cause for 
spying, and I could now go back with the praise 
which I had striven for ; but not content with this, 
I turned to Rhesus' tents and in his very camp I 
slew the captain and his comrades too. And so, 
victorious and with my prayers accomplished, I went 
on my way in my captured chariot in manner of a 
joyful triumph. Now refuse his arms to me, whose 
horses my enemy had demanded as the price of his 
night's work, and let Ajax be the kinder! 1 Why 
should I mention the Lycian Sarpedon's ranks which 
my sword cut to pieces ? I laid low in bloody 
slaughter Coeranos, the son of Iphitus, Alastor and 
Chromius, Alcander, Halius, Noemoii, Prytanis, slew 
Thoon and Chersidamas, Charopes, Ennomos, driven 
by the pitiless fates ; and others less renowned fell 
by my hand beneath their city's walls. I, too, have 
wounds, my comrades, noble for the very place of 
them. And trust no empty words of mine for that. 
See here !" and he threw open his garment with his 
hand ; " here is my breast which has ever suffered 
for your cause ! But the son of Telamon in all these 
years has lost no blood in his friends' behalf and his 
body can show no wound at all. 

" And what matters it if he says that he stood up 
in arms for the Greek fleet against the Trojans and 
the power of Jove? I grant he did; for it is not 
my way maliciously to belittle the good that he has 
done. But let not him alone claim the honour that 
belongs to all, and let him give some credit to you 
also. 'Twas the son of Actor, 2 safe 'neath the sem- 
blance of Achilles, who drove off the Trojans from 

1 This is a reference to Ajax' ironical proposition in I. 102, 
to divide the armour between Ulysses and Diomede. 



Troas ab arsuris cum defensore carinis. — 

ausum etiara Hectoreis solum concurrere telis 275 

se putat, oblitus regisque ducumque meique, 

nonus in officio et praelatus munere sortis. 

sed tamen eventus vestrae, fortissime, pugnae 

quis fuit? Hector abit violatus vulnere nullo ! 

" Me miserum, quanto cogor meminisse dolore 280 
temporis illius, quo, Graium murus, Achilles 
procubuit ! nee me lacrimae luctusve timorve 
tardarunt, quin corpus humo sublime referrem : 
his umeris, his inquam, umeris ego corpus Achillis 
et simul arma tuli, quae nunc quoque ferre laboro. 
sunt mihi, quae valeant in talia pondera, vires, 286 
est animus certe vestros sensurus honores : 
scilicet idcirco pro nato caerula mater 
ambitiosa suo fuit, ut caelestia dona, 
artis opus tantae, rudis et sine pectore miles 290 
indueret? neque enim clipei caelamina novit, 
Oceanum et terras cumque alto sidera caelo 
Pleiadasque Hyadasque inmunemque aequoris Arcton 
diversasque urbes nitidumque Orionis ensem : 
postulat, ut capiat, quae non intellegit, arma ! 295 

" Quid, quod me duri fugientem munera belli 
arguit incepto serum accessisse labori 
nee se magnanimo maledicere sentit Achilli? 
si simulasse vocas crimen, simulavimus ambo ; 
si mora pro culpa est, ego sum maturior illo. S00 

me pia detinuit coniunx, pia mater Achillem, 
primaque sunt illis data tempora, cetera vobis : 
haut timeo, si iam nequeam defendere, crimen 


the fleet, which else had burned together with its 
defender. He thinks that he alone dared to stand 
up against Hector's spear, ignoring the king, the 
chieftains, and myself, he but the ninth in proffered 
service and by the lot's grace preferred to us. But 
what was the outcome of your battle, bravest of men ? 
Hector retired without a wound. 

"Ah me, with what grief am I forced to recall 
that time when Achilles fell, the bulwark of the 
Greeks ! And yet neither tears nor grief nor fear 
kept me from lifting up his body from the ground. 
On these shoulders, yes, on these very shoulders, I 
bore Achilles ' body, armour and all, arms which now 
also I seek to bear. I have strength enough to bear 
their ponderous weight and I have a mind that can 
appreciate the honour you would do me. Was it for 
this, forsooth, that the hero's mother, goddess of the 
sea, was ambitious for her son, that those heavenly 
gifts, the work of heavenly art should clothe a rough 
and stupid soldier? For he knows nothing of the 
relief- work of the shield : the sea, the lands, the deep 
starry heavens, the Pleiades, the Hyades, Arctos 
forbidden the sea, the scattered cities, and Orion's 
gleaming sword. He asks that he may receive 
armour which he cannot appreciate. 

" What of his chiding me with trying to shun the 
hardships of the war and of coming late when the 
struggle had begun ? Does he not know that he is 
reviling the great Achilles also? If you call it a crime 
to have pretended, we both pretended. If delay is 
culpable, I was the earlier of the two. A loving wife 
detained me ; a loving mother detained Achilles. Our 
first time was given to them, the rest to you. I do 
not fear a charge — even granted I could not answer 
it— which I share with so great a hero. Yet he was 



cum tanto commune viro : deprensus Ulixis 
ingenio tamen ille, at non Aiacis Ulixes. 305 

" Neve in me stolidae convicia fundere linguae 
admiremur eum, vobis quoque digna pudore 
obicit. an falso Palameden crimine turpe 
accusasse mihi, vobis damnasse decorum est ? 
sed neque Naupliades facinus defendere tantum 310 
tamque patens valuit, nee vos audistis in illo 
crimina, vidistis, pretioque obiecta patebant. 

" Nee, Poeantiaden quod habet Vulcania Lemnos. 
esse reus merui (factum defendite vestrum ! 
consensistis enim,) nee me suasisse negabo, 315 

ut se subtraheret bellique viaeque labori 
temptaretque feros requie lenire dolores. 
paruit — et vivit ! non haec sententia tantum 
fida, sed et felix, cum sit satis esse fidelem. 
quern quoniam vates delenda ad Pergama poscunt, 
ne mandate mibi ! melius Telamonius ibit 321 

eloquioque virum morbis iraque furentem 
molliet aut aliqua producet callidus arte ' 
ante retro Simois fluet et sine frondibus Ide 
stabitj et auxilium promittet Achaia Troiae, 325 

quam, cessante meo pro vestris pectore rebus, 
Aiacis stolidi Danais sollertia prosit, 
sis licet infestus sociis regique mihique 
dure Philoctete, licet exsecrere meumque 
devoveas sine fine caput cupiasque dolenti 3S0 

me tibi forte dari nostrumque haurire cruorem, 


discovered by Ulysses' wit; but not by Ajax' wit, 

" And let us not wonder that he pours out against 
me the insults of his stupid tongue ; for he vents 
on you also shameful words. Was it base for me 
to have accused Palamedes on a false charge, and 
honourable for you to have condemned him ? But 
neither was the son of Nauplius * able to defend a 
crime so great, so clearly proved, nor did you merely 
hear the charge against him : you saw the proof, as 
it lay clearly revealed by the bribe. 

" Nor should I be blamed because Vulcanian 
Lemnos holds the son of Poeas. 2 Defend your own 
deed, for you consented to it. But I will not deny 
that I advised that he withdraw from the hardships 
of the war and the journey thither, and seek to 
soothe his terrible anguish by a time of rest. He 
took the advice — and lives ! And not alone was this 
advice given in good faith, but it was fortunate as 
well ; though it is enough that it was given in good 
faith. Now, since our seers say that he is necessary 
for the fall of Pergama, do not entrust the task to 
me ! Telamon's son will better go, and by his elo- 
quence he will calm the hero, mad with pain and 
rage, or else by some shrewd trick will bring him to 
us. Nay, Simoi's will flow backward, Ida stand without 
foliage, and Greece send aid to Troy before the 
craft of stupid Ajax would avail the Greeks in case I 
should cease to work for your advantage. Though 
you have a deadly hatred, O harsh Philoctetes, for 
the allied Greeks and the king and me myself; 
though you heap endless curses on my head and 
long in your misery to have me in your power, to 
drink my blood, and pray that, as I was given a 
1 Palamedes. 2 Philoctetes. 

I 251 


utque tui mihi sic fiat, tibi copia nostri : 
te tamen adgrediar mecumque reducere nitar 
tamque tuis potiar (faveat Fortuna) sagittis, 
quam sum Dardanio, quem cepi, vate potitus, 335 
quam responsa deum Troianaque fata retexi, 
quam rapui Phrygiae signum penetrale Minervae 
hostibus e mediis. et se mihi comparat Aiax ? 
nempe capi Troiam prohibebant fata sine illo : 
fortis ubi est Aiax ? ubi sunt ingentia magni 340 
verba viri? cur hie metuis? cur audet Ulixes 
ire per excubias et se committere nocti 
perque feros enses non tantum moenia Troum, 
verum etiam sunimas arces intrare suaque 
eripere aede deam raptamque adferre per hostes ? 345 
quae nisi fecissem, frustra Telamone creatus 
gestasset laeva taurorum tergora septem. 
ilia nocte mihi Troiae victoria parta est : 
Pergama tunc vici, cum vinci posse coegi. 

" Desine Tydiden vultuque et murmure nobis 350 
ostentare meum : pars est sua laudis in illo ! 
nee tu, cum socia clipeum pro classe tenebas, 
solus eras : tibi turba comes, mihi contigit unus. 
qui nisi pugnacem sciret sapiente minorem 
esse nee indomitae deberi praemia dextrae, 355 

ipse quoque haec peteret ; peteret moderatior Aiax 
Eurypylusque ferox claroque Andraemone natus 
nee minus Idomeneus patriaque creatus eadem 
Meriones, peteret maioris frater Atridae : 


chance at you, so you may have a chance at me ; still 
would I go to you and strive to bring you back with 
me. And I should get possession of your arrows 
(should Fortune favour me), just as I got possession of 
the Dardanian seer, whom I made captive ; just as I 
discovered the oracles of the gods and the fates of 
Troy ; just as I stole away from the midst of the 
enemy the enshrined image of Phrygian Minerva. 
And does Ajax compare himself to me f The fact is, 
the fates declared that we could not capture Troy 
without this sacred statue. Where now is the brave 
Ajax ? Where are those big words of the mighty 
hero ? Why do you fear in such a crisis ? Why does 
Ulysses dare to go out beyond the sentinels, commit 
himself to the darkness and, through the midst of cruel 
swords, enter not alone the walls of Troy but even 
the citadel's top, steal the goddess from her shrine 
and bear her captured image through the enemy ? 
Had I not done this, in vain would the son of Tela- 
mon have worn on his left arm the sevenfold bulls'- 
hide shield. On that night I gained thr victory 
over Troy ; at that moment did I conquer Pergama 
when I made it possible to conquer her. 

" Cease by your looks and mutterings to remind us 
that Tydides was my partner. He has his share ot 
praise. You, too, when you held your shield in 
defence of the allied fleet, were not alone. You had 
a throng of partners; I, but one. And if Diomede 
did not know that a fighter is of less value than 
a thinker, and that the prize was not due merely to a 
right hand, however dauntless, he himself also would 
be seeking it ; so would the lesser Ajax, warlike 
Eurypylus and the son of illustrious Andraemon, and 
no less so Idomeneus and his fellow-countryman, 
Meriones ; yes, Menelaiis, too, would seek the prize. 



quippe manu fortes nee sunt mihi Marte secundi, 360 

consiliis cessere meis. tibi dextera bello 

utilis, ingenium est, quod eget moderamine nostro; 

tu vires sine mente geris, mihi cura futuri ; 

tu pugnare potes, pugnandi tempora mecum 

eligit Atrides ; tu tantum corpore prodes, 365 

nos animo ; quantoque ratem qui temperat, anteit 

remigis officium, quanto dux milite maior, 

tantum ego te supero, nee non in corpore nostro 

pectora sunt potiora manu : vigor omnis in illis. 

" At vos, o proceres, vigili date praemia vestro, 370 
pioque tot annorum cura, quibus anxius egi, 
hunc titulum meritis pensandum reddite nostris: 
iam labor in fine est ; obstantia fata removi 
altaque posse capi faciendo Pergama, cepi. 
per spes nunc socias casuraque moenia Troum 375 
perque deos oro, quos hosti nuper ademi, 
per siquid superest, quod sit sapienter agendum, 
siquid adhuc audax ex praecipitique petendum est, 
si Troiae fatis aliquid restare putatis, 
este mei memores ! aut si mihi non datis arma, 380 
huic date 1 " et ostendit signum fatale Minervae. 

Mota manus procerum est, et quid facundia posset, 

re patuit, fortisque viri tulit arma disertus. 


But all these men, though stout of hand, fully my 
equals on the battlefield, have yielded to my 
intelligence. Your right arm is useful in the battle ; 
but when it comes to thinking you need my 
guidance. You have force without intelligence ; 
while mine is the care for to-morrow. You are a 
good fighter; but it is I who help Atrides select 
the time of fighting. Your value is in your body 
only ; mine, in mind. And, as much as he who 
directs the ship surpasses him who only rows it, as 
much as the general excels the common soldier, so 
much greater am I than you. For in these bodies 
of ours the heart 1 is of more value than the hand ; 
all our real living is in that. 

" But do you, O princes, award the prize to your 
faithful guardian. In return for the many years 
which I have spent in anxious care, grant me this 
honour as the reward of all my services. And now 
my task is at an end ; I have removed the obstruct- 
ing fates and, by making it possible to take tall 
Pergama, I have taken her. Now, by our united 
hopes, by the Trojan walls doomed soon to fall, by 
the gods of whom but lately I deprived the foe, by 
whatever else remains still to be done with wisdom, 
if still some bold and hazardous deed must be 
attempted, if you think aught still is lacking to the 
fate of Troy, I beg you remember me ! Or, if you 
do not give the arms to me, give them to her ! " 
and he pointed to the fateful statue of Minerva. 

The company of chiefs was moved, and their 
decision proved the power of eloquence : and the 
eloquent man bore oft" the brave man's arms. Then 
he who had so often all alone withstood great 

1 i.e. the mind or understanding. We should make the 
contrast between head and hand. 



Hectora qui solus, qui ferrum ignesque iovemque 
sustinuit totiens, unam non sustinet iram, 385 

invictumque virum vicit dolor : arripit ensem 
et " meus hie certe est ! an et hunc sibi poscit 

Ulixes ? 
hoc " ait " utendum est in me niihi, quique cruore 
saepe Phrygum maduit, domini nunc caede madebit, 
ne quisquam Aiacem possit superare nisi Aiax." 390 
dixit et in pectus turn demum vulnera passum, 
qua patuit ferro, letalem condidit ensem. 
nee valuere manus infixum educere telum : 
expulit ipse cruor, rubefactaque sanguine tellus 
purpureum viridi genuit de caespite florem, 395 

qui prius Oebalio fuerat de vulnere natus ; 
littera communis mediis pueroque viroque 
inscripta est foliis, haec nominis, ilia querellae. 

Victor ad Hypsipyles patriam clarique Thoantis 
et veterum terras infames caede virorum 400 

vela dat, ut referat Tirynthia tela, sagittas ; 
quae postquam ad Graios domino comitante revexit, 
inposita est sero tandem manus ultima bello. 
Troia simul Priamusque cadunt. Priameia coniunx 
perdidit infelix hominis post omnia formam 405 

externasque novo latratu terruit auras, 
longus in angustum qua clauditur Hellespontus. 
I lion ardebat, neque adhuc consederat ignis • 
exiguumque senis Priami Iovis ara cruorem 
conbiberat, tractatque comis antistita Phoebi 410 
non profecturas tendebat ad aethera palmas. 
Dardanidas matres patriorum signa deorurn, 


Hector, so often sword and fire and Jove, could not 
withstand passion only ; and resentment conquered 
the unconquered hero. Then, snatching out his 
sword, he cried : " But this at least is mine ; or 
does Ulysses claim this also for himself? This I 
must employ against myself; and the sword which 
has often reeked with Phrygian blood will new reek 
with its master's, lest any man save Ajax ever con- 
quer Ajax." He spoke and deep in his breast, which 
had not until then suffered any wound, where the 
way was open for the blow, he plunged his fatal 
sword. No hand was strong enough to draw away 
the deep-driven steel ; the blood itself drove it out. 
The ensanguined ground produced from the green 
sod a purple flower, which in old time had sprung 
from Hyacinthus' blood. The petals are inscribed 
with letters, serving alike for hero and for boy : this 
one a name, 1 and that, a cry of woe. 2 S 

To the land 3 of Queen Hypsipyle and the illus- 
trious Thoas, once infamous for its murdered men 
of olden time, victorious Ulysses now set sail to 
bring thence the Tirynthian 4 arrows. After he had 
brought these to the Greeks, and their master 5 with 
them, the final blow was at last given to the long- 
drawn war. Troy fell and Priam with it. The poor 
wife of Priam after all else lost her human form 
and with strange barking affrighted the alien air 
where the long Hellespont narrows to a strait. 
Ilium was in flames, nor had its fires yet died down, 
and Jove's altar had drunk up the scanty blood 
of aged Priam. The priestess 6 of Apollo, dragged 
by the hair, was stretching to the heavens her un- 
availing hands. The Trojan women, embracing the 

1 AIA2. 2 AIAI. 3 Lemnos. 

4 i.e. of Hercules. s Philoctetes. • Cassandra. 



dum licet, amplexas succensaque templa tenentes. 
invidiosa trahunt victores praemia Grai ; 
mittitur Astyanax illis de turribus, unde 415 

pugnantem pro se proavitaque regna tuentem 
saepe videre patrem mon stratum a matre solebat. 
iamque viam suadet Boreas, flatuque secundo 
carbasa mota sonant : iubet uti navita ventis; 
" Troia, vale ! rapimur " clamant, dant oscula terrae 
Troades et patriae fumantia tecta relinquunt. 421 
ultima conscendit classem — miserabile visu ! — 
in mediis Hecube natorum inventa sepulcris : 
prensantem tumulos atque ossibus oscula dantem 
Dulichiae traxere manus, tamen unius hausit 425 
inque sinu cineres secum tulit Hectoris haustos; 
Hectoris in tumulo canum de vertice crinem, 
inferias inopes, crinem lacrimasque reliquit. 

Est, ubi Troia fuit, Phrygiae contraria tellus 
Bistoniis habitata viris : Polymestoris illic 430 

regia dives erat, cui te commisit alendum 
clam, Polydore, pater Phrygiisque removit ab armis, 
consilium sapiens, sceleris nisi praemia magnas 
adiecisset opes, animi inritamen avari. 
ut cecidit fortuna Phr)gum, capit inpius ensem 435 
rex Thracuin iuguloque sui demisit alumni 
et, tamquam tolli cum corpore crimina possent, 
exanimem scopulo subiectas misit in undas. 

Litore Threicio classem religarat Atrides, 
dum mare pacatum, dum ventus amicior esset : 440 

images of their country's gods while still they might 
and crowding their burning temples, the victorious 
Greeks dragged off, an enviable booty. And Astya- 
nax was hurled down from that tower where he was 
wont often to sit and watch his father whom his mother 
pointed out fighting for honour and safeguarding his 
ancestral realm. And now the North-wind called 
tnem on their way and the sails flapped loud, swelled 
by the favouring breeze. The mariner gives com- 
mand to sail. "O Troy, farewell! we are forced 
away, the Trojan women cry ; they kiss their land, 
and turn their backs upon their smoking homes. 
Ine last to go on board, a pitiable sight, was Hecuba, 
discovered midst the sepulchres of her sons. There 
as she clung to their tombs, striving to give her 
ferewell kisses to their bones, the hands of the 
Duhchian dragged her away. Yet she rescued 
Hector s ashes only, and bore the rescued dust with 
her m her bosom. And on Hector's tomb she left 
locks of her hoary hair, a meagre offering, her hair 
and tears. _^ 

Opposite to Phrygia where Troy stood, there lies 
a land where dwelt the Bistones. There was the 
luxurious court of Polymestor, to whom your father 
rolydorus, secretly commended you for care, sending 
you far from Phrygians strife ; a prudent plan, if he 
had not sent with you a great store of treasure, 
ml PT1Z t Cnme ' a tem Pt at ion to a greedy soul 
When the Phrygian fortunes waned, the impious 
lhracian king took his sword and thrust it into his 
young charge's throat; and just as if a murder could 
be disposed of with the victim's body, he threw the 
corpse from a cliff into the waves below. 

On this lhracian coast Atrides had moored his 
fleet until the sea should quiet down and the winds 



hie subito, quantus, cum viveret, esse solebat, 
exit humo late rupta similisque minanti 
temporis illius vultum referebat Achilles, 
quo ferus iniusto petiit Agamemnona ferro 
"inmemores" que " mei disceditis," inquit "Achivi, 
obrutaque est mecum virtutis gratia nostrae ! 446 
ne facite ! utque meum non sit sine honore sepulcrum, 
placet Achilleos mactata Polyxena manes ! " 
dixit, et inmiti sociis parentibus umbrae, 
rapta sinu matris, quam iam prope sola fovebat, 450 
fortis et infelix et plus quam femina virgo 
ducitur ad tumulum diroque fit hostia busto. 
quae memor ipsa sui postquam crudelibus aris 
admota est sensitque sibi fera sacra parari, 
utque Neoptolemum stantem ferrumque tenentem ; 
inque suo vidit figentem lumina vultu, 456 

" utere iandudum generoso sanguine " dixit 
" (nulla mora est), aut tu iugulo vel pectore telum 
conde meo " : (iugulumque simul pectusque retexit. 
scilicet haud ulli servire Polyxena vellet!) 460 

'* haud per tale sacrum numen placabitis ullum ! 
mors tantum vellem matrem mea fallere posset : 
mater obest minuitque necis mihi gaudia, quamvis 
non mea mors illi, verum sua vita tremenda est. 
vos modo, ne Stygios adeam non libera manes, 165 
ite procul, si iusta peto, tactuque viriles 
virgineo removete manus ! acceptior illi, 
quisquis is est, quem caede mea placare paratis, 
liber erit sanguis, siquos tamen ultima nostri 
verba movent oris (Priami vos filia regis, 470 

non captiva rogat), genetrici corpus inemptum 

be more favourable. Here on a sudden, up from the 

rn1 e f? aP He g ha a d th ^ h AChi ; IIeS ^^ ^-s "wa 
nn fi , i ? a threaten, ng manner and a look as 
on that day when with his hostile sword he fiercely 
challenged Agamemnon. "And are you, then dl 

Ce n v g ou J r th re t S V ^ " fc * " f °^ etful of -e" And 
have jour thanks for my services been buried with 

u! •* Ll ha11 u 0t be ! And > that m y tomb may no 
lack its fitting honour, let Pol vxena be sacrificed* and 
so appease Achilles* shade." He spoke anH rt* 
allied Greeks obeyed the pitiless ghS Vrn from 
her mother's arms of whom she was well-nigh X 
only comfort left, the brave, ill-fated maid, with more 
than woman's courage, was led to the fatal mZ d 
and there was sacrificed upon the cruel tomb Self 
possessed she was, even when she had been' placed 
before the fatal altar and knew the grim rUes wer e 
prepanng for her; and when she saw Neoptolemu 
standing, sword in hand, with his eyes fixed upon^er 
face she exclaimed: "Spill at last my noble* Wood 
for I am ready; or plunge your sword deep in my throat 
or breast! (and she bared her throat and breast 
Polyxena, be sure, would not desire to live in slavery 
to any man !) « Not by such a rite as this w H yol 
appease any god ! Only I would that my mother may 
know nothing of my death. My mother prevents 
and destroys my joy of death. And yet she should 
not deprecate my death, but rathe/her own life 

spSs s°tan7l *?.} "^ g ° free t0 the 9W« 
spirits stand back, if my request is just, and let no 

hand of man touch my virginVly. More acceptable 
to him, whoever he is, whom by my sacrifice you are 
seeking to appease, will my free blood be. But if 
my last words move any of you ( > tis the da , 
of King Pnam and not a captive maid who asks it) 


reddite, neve auro redimat ius triste sepulcri, 

sed lacrimis ! tunc, cum poterat, redimebat et auro." 

dixerat, at populus lacrimas, quas ilia tenebat, 

non tenet ; ipse etiam flens invitusque sacerdos 475 

praebita coniecto rupit praecordia ferro. 

ilia super terram defecto poplite laben? 

pertulit intrepidos ad fata novissima vultus ; 

tunc quoque cura fuit partes velare tegendas, 

cum caderet, castique decus servare pudoris. 480 

Troades excipiunt deploratosque recensent 
Priamidas et quot dederit domus una cruores, 
teque gemunt, virgo, teque, o modo regia coniunx, 
regia dicta parens, Asiae florentis imago, 
nunc etiam praedae mala sors ; quam victor Ulixes 
esse suam nollet, nisi quod tamen Hectora partu 486 
ediderat : dominum matri vix repperit Hector ' 
quae corpus conplexa animae tam fortis inane, 
quas totiens patriae dederat natisque viroque, 
huic quoque dat lacrimas ; lacrimas in vulnera fundit 
osculaque ore tegit consuetaque pectora plangit 491 
canitiemque suam concreto in sanguine verrens 
plura quidem, sed et haec laniato pectore, dixit : 
" nata, tuae — quid enim superest ? — dolor ultime 

nata, iaces, videoque tuum, mea vulnera, vulnus : 4.95 
en, ne perdiderim quemquam sine caede meorum, 
tu quoque vulnus habes ; at te, quia femina, rebar 
a ferro tutam : cecidisti et femina ferro, 


restore my body to my mother without ransom ; and 
let her pay in tears and not in gold for the sad 
privilege of sepulture. She did pay in gold also when 
she could." She spoke, and the throng could not 
restrain their tears, though she restrained her own. 
Then did the priest, himself also weeping and 
remorseful, with deep-driven weapon pierce her 
proffered breast. She, sinking down to earth with 
fainting knees, kept her look of dauntless courage 
to the end. And even then, as she was falling, she 
took care to cover her body and to guard the honour 
of her modesty. 

The Trojan women take up her body and count 
one by one the lamented Priamidae, and all the 
woes which this one house has suffered. You, royal 
maid, they weep, and you, who but yesterday were 
called queen-consort and queen-mother, you, once 
the embodiment of proud Asia, but now suffering 
hard lot even for a captive, one whom victorious 
Ulysses would not desire, save that she had given 
birth to Hector. A lord for his mother Hector 
scarcely found ! She, embracing the lifeless body 
of that brave spirit, gives to it also the tears 
which she has shed so often for country, sons and 
husband. She pours her tears into her daughter's 
wound, covers her face with kisses, and beats the 
breasts that have endured so many blows. Then 
sweeping her white hair in the clotted blood and 
tearing her breast, this and much more she cried : 
"O child, your mother's last cause for grief — for 
what else is left me — my child, low you lie, and I 
see your wound, my wound. Behold, that I might 
lose none of my children without violence, you also 
have your wound. But you, because you were a 
woman, I thought safe from the sword ; even though 



totque tuos idem fratres, te perdidit idem, 
exitium Troiae nostrique orbator, Achilles ; 500 

at postquam cecidit Paridis Phoebique sagittis, 
' nunc certe,' dixi, f non est metuendus Achilles' : 
nunc quoque mi metuendus erat ; cinis ipse sepulti 
in genus hoc saevit, tumulo quoque sensimus hostem . 
Aeacidae fecunda fui ! iacet Ilion ingens, 505 

eventuque gravi finita est publica clades, 
sed finita tamen ; soli mihi Pergama restant. 
in cursuque meus dolor est : modo maxima rerum, 
tot generis natisque potens nuribusque viroque 
nunc trahor exul, inops, tumulis avulsa meorum, 510 
Penelopae munus, quae me data pensa trahentem 
matribus ostendens Ithacis ' haec Hectoris ilia est 
clara parens, haec est ' dicet ' Pi'iameia coniunx,' 
postque tot amissos tu nunc, quae sola levabas 
maternos luctus, hostilia busta piasti ! 515 

inferias hosti peperi ! quo ferrea resto ? 
quidve moror ? quo me servas, annosa senectus ? 
quo, di crudeles, nisi uti nova funera cernam, 
vivacem differtis anum ? quis posse putaret 
felicem Priamum post diruta Pergama dici ? 520 

felix morte sua est ! nee te, mea nata, peremptam 
adspicit et vitam pariter regnumque reliquit. 
at, puto, funeribus dotabere, regia virgo, 
condeturque tuum monumentis corpus avitis ! 
non haec est fortuna domus : tibi munera matris 525 


a woman, you have fallen by the sword ; and that 
same Achilles, who had destroyed all your brothers, 
has destroyed you, too, that curse of Troy, bereaver of 
my heart. But when he fell by Paris' and by Phoebus' 
arrows, ' Surely/ I said, ' now is Achilles to be feared 
no more.' But even now I was still to fear him. 
His very ashes, though he is dead and buried, are 
savage against our race ; even in the tomb we have 
felt him for our enemy; for Achilles have I been 
fruitful! Great Troy lies low, and by a woeful issue 
the public calamity was ended ; yet it was ended ; for 
me alone Pergama still survives ; my woes still run 
their course. But late on the pinnacle of fame, 
strong in my many sons, my daughters, and my 
husband, now, exiled, penniless, torn from the tombs 
of my loved ones, I am dragged away as prize for 
Penelope. And as I sit spinning my allotted task of 
wool, she will point me out to the dames of Ithaca 
and say : ' This woman is Hector's noble mother, this 
is Priam's queen.' And now after so many have been 
lost, you, who alone were left to console your mother's 
grief, you have been sacrificed upon our foeman's 
tomb. Yes, I have but borne a victim for my enemy. 
And to what end do I, unfeeling wretch, live on ? 
Why do I linger ? To what end, O wrinkled age, do 
you keep me here ? To what end, ye cruel gods, save 
that I still may see fresh funerals, do you prolong an 
old woman's life ? Who would suppose that Priam 
could be called happy when Pergama was o'erthrown? 
Happy is he in death. He does not see you, my 
daughter, lying murdered here ; he left his life and 
kingdom, both at once. But I suppose, O royal 
maiden, you will be dowered with funeral rites 
and your body buried in your ancestral tomb . 
Such is no longer the fortune of our house. Your 



contingent fletus peregrinaeque haustus harenae ! 
omnia perdidimus : superest, cur vivere tempus 
in breve sustineam, proles gratissima matri, 
nunc solus, quondam minimus de stirpe virili, 
has datus Ismario regi Polydorus in oras. 530 

quid moror interea crudelia vulnera lymphis 
abluere et sparsos inmiti sanguine vultus ? " 

Dixit et ad litus passu processit anili, 
albentes lacerata comas. " date, Troades, urnam ! " 
dixerat infelix, liquidas hauriret ut undas : 535 

adspicit eiectum Polydori in litore corpus 
factaque Threiciis ingentia vulnera telis ; 
Troades exclamant, obmutuit ilia dolore, 
et pariter vocem lacrimasque introrsus obortas 
devorat ipse dolor, duroque simillima saxo 540 

torpet et adversa figit modo lumina terra, 
interdum torvos sustollit ad aethera vultus, 
nunc positi spectat vultum, nunc vulnera nati, 
vulnera praecipue, seque armat et instruit iram. 
qua simul exarsit, tamquam regina maneret, 545 

ulcisci statuit poenaeque in imagine tota est, 
utque furit catulo lactente orbata leaena 
signaque nacta pedum sequitur, quem non videt, 

sic Hecube, postquam cum luctu miscuit iram, 
non oblita animorum, annorum oblita suorum, 550 
vadit ad artificem dirae, Polymestora, caedis 
conloquiumque petit ; nam se monstrare relictum 
velle latens illi, quod nato redderet, aurum. 

funeral gifts shall be your mother's tears ; your 
burial, the sand of an alien shore ! We have lost 
all ; but still there's something left, some reason why 
lor a brief span I may endure to live : his mother's 
dearest, now her only child, once youngest of my 
sons, my Polydorus, sent to these shores to the 
Ihracian king. But why do I delay, meanwhile, to 
wash my daughter's cruel wounds with water, her 
face bespattered with unpitying blood ? " 

She spoke and with tottering steps of age went to 
the shore, tearing her grey hair as she went. « Give 
me an urn, ye Trojan women," the wretched creature 
said, intending to dip up some water from the sea 
And there she saw the body of Polydorus, cast up 
upon the shore, covered with gaping wounds made 
by Ihracian spears. The Trojan women shrieked at 
the sight; but she was dumb with grief; her very 
grief engulfed her powers of speech, her rising tears. 
Like a hard rock, immovable she stood, now held 
her gaze fixed upon the ground, and at times lifted 
her awful face to the heavens; now she gazed upon 
the features of her son as he lay there in death, now 
on his wounds, but mostly on his wounds, arming 
herself and heaping up her rage. When now her 
rage blazed out, as if she still were queen, she 
nxed on vengeance and was wholly absorbed in 
the punishment her imagination pictured. And as a 
lioness rages when her suckling cub has been stolen 
from her, and follows the discovered tracks of her 
enemy, whom she does not see, so Hecuba, wrath 
mingling with her grief, regardless of her years but not 
her deadly purpose, went straight to Polymestor, who 
wrought the heartless murder, and sought an audience 
with him, pretending that she wished to show him a 
store of gold which she had hoarded for her son and 



credidlt Odrysius praedaeque adsuetus amore 
in secreta venit : turn blando callidus ore 555 

"tolle moras, Hecube," dixit " da munera nalo ! 
orane fore illius, quod das, quod et ante dedisti, 
per superos iuro." spectat truculenta loquentem 
falsaque iurantem tumidaque exaestuat ira 
atque ita correpto cap ti varum agmina matrum 560 
invocat et digitos in perfida lumina condit 
expellitque genis oculos (facit ira potentem) 
inmergitque manus foedataque sanguine sontis 
non lumen (neque enim superest), loca luminis haurit. 
clade sui Thracum gens inritata tyranni 565 

Troada telorum lapidumque incessere iactu 
coepit, at haec missum rauco cum murmure saxum 
morsibus insequitur rictuque in verba parato 
latravit, conata loqui : locus exstat et ex re 
nomen habet, veterumque diu memor ilia malorum 
turn quoque Sithonios ululavit maesta per agros. 57 1 
illius Troasque suos hostesque Pelasgos, 
illius fortuna deos quoque moverat omnes, 
sic omnes, ut et ipsa Iovis coniunxque sororque 
eventus Hecubam meruisse negaverit illos. 575 

Non vacat Aurorae, quamquam isdem faverat armis, 
cladibus et casu Troiaeque Hecubaeque moveri. 
cura deam propior luctusque domesticus angit 
Memnonis amissi, Phrygiis quern lutea cam pis 
vidit Achillea pereuntem cuspide mater ; 580 

vidit, et ille color, quo matutina rubescunt 


now would give him. The Thracian was deceived 
and, led by his habitual lust for gain, he came to 
the hiding-place. Then craftily, with smooth speech 
he said; "Come, Hecuba, make haste, give me 
the treasure for your son ! I swear by the gods of 
heaven, all shall be his, what you give now and what 
you have given before." She grimly eyed him as he 
spoke and swore his lying oath. Then did her rising 
wrath boil over, and, calling the captive women to 
the attack, she seized upon him, dug her fingers into 
his lying eyes and gouged his eyeballs from their 
sockets — so mighty did wrath make her. Then she 
plunged in her hands and, stained with his guilty 
blood, she plucked out, not his eyes, for they were 
gone, but the places of his eyes. The Thracians, 
incensed by their king's disaster, began to set upon 
the Trojan with shafts and stones. But she, with 
hoarse growls, bit at the stones they threw and, 
though her jaws were set for words, barked when 
she tried to speak. The place still remains and 
takes its name 1 from this incident, where she, long 
remembering her ancient ills, still howled mourn- 
fully across the Sithonian plains. Her sad fortune 
touched the Trojans and her Grecian foes and all the 
gods as well ; yes, all, for even Juno, sister and wife 
of Jove, declared that Hecuba had not deserved such 
an end. y 

But Aurora, though she had lent her aid to the 
Trojan arms, had no time to lament the ruin and the 
fall of Troy and Hecuba. A nearer care, grief for her 
own son, harassed her. the loss of Memnon, whom she, 
his bright mother, had seen dead by Achilles' spear on 
the Phrygian plain. She saw and those bright hues 

1 Cynossema (kvv6s frj/j-a), the Sign (or Monument) of the 



tempora, palluerat, latuitque in nubibus aether. 

at non inpositos supremis ignibus artus 

sustinuit spectare parens, sed crine soluto 

sicut erat, magni genibus procumbere non est 585 

dedignata Iovis lacrimisque has addere voces : 

"omnibus inferior, quas sustinet aureus aether, 

(nam mihi sunt totum rarissima templa per orbem) 

diva tamen, veni, non ut delubra diesque 

des mihi sacrificos caliturasque ignibus aras : 590 

si tamen adspicias, quantum tibi femina praestem, 

turn cum luce nova noctis confinia servo, 

praemia danda putes ; sed non ea cura neque hie est 

nunc status Aurorae, meritos ut poscat honores : 

Memnonis orba mei venio, qui fortia frustra 595 

pro patruo tulit arma suo primisque sub annis 

occidit a forti (sic vos voluistis) Achille. 

da, precor, huic aliquem, solacia mortis, honorem, 

summe deum rector, maternaque vulnera leni ! " 

Iupp'ter adnuerat, cum Memnonis arduus alto (J00 

corruit igne rogus, nigrique volumina fumi 

infecere diem, veluti cum flumina natas 

exhalant nebulas, nee sol admittitur infra ; 

atra favilla volat glomerataque corpus in unum 

densetur faciemque capit sumitque calorem 605 

atque animam ex igni (levitas sua praebuit alas) 

et primo similis volucri, mox vera volucris 

insonuit pennis, pariter sonuere sorores 

innumerae, quibus est eadem natalis origo, 



by which the morning skies flush rosy red grew dull, 
and the heavens were overcast with clouds. And 
when his corpse was laid upon the funeral pyre his 
mother endured not to look upon it, but, with stream- 
ing hair, just as she was, she disdained not to throw 
herself at the knees of mighty Jove and with many 
tears to pray : "Though I am least of all whom the 
golden heaven upholds (for in all the world but few 
and scattered temples rise to me), still as a goddess 
I come I ask not that thou give me shrines and sacred 
days and altars to flame with sacrificial fires. And yet, 
slsouldst thou consider what service I, though but a 
woman, render thee, when each new dawn I guard 
the borders of the night, then wouldst thou deem 
that I should have some reward. But that is not 
my care nor is that Aurora's errand, to demand 
honours which she may have earned. Bereft of my 
Memnon I come, who bore brave arms (though all 
in vain) in his uncle's service, and in his early years 
has fallen by Achilles' warlike hand (for so you 
willed it). Grant then, I beg, some honour to him 
as solace for his death, O most high ruler of the gods, 
and soothe a mother's wounded heart." Jove nodded 
his consent, when Memnon's lofty pyre, wrapped 
in high-leaping flames, crumbled to earth, and the 
day was darkened by the thick black smoke, as when 
rivers send forth the fogs they have begotten, be- 
neath whose pall the sunlight cannot come. Dark 
ashes whirled aloft and there, packed and con- 
densed, they seemed to take on form, drew heat and 
vitality from the fire. (Its own lightness gave it 
wings.) At first, 'twas like a bird ; but soon, a real 
bird, it flew about on whirring pinions. And along 
with it were countless sisters winging their noisy 
flight ; and all were sprung from the same source. 



terque rogum lustrant, et consonus exit in auras 610 

ter plangor, quarto seducunt castra volatu ; 

turn duo diversa populi de parte feroces 

bella gerunt rostrisque et aduncis unguibus iras 

exercent alasque adversaque pectora lassant, 

inferiaeque cadunt cineri cognata sepulto 615 

corpora seque viro forti meminere creatas. 

praepetibus subitis nomen facit auctor : ab illo 

Memnonides dictae, cum sol duodena peregit 

signa, parentali moriturae more rebellant. — 

ergo aliis latrasse Dymantida flebile visum est; 620 

luctibus est Auroi'a suis intenta piasque 

nunc quoque dat lacrimas et toto rorat in orbe. 

Non tamen eversam Troiae cum moenibus esse 
spem quoque fata sinunt : sacra et, sacra altera, 

fert umeris, venerabile onus, Cythereius heros. 625 
de tantis opibus praedam pius eligit illam 
Ascaniumque suum profugaque per aequora classe 
fertur ab Antandro scelerataque limina Thracum 
et Polydoreo manantem sanguine terram 
linquit et utilibus ventis aestuque secundo 630 

intrat Apollineam sociis comitantibus urbem. 
bunc Anius, quo rege homines, antistite Phoebus 
rite colebatur, temploque domoque recepit 
urbemque ostendit delubraque nota duasque 
Latona quondam stirpes pariente retentas. 635 

ture dato flammis vinoque in tura profuso 
caesaiumque bourn fibris de more crematis 


Thrice round the pyre they flew and thrice their 
united clamour rose into the air. At the fourth 
flight the flock divided and in two warring bands 
the fierce contestants fought together, plying beak 
and hooked talons in their rage, wearying wing and 
breast in the struggle. At last these shapes kin to 
the buried ashes fell down as funeral offerings and 
remembered that they were sprung from that brave 
hero. The author of their being gave his name to the 
new-sprung birds, and they were called Memnonides 
from him ; and still, when the sun has completed the 
circuit of his twelve signs, they fight and die again in 
honour of their father's festival. And so others wept 
while the daughter of Dymas bayed ; but Aurora was 
all absorbed in her own grief; and even to this day 
she weeps pious tears and bedews the whole world 
with them. 

And yet the fates did not permit Troy's hopes to 
perish with her walls. The heroic son 1 of Cytherea 
bore away upon his shoulders her sacred images and, 
another sacred thing, his father, a venerable burden. 
Of all his great possessions, the pious hero chose that 
portion, and his son, Ascanius. Then with his fleet 
of refugees he set sail from Antandros, left behind 
the sinful homes of Thrace and the land dripping 
with Polydorus' blood, and, with favouring winds and 
tides assisting, reached with his accompanying friends 
the city 2 of Apollo. Him Anius, who ruled over 
men as king and served Phoebus as his priest, re- 
ceived in the temple and his home. He showed 
his city, the new-erected shrines and the two sacred 
trees 3 beneath which Latona had once brought forth 
her children. There they burned incense in the flames, 
poured out wine upon the incense and, according 
1 Aeneas. 2 In Delos. ' See vi. 335. 



regia tecta petunt, positisque tapetibus altis 

munera cum liquido capiunt Cerealia Baccho. 

turn pius Anchises : " o Phoebi lecte sacerdos, 640 

fallor, an et natum, cum primum haec moenia vidi, 

bisque duas natas, quantum reminiscor, habebas ? " 

huic Anius niveis circumdata tempora vittis 

concutiens et tristis ait : " non falleris, heros 

maxime ; vidisti natorum quinque parentem, 645 

quem nunc (tanta homines rerum inconstantiaversat) 

paene vides orbum. quod enim mihi filius absens 

auxilium, quem dicta suo de nomine tellus 

Andros habet pro patre locumque et regna tenentem ? 

Delius augurium dedit huic, dedit altera Liber 650 

femineae stirpi voto maiora fideque 

munera : nam tactu natarum cuncta mearum 

in segetem laticemque meri canaeque Minervae 

transformabantur, divesque erat usus in illis. 

hoc ubi cognovit Troiae populator Atrides, 655 

(ne non ex aliqua vestram sensisse procellam 

nos quoque parte putes), armorum viribus usus 

abstrahit invitas gremio genitoris alantque 

imperat Argolicam caelesti munere classem. 

effugiunt, quo quaeque potest : Euboea duabus 660 

et totidem natis Andros fraterna petita est. 

miles adest et, ni dedantur, bella minatur : 

victa metu pietas consortia corpora poenae 

dedidit ; et timido possis ignoscere fratri : 

non hie Aeneas, non, qui defenderet Andron, 665 

Hector erat, per quem decimum durastis in annum. 



to the customary rite, they slaughtered cattle and 
burned their entrails in the altar-fire ; then sought 
the palace-hall and, reclining on the high couches, 
they partook of Ceres' bounty and the wine of 
Bacchus. Then pious Anchises said : " O chosen priest 
of Phoebus, am I mistaken, or did you have, when 
first I saw your city, a son and four daughters as I 
recall?" And Anius, shaking his head bound with 
snowy fillets, sadly replied : " No, mightiest of heroes, 
you are not mistaken ; you did see me the father of 
five children, whom now, such is the shifting nature 
of men's fates, you see well-nigh bereft. For of what 
help to me is my absent son, whom the land of 
Andros, named from him, holds in place of his 
father ; for he rules the land as king. The Delian 
gave him the power of augury ; but to my daughters 
Bacchus gave other gifts, greater than they could 
pray or hope to gain. For at my daughters' touch 
all things were turned to corn and wine and the oil 
of grey-green Minerva, 1 and there was rich profit in 
them. When Agamemnon, ravager of Troy, learned 
this (that you may know that we also have felt some 
share of your destructive storm), using armed force, 
he dragged my unwilling daughters from their 
father's arms, and bade them feed the Grecian 
army with their heavenly gift. They escaped, each 
as she could. Two sought Euboea ; two fled to 
their brother's Andros. Armed bands pursued and 
threatened war unless they were surrendered. Fear 
conquered brotherly affection, and he gave up to 
punishment the persons of his kindred. And you 
could forgive the timid brother ; for Aeneas was not 
here to succour Andros, nor Hector, through whom 
you held your own for ten years. And now they 

1 i.e. olives. 



iamque parabantur captivis vincla lacertis : 
illae tollentes etiamnum libera caelo 
bracchia ' Bacche pater, fer opem ! ' dixere, tulitque 
muneris auctor opem, — si miro perdere more 670 
ferre vocatur opem, nee qua ratione figuram 
perdiderint, potui scire aut nunc dicere possum ; 
summa mali nota est : pennas sumpsere tuaeque 
coniugis in volucres, niveas abiere columbas." 

Talibus atque aliis postquam convivia dictis 675 
inplerunt, mensa somnum petiere remota 
cumque die surgunt adeuntque oracula Phoebi, 
qui petere antiquam matrem cognataque iussit 
litora ; prosequitur rex et dat munus ituris, 
Anchisae sceptrum, chlamydem pharetramque 

nepoti, 680 

cratera Aeneae, quern quondam transtulit illi 
hospes ab Aoniis Therses Isnienius oris : 
miserat hunc illi Therses, fabricaverat Alcon 
Hyleus et longo caelaverat argumento. 
urbs erat, et septem posses ostendere portas : 685 
hae pro nomine erant, et quae foret ilia, docebant ; 
ante urbem exequiae tumulique ignesque pyraeque 
effusaeque comas et apertae pectora matres 
significant luctum ; nymphae quoque flere videntur 
siccatosque queri fontes : sine frond ibus arbor 69 
nuda riget, rodunt arentia saxa capellae. 
ecce facit mediis natas Orione Thebis 
hanc non femineum iugulo dare vulnus aperto, 
illam demisso per inertia vulnera telo 


were preparing fetters for the captives' arms, when 
they, stretching their still free arms to heaven, cried : 
' O father Bacchus, help ! ' And he who gave their 
gift did bring them aid — if you call it aid, in some 
strange sort to lose their human form. For never 
did I know, nor can I now describe, how they lost 
it. But the outcome of my sad mishap I do know : 
covered with plumage, they were changed to snow- 
white doves, your consort's birds." 

With such and other themes they filled up the 
feast, then left the banquet board and retired to 
rest ; and on the morrow they rose and sought the 
oracle of Phoebus. He bade them seek their ancient 
mother and kindred shores. On their departure the 
king went forth with them and gave them parting 
gifts : a sceptre to Anchises, a robe and quiver to 
his grandson, and a goblet to Aeneas which Ismenian 
Therses, a guest, had once brought to the king from 
the Aonian coast. Therses had sent him the cup, 
but 'twas the handiwork of Hylean Alcon, who had 
engraved upon it a long pictured story. There was a 
city, on which you could discern seven gates. These 
served to name it and tell you what it was. 1 Before 
the city funeral rites were seen, with sepulchres and 
blazing funeral pyres ; and women with dishevelled 
hair and naked breasts, proclaiming grief. Nymphs 
also seemed to weep and bewail their dried-up 
springs. The trees stood bare and leafless ; goats 
nibbled in the parched and stony fields. See, in the 
Theban streets he represents Orion's daughters, one 
dealing a wound not apt for maiden's hands to her 
bared throat, the other dealing clumsy wounds with 
her weaving-shuttle, both falling as victims in the 
people's stead ; then borne in funeral pomp through 

1 i.e. Thebes. 



pro populo cecidisse suo pulchrisque per urbem 695 

funeribus ferri celebrique in parte cremari. 

turn de virginea geminos exire favilla, 

ne genus intereat, iuvenes, quos fama Coronos 

nominat, et cineri materno ducere pompam. 

hactenus antiquo signis fulgentibus aere, 700 

summus inaurato crater erat asper acantho. 

nee leviora datis Troiani dona remittunt 

dantque sacerdoti custodem turis acerram, 

dant pateram claramque auro gemmisque coronam. 

Inde recordati Teucros a sanguine Teucri 705 

ducere principium, Cretam tenuere locique 
ferre diu nequiere Iovem centumque relictis 
urbibus Ausonios optant contingere portus, 
saevit hiems iactatque viros, Strophadumque receptos 
portubus infidis exterruit ales Aello. 710 

et iam Dulichios portus Ithacamque Samonque 
Neritiasque domus, regnum fallacis Ulixis, 
praeter erant vecti : certatam lite deorum 
Ambraciam versique vident sub imagine saxura 
iudicis, Actiaco quae nunc ab Apolline nota est, 715 
vocal emque sua terram Dodonida quercu 
Chaoniosque sinus, ubi nati rege Molosso 
inpia subiectis fugere incendia pennis. 

Proxima Phaeacum felicibus obsita pomis 
rura petunt, Epiros ab his regnataque vati 720 

Buthrotos Phrygio simulataque Troia tenetur ; 
inde futurorum certi, quae cuncta fidcli 


the town and burned to ashes midst the mourning 
throngs. Then, that their race may not perish with 
them, from their virgin ashes spring two youths, 
whom fame has named Coroni. These join in the 
solemn rites due to their mother's dust. Such was 
the story told in figures gleaming on the antique 
bronze. Round the goblet's top, rough-carved, 
golden acanthus ran. The Trojans make presents in 
return of no less worth : an incense-casket for the 
priest, a libation-saucer and a crown, gleaming with 
gems and gold. 

Thence, remembering that the Teucrians sprang 
from Teucer's stock, they sailed away to Crete. 1 
Here, unable to endure for long the climate of the 
place, they abandoned Crete with its hundred 
cities and set out with eager spirit for the Ausonian 
shores. The wintry seas raged and tossed the heroic 
band ; and, when they came to the treacherous har- 
bour of the Strophades, Aello, the harpy, frightened 
them. And now Dulichium's anchorage, Ithaca 
and Samos, the homes of Neritos, the false Ulysses' 
kingdom — past all these they sailed. Ambracia next, 
once object of heaven's strife, they saw, and the 
image of the judge once changed to stone — Ambracia, 
now famed for Actian Apollo's sake ; Dodona's land, 
with its speaking oaks; Chaonia's sheltered bay, 
where the sons of King Molossus on new-grown 
wings escaped impious fires. 

Next they sought the land of the Phaeacians, set 
with fertile orchards, and landed at Buthrotos in 
Epirus with its mimic Troy, a city ruled by the Phry- 
gian seer. There having learned all that awaited 
them from the friendly prophecies of Helenus, 

1 This, in accordance with their interpretation of the 
advice given in 1. 678. 



Priamides Helenus monitu praedixerat, intrant 

Sicaniam : tribus haec excurrit in aequora pennis, 

e quibus imbriferos est versa Pachynos ad austros, 725 

mollibus expositum zephyris Lilybaeon, at arctos 

aequoris expertes spectat boreamque Peloros. 

hac subeunt Teucri, et remis aestuque secundo 

sub noctem potitur Zanclaea classis harena : 

Scylla latus dextrum,laevum inrequieta Chary bdis 730 

infestat ; vorat haec raptas revomitque carinas, 

ilia feris atram canibus succingitur alvum, 

virginis ora gerens, et, si non omnia vates 

ficta reliquerunt, aliquo quoque tempore virgo : 

hanc multi petiere proci, quibus ilia repulsis 735 

ad pelagi nymphas, pelagi gratissima nymphis, 

ibat et elusos iuvenum narrabat amores. 

cui dum pectendos praebet Galatea capillos, 

talibus adloquitur repetens suspiria dictis : 

" te tamen, o virgo, genus haut inmite virorum 740 

expetit, utque facis, potes his inpune negare ; 

at mihi, cui pater est Nereus, quam caerula Doris 

enixa est, quae sum turba quoque tuta sororum, 

non nisi per luctus licuit Cyclopis amorem 

effugere." et lacrimae vocem inpediere loquentis. 745 

quas ubi marmoreo detersit pollice virgo 

et solata deani est, " refer, o carissima " dixit 

" neve tui causam tsge (sic sum fida) doloris ! " 

Nereis his contra resecuta Crataeide natam est : 

" Acis erat Pauno nymphaque Symaethide cretus 750 

magna quidem patrisque sui matrisque voluptas, 

nostra tamen maior ; nam me sibi iunxerat uni. 

pulcher et octonis iterum natalibus actis 

signarat teneras dubia lanugine malas. 



Priam's son, they came to Sicily. This land runs 
out into the sea in three capes. Of these, Pachynos 
faces to the rainy south, Lilybaeon feels the soft 
western breeze, and Peloros looks to the northern 
Bears, who never go beneath the sea. Hither the 
Teucri came and with oars and favouring tides the 
fleet reached the sandy beach of Zancle as darkness 
fell. Scylla infests the right-hand coast, unresting 
Charybdis the left. The one sucks down and vomits 
forth again the ships she has caught ; the other's 
uncanny waist is girt with ravening dogs. She has 
a virgin's face and, if all the tales of poets are not 
false, she was herself once a virgin. Many suitors 
sought her; but she scorned them all and, taking 
refuge with the sea-nymphs (for the sea-nymphs 
loved her well), she would tell them of the dis- 
appointed wooing of her lovers. • There once Galatea, 
while she let the maiden comb her hair, first sighing 
deeply, thus addressed her : " You truly, maiden, are 
wooed by a gentle race of men, and you can repulse 
them without fear, even as you do. But I, whose 
father is Nereus and whose mother the sea-hued 
Doris, who am safe also in a throng of sisters, I was 
not allowed to shun the Cyclops' love without grievous 
consequence." Tears checked her further speech. 
When the maid with her white fingers had dried the 
goddess' tears and had consoled her, she said : " Tell 
me, O dearest one, and do not conceal the cause of 
your woe, for I am faithful to you." And the Nereid 
answered Crataeis' daughter in these words : " Acis 
was son of Faunus and the nymph Symaethis, great 
joy to his father and his mother, but greater joy 
to me ; for he loved me with whole-hearted love. 
Beautiful he was, and his sixteenth birthday past, a 
faint down had marked his youthful cheeks. Him die 



hunc ego, me Cyclops nulla cum fine petebat. 755 
nee, si quaesieris, odium Cyclopis amorae 
Acidis in nobis merit praesentior, edam : 
par utrumque fuit. pro ! quanta potentia regni 
est, Venus alma, tui ! nempe ille inmitis et ipsis 
horrendus silvis et visus ab hospite nullo 760 

inpune et magni cum dis contemptor Olympi, 
quid sit amor, sensit validaque cupidine captus 
uritur oblitus pecorum antroiumque suorum. 
iamque tibi formae, iamque est tibi cura placendi, 
iam rigidos pectis rastris, Polypheme, capillos, 765 
iam libet hirsutam tibi falce recidere barbam 
et spectare feros in aqua et conponere vultus. 
caedis amor feritasque sitisque inmensa cruoris 
cessant, et tutae veniuntque abeuntque carinae. 
Telemus interea Siculam delatus ad Aetnen, 770 
Telemus Eurymides, quern nulla fefellerat ales, 
terribilem Polyphemon adit 'lumen' que, 'quodunum 
fronte geris media, rapiet tibi ' dixit ' Ulixes.' 
risit et ' o vatum stolidissime, falleris,' inquit, 
' altera iam rapuit.' sic frustra vera monentem 775 
spernit et aut gradiens ingenti litora passu 
degravat, aut fessus sub opaca revertitur antra, 
prominet in pontum cuneatus acumine longo 
collis (utrumque latus circumfluit aequoris unda) : 
hue ferus adscendit Cyclops mediusque resedit; 780 
lanigerae pecudes nullo ducente secutae. 
cui.postquam pinus, baculi quae praebuit usum, 
ante pedes posita est antemnis apta ferendis 
sumptaque harundinibus conpacta est fistula centum, 
senserunt toti pastoria sibila montes, 785 



1 love, but the Cyclops loved me with endless wooing. 
Nor, if you should ask me, could I tell which was 
stronger in me, my hate of Cyclops or my love of 
Acis ; for both were in equal measure. O mother 
Venus, how mighty is thy sway ! Behold, that savage 
creature, whom the very woods shudder to look upon, 
whom no stranger has ever seen save to his own hurt, 
who despises great Olympus and its gods, he feels the 
power of love and burns with mighty desire, forgetful 
of his flocks and of his caves, j And now, Polyphemus, 
you become careful of your appearance, now anxious to 
please ; now with a rake you comb your shaggy locks, 
and now it is your pleasure to cut your rough beard 
with a reaping-hook, gazing at your rude features 
in some clear pool and composing their expression. 
Your love of slaughter falls away, your fierce nature 
and your quenchless thirst for blood ; and ships come 
and go in safety. Meanwhile Telemus had come to 
Sicilian Aetna, Telemus, the son of Eurymus, whom no 
bird had deceived ; and he said to grim Polyphemus : 
1 That one eye, which you have in the middle of your 
forehead, Ulysses will take from you.' He mocked 
and answered : f O most stupid seer, you are wrong; 
another has already taken it.' Thus did he scoff at 
the man who vainly sought to warn him, and stalked 
with huge, heavy tread along the shore, or returned, 
weary, to his shady cave. A wedge-shaped promon- 
tory with long, sharp point juts out into the sea, both 
sides washed by the waves. Hither the fierce Cyclops 
climbed and sat down on the cliffs central point, and 
his woolly sheep, all unheeded, followed him. Then, 
laying at his feet the pine-trunk which served him for 
a staff, fit for a vessel's mast, he took his pipe made of 
a hundred reeds. All the mountains felt the sound 
of his rustic pipings ; the waves felt it too. I, hiding 

k 283 


senserunt undae ; latitans ego rupe meique 
Acidis in gremio residens procul auribus hausi 
talia dicta meis auditaque verba notavi : 

"' Candidior folio nivei Galatea ligustri, 
floridior pratis, longa procerior alno, 790 

splendidior vitro, tenero lascivior haedo, 
levior adsiduo detritis aequore conchis, 
solibus hibernis, aestiva gratior umbra, 
nobilior pomis, platano conspectior alta, 
lucidior glacie, matura dulcior uva, 795 

mollior et cygni plumis et lacte coacto, 
et si non fugias, riguo formosior horto ; 

"'Saevior indomitis eadem Galatea iuvencis, 
durior annosa quercu, fallacior undis, 
lentior et salicis virgis et vitibus albis, 800 

his inmobilior scopulis, violentior amne, 
laudato pavone superbior, acrior igni, 
asperior tribulis, feta truculentior ursa, 
surdior aequoribus, calcato inmitior hydro, 
et, quod praecipue vellem tibi demere possem, 805 
non tantum cervo claris latratibus acto, 
verum etiam ventis volucrique fugacior aura, 
(at bene si noris, pigeat fugisse, morasque 
ipsa tuas damnes et me retinere labores). 
sunt mihi, pars montis, vivo pendentia saxo 810 

antra, quibus nee sol medio sentitur in aestu, 
nee sentitur hiems ; sunt poma gravantia ramos, 
sunt auro similes longis in vitibus uvae, 
sunt et purpureae : tibi et has servamus et illas. 


beneath a rock and resting in my Acis' arms, at a 
great distance heard the words he sang and well 
remember them : 

"' O Galatea, whiter than snowy privet-leaves, more 
blooming than the meadows, surpassing the alder in 
your tall slenderness, more sparkling than crystal, 
more frolicsome than a tender kid, smoother than 
shells worn by the constant waves, more welcome than 
the winter's sun and summer's shade, more goodly 
than orchard -fruit, fairer than the tall plane-tree, 
more shining-clear than ice, sweeter than ripened 
grapes, softer than swan's down and curdled milk, and, 
if only you would not flee from me, more beauteous 
than a well-watered garden. 

" ' Yet you, the same Galatea, are more obstinate 
than an untamed heifer, harder than aged oak, falser 
than water, tougher than willow-twigs and white 
briony-vines, more immovable than these rocks, 
more boisterous than a stream, vainer than a praised 
peacock, more cruel than fire, sharper than thorns, 
more savage than a she-bear with young, deafer 
than the sea, more pitiless than a trodden snake, 
and, what I would most of all that I could take from 
you, swifter not only than the stag driven before the 
baying hounds, but also than the winds and the 
fleeting breeze ! But, if only you knew me well, 
you would regret that you have fled from me ; you 
would yourself condemn your coy delays and seek 
to hold me. I have a whole mountain-side for my 
possessions, deep caves in the living rock, where 
neither the sun is felt in his midsummer heat, nor the 
winter's cold. I have apples weighing down their 
branches, grapes yellow as gold on the trailing vines, 
and purple grapes as well. Both these and those I 
am keeping for your use. With your own hand you 



ipsa tuis manibus silvestri nata sub umbra 815 

mollia fraga leges, ipsa autumnalia corna 
prunaque non solum nigro liventia suco, 
verum etiam generosa novasque imitantia ceras. 
nee tibi castaneae me coniuge, nee tibi deerunt 
arbutei fetus : omnis tibi serviet arbor. 820 

" ' Hoc pecus omne meum est, multae quoque 
vallibus errant, 
multas silva tegit, multae stabulantur in antris, 
nee, si forte roges, possim tibi dicere, quot sint : 
pauperis est numerare pecus ; de laudibus harum 
nil mihi credideris, praesens potes ipsa videre, 825 
ut vix circumeant distentum cruribus uber. 
sunt, fetura minor, tepidis in ovilibus agni. 
sunt quoque, par aetas, aliis in ovilibus haedi. 
lac mihi semper adest niveum : pars inde bibenda 
servatur, partem liquefacta coagula durant. 830 

"* Nee tibi deliciae faciles vulgataque tantum 
munera contingent, dammae leporesque caperque, 
parve columbarum demptusve cacumine nidus : 
inveni geminos, qui tecum ludere possint, 
inter se similes, vix ut dignoscere possis, 835 

villosae catulos in summis montibus ursae : 
inveni et dixi " dominae servabimus istos." 

" ' lam modo caeruleo nitidum caput exere ponto, 
iam, Galatea, veni, nee munera despice nostra J 
certe ego me novi liquidaeque in imagine vidi 840 
nuper aquae, placuitque mihi mea forma videnti. 
adspice, sim quantus : non est hoc corpore maior 
Iuppiter in caelo, nam vos narrare soletis 
nescio quem regnare Iovem ; coma plurima torvos 


shall gather the luscious strawberries that grow 
within the woody shade, cherries in autumn-time 
and plums, both juicy and purple-black and the 
large yellow kind, yellow as new wax. Chestnuts also 
shall be yours and the fruit of the arbute-tree, if 
you will take me for your husband ; and every tree 
shall yield to your desire. 

" ' And all this flock is mine. Many besides are 
wandering in the valleys, many are in the woods, 
still others are safe within their cavern-folds. Nay, 
should you chance to ask, I could not tell you how 
many in all I have. 'Tis a poor man's business to 
count his flocks. And you need not believe my 
praises of them ; here you can see for yourself how 
they can hardly walk for their distended udders. 
And I have, coming on, lambs in my warm folds 
and kids, too, of equal age, in other folds. There's 
always a plenty of snow-white milk. Some of it is 
kept for drinking, and some the rennet hardens into 

" ' And you shall have no easily gotten pets or only 
common presents, such as does and hares and goats, 
or a pair of doves, or a nest taken from the cliff. I 
found on the mountain-top two cubs of a shaggy bear 
for you to play with, so much alike that you can 
scarcely tell them apart. I found them and I said : 
" I'll keep these for my mistress ! " 

" ' And now, Galatea, do but raise your glistening 
head from the blue sea. Now come and don't 
despise my gifts. Surely I know myself; lately I 
saw my reflection in a clear pool, and I liked my 
features when I saw them. Just look, how big I 
am .' Jupiter himself up there in the sky has no 
bigger body; for you are always talking of some 
Jove or other as ruling there. A wealth of hair 



prominet in vultus, umerosque, ut lucus, obumbrat ; 
nee mea quod rigidis horrent densissima saetis 846 
corpora, turpe puta : turpis sine frondibus arbor, 
turpis equus, nisi colla iubae flaventia velent; 
pluma tegit volucres, ovibus sua lana decori est: 
barba viros hirtaeque decent in corpore saetae. 850 
unum est in media lumen mihi fronte, sed instar 
ingentis clipei. quid ? non haec omnia magnus 
Sol videt e caelo? Soli tamen unicus orbis. 

"'Adde, quod in vestro genitor mens aequore 
regnat : 
hunctibi do socerum ; tantum miserere precesque 855 
supplicis exaudi ! tibi enim succumbimus uni, 
quique Iovem et caelum sperno et penetrabile fulrnen, 
Nerei, te vereor, tua fulmine saevior ira est. 
atque ego contemptus essem patientior huius, 
si fugeres omnes ; sed cur Cyclope repulso 860 

Acin amas praefersque meis conplexibus Acin ? 
ille tamen placeatque sibi placeatque licebit, 
quod nollem, Galatea, tibi ; modo copia detur : 
sentiet esse mihi tanto pro corpore vires ' 
viscera viva traham divulsaque membra per agros 86? 
perque tuas spargam (sic se tibi misceat !) undas. 
uror enim, laesusque exaestuat acrius ignis, 
cumque suis videor translatam viribus Aetnam 
pectore ferre meo, nee tu, Galatea, moveris.' 

" Talia nequiquam questus (nam cuncta videbamj 
surgit et ut taurus vacca furibundus adempta 871 
stare nequit silvaque et notis saltibus errat, 


overhangs my manly face and it shades my shoulders 
like a grove. And don't think it ugly that my 
whole body is covered with thick, bristling hair. A 
tree is ugly without its leaves and a horse is ugly if a 
thick mane does not clothe his sorrel neck ; feathers 
clothe the birds, and their own wool is becoming 
to sheep ; so a beard and shaggy hair on his body 
well become a man. True, I have but one eye in 
the middle of my forehead, but it is as big as a good- 
sized shield. And what of that? Doesn't the great 
sun see everything here on earth from his heavens ? 
And the sun has but one eye. 

" ' Furthermore, my father is king over your own 
waters; and him I am giving to you for father-in-law. 
Only pity me and listen to my humble prayer ; for 
I bow to you alone ; I, who scorn Jove and his 
heaven and his all-piercing thunderbolt, I fear you 
alone, O Nereid ; your anger is more deadly than 
the lightning-flash. And 1 could better bear your 
scorning if you fled from all your suitors. But why, 
though you reject Cyclops, do you love Acis, and 
why do you prefer Acis to my arms ? And yet he may 
please himself and please you too, Galatea ; but oh, 
I wish he didn't please you. But only let me have a 
chance at him ! Then he'll find that I am as strong 
as I am big. I'll tear his vitals out alive, I'll rend 
him limb from limb and scatter the pieces over the 
fields and over your waves — so may he mate with 
you ! For oh, I burn, and my hot passion, thus 
scorned, rages more fiercely within me ; I seem to 
carry Aetna in my breast, borne thither with all 
his violence. And you, Galatea, do not care at all.' 

" Such vain complaints he uttered, and rose up (I 
saw it all), just as a bull which, furious when the cow 
has been taken from him, cannot stand still, but 



cum feruo ignaros nee quiequam tale timentes 
me videt atque Acin ' video ' que exclamat ' et ista 
ultima sit, faciam, Veneris concordia vestrae.' 875 
tantaque vox, quantam Cyclops iratus habere 
debuit, ilia fuit : clamore perhorruit Aetne. 
ast ego vicino pavefacta sub aequore mergor ; 
terga fugae dederat conversa Symaethius heros 
et ' fer opem, Galatea, precor, mihi ! ferte, parentes,' 
dixerat ' et vestris periturum admittite regnis !' 881 
insequitur Cyclops partemque e monte revulsam 
mittit, et extremus quamvis pervenit ad ilium 
angulus e saxo, totum tamen obruit Acin. 
at nos, quod fieri solum per fata licebat, 885 

fecimus, ut vires adsumeret Acis avitas. 
puniceus de mole cruor manabat, et intra 
temporis exiguum rubor evanescere coepit, 
fitque color primo turbati fluminis imbre 
purgaturque mora ; turn moles iacta dehiscit, 890 
vivaque per rimas proceraque surgit harundo, 
osque cavum saxi sonat exsultantibus undis, 
miraque res, subito media terms exstitit alvo 
incinctus iuvenis flexis nova cornua cannis, 
qui, nisi quod maior, quod toto caerulus ore, 895 

Acis erat, sed sic quoque erat tamen Acis, in amnem 
versus, et antiquum tenuerunt flumina nomen." 

Desierat Galatea loqui, coetuque soluto 
discedunt placidisque natant Nereides undis. 
Scylla redit ; neque enim medio se credere ponto 900 
audet, et aut bibula sine vestibus errat harena 


wanders through the woods and familiar pasture- 
lands. Then the fierce giant spied me and Acis, 
neither knowing nor fearing such a fate, and he 
cried : ' I see you, and I'll make that union of your 
loves the last.' His voice was hig and terrible as a 
furious Cyclops' voice should be. Aetna trembled 
with the din of it. But I, in panic fright, dived 
into the near-by sea. My S/maethianhero had already 
turned to run, and cried : ' Oh, help me, Galatea, I 
pray ; help me, my parents, and take me, doomed 
now to perish, to your kingdom. Cyclops ran after 
him and hurled a piece wrenched from the mountain- 
side ; and, though that merest corner of the mass 
reached Acis, still it was enough to bury him alto- 
gether. But I (the only thing that fate allowed 
to me) caused Acis to assume his ancestral powers. 
Crimson blood came trickling from beneath the mass ; 
then in a little while its ruddv colour began to fade 
away and it became the colour of a stream swollen 
by the early rains, and it cleared entirely in a little 
while. Then the mass that had been thrown cracked 
wide open and a tall, green reed sprang up through 
the crack, and the hollow opening in the rock re- 
sounded with leaping waters, and, wonderful ! sud- 
denly a youth stood forth waist-deep from the 
water, his new-sprung horns wreathed with bending 
rushes. The youth, save that he was larger and his 
face of dark sea-blue, was Acis. But even so he still 
was Acis, changed to a river-god ; and his waters 
kept their former name." • ' 

When Galatea had finished her story, the group 
of Nereids broke up and went swimming away on 
the peaceful waves. But Scylla, not daring to trust 
herself to the outer deep, returned to the shore, 
and there either wandered all unrobed along 



aut, ubi lassata est, seductos nacta recessus 
gurgitis, inclusa sua membra refrigerat utida 
ecce freto stridens, alti novus incola ponti, 
nuper in Euboica versis Anthedone membris, 905 
Glaucus adest, visaeque cupidine virginis haeret 
et, quaecumque putat fugientem posse morari, 
verba refert ; fugit ilia tamen veloxque timore 
pervenit in summum positi prope litora montis. 
ante fretum est ingens, apicem conlectus in unum 9 1 
longa sub arboribus convexus in aequora vertex : 
constitit hie et tuta loco, monstrumne deusne 
ille sit, ignorans admiraturque colorem 
caesariemque umeros subiectaque terga tegentem, 
ultimaque excipiat quod tortilis inguina piscis. 915 
sensit et innitens, quae stabat proxima, moli 
" non ego prodigium nee sum fera belua, virgo, 
sed deus" inquit " aquae : nee maius in aequora Proteus 
ius habet et Triton Athamantiadesque Palaemon. 
ante tamen mortalis eram, sed, scilicet altis 920 

deditus aequoribus, tantum exercebar in iilis ; 
nam modo ducebam ducentia retia pisces, 
nunc in mole sedens moderabar harundine linum. 
sunt viridi prato confinia litora, quorum 
altera pars undis, pars altera cingitur herbis, 925 
quas neque cornigerae morsu laesere iuvencae, 
nee placidae carpsistis oves hirtaeve capellae ; 
non apis inde tulit conlectos sedula 1 flores, 

1 So Vulg. Ehwald conjectures t pinina ; Merkel semine. 


the thirsty sands or, when she was wearied, she 
would seek out some deep sequestered pool and there 
refresh her limbs in its safe waters. Behold Glaucus, 
sounding with his shell upon the sea, a new-come 
dweller in the deep waters ; for his form had been 
but lately changed near Anthedon in Euboea. He 
saw the maid and straightway burned with love, and 
said whatever things he thought might stay her 
flight. Nevertheless, she fled him and, her speed 
increased by fear, she came to the top of a mountain 
which stood near the shore. It was a huge mountain 
facing the sea, rising into one massive peak, its 
shady top reaching far out over the water. Here 
Scylla stayed her flight and, protected by her 
position, not knowing whether he was a monster 
or a god, looked in wonder at his colour, his hair 
which covered his shoulders and his back, and at 
his groins merging into a twisted fish-form. He 
saw her and, leaning on a mass of rock which lay 
at hand, he said : " Maiden, I am no monster or wild 
creature ; I am a sea-god ; and neither Proteus nor 
Triton nor Palaemon, son of Athamas, has greater 
power over the deeps than I. I was mortal once, 
but even then devoted to the sea, and there my life 
was spent. Now I would draw in the nets full of 
fish, and now, sitting on some projecting rock, I 
would ply rod and line. There is a shore fringed by 
verdant meadows, one side of which is hemmed in 
by the waves and the other by herbage, which neither 
horned cattle have ever disturbed in grazing nor 
have your peaceful sheep nor hairy she-goats cropped 
it. No busy bee ever gathered flowers l from there 

1 i.e. either the honey from the flowers, or, according to 
Aristotle (de An. Hut., V. xxn. 4), the flowers themselves, 
out of which the bees made the honeycombs. 



non data sunt capiti genialia serta, neque umquam 
falciferae secuere manus ; ego primus in illo 930 
caespite consedi, dum lina madentia sicco, 
utque recensei era captivos ordine pisces, 
insuper exposui, quos aut in retia casus 
aut sua credulitas in aduncos egerat hamos. 
res similis fictae, sed quid milii fingere prodest ? 935 
gramine contacto coepit mea praeda moveri 
et mutare latus terraque ut in aequore niti. 
dumque moror mirorque simul, fugit omnis in undas 
turba suas dominumque novum litusque relinquunt. 
obstipui dubitoque diu causamque requiro, 9*0 

num deus hoc aliquis, num sucus fecerit herbae : 
' quae tamen has ' inquam ' vires habet herba ? ' 

pabula decerpsi decerptaque dente momordi. 
vix bene conbiberant ignotos guttura sucos, 
cum subito trepidare intus praecordia sensi 94-5 

alteriusque rapi naturae pectus amore ; 
nee potui restare diu ' repetenda' que ' numquam 
terra, vale ! ' dixi corpusque sub aequora mersi. 
di maris exceptum socio dignantur honore, 
utque mihi, quaecumque feram, mortalia demant, 950 
Oceanum Tethynque rogant : ego lustror ab illis, 
et purgante nefas noviens mihi carmine dicto 
pectora fluminibus iubeor supponere centum ; 
nee mora, diversis lapsi de partibus amnes 
totaque vertuntur supra caput aequora nostrum. Q55 
hactenus acta tibi possum memoranda referre, 
hactenus haec memini, nee mens mea cetera sensit. 
quae postquam rediit, alium me coipore to to, 


and bore them off; no festal wreaths for the head were 
ever gathered there, no hands with sickles ever mowed 
its grasses. I was the first to seat me on that turf, dry- 
ing my dripping lines and spreading out upon the bank 
to count them the fish that I had caught, which either 
chance had brought to my nets or their own guile- 
lessness had fixed upon my hooks. It sounds like 
an idle tale ; but what advantage have I in deceiving 
you ? My catch, on touching the grass, began to 
stir, then to turn over and to move about on land as 
in the sea. And while I paused in wonder they all 
slipped down into their native waters, abandoning 
their new master and the shore. I stood a longtime 
in amaze and doubt, seeking the cause of this. Had 
some god done it, or was it the grasses' juice ? ' And 
yet what herb could have such potency ? ' I said, 
and plucking some of the herbage with my hands, I 
chewed what I had plucked. Scarce had I swallowed 
the strange juices when suddenly I felt my heart 
trembling within me, and my whole being yearned 
with desire for another element. Unable long to stand 
against it, I cried aloud : ' Farewell, O Earth, to which 
I shall nevermore return ! ' and I plunged into the 
sea. The sea-divinities received me, deeming me 
worthy of a place with them, and called on Oceanus 
and Tethys to purge my mortal nature all away. 
And then they purged me, first with a magic song 
nine times repeated to wash all evil from me, and 
next they bade me bathe my body in a hundred 
streams. Straightway the rivers that flow from 
every side poured all their waters upon my head. 
So far I can recall and tell you what befell me ; so 
far can I remember. But of the rest my mind retains 
no knowledge. When my senses came back to me 
I was far different from what I was but lately in all 



ac fueram nuper, neque eundem mente recepi : 
hanc ego turn primum viridi ferrugine barbam 960 
caesariemque meam, quam longa per aequora verro 
ingentesque umeros et caenila bracchia vidi 
cruraque pinnigero curvata novissima pisce. 
quid tamen haec species, quid dis plaeuisse marinis, 
quid iuvat esse deum, si tu non tangeris istis ? " 965 
talia dicentem, dicturum plura, reliquit 
Scylla deum ; furit ille inritatusque repulsa 
prodigiosa petit Titanidos atria Circes, 



my body, nor was my mind the same. Then for 
the first time I beheld this beard of dark green 
hue, these locks which I sweep on the long waves, 
these huge shoulders and bluish arms, these legs 
which twist and vanish in a finny fish. And yet, 
what boots this form, what, that I pleased the sea- 
divinities, what profits it to be a god, if you are 
not moved by these things ? " As he thus spoke 
and would have spoken more, Scylla fled from the 
god, and he, stung to mad rage by his repulse, 
betook him to the wondrous court of Circe, daughter 
of the Sun. 




Iamqve Giganteis iniectam fauoibus Aetnen 

arvaque Cyclopuin, quid rastra, quid usus aratri 

nescia nee quicquam iunctis debentia bubus 

liquerat Euboicus tumidarum cultor aquarum, 

liquerat et Zanclen adversaque moenia Regi 5 

navifragumque fretum, gemino quod litore pressum 

Ausoniae Siculaeque tenet confinia terrae. 

inde manu magna Tyrrhena per aequora vectus 

herbiferos adiit colles atque atria Glaucus 

Sole satae Circes, vanarum plena ferarum. 10 

quam simul adspexit, dicta acceptaque salute, 

"diva, dei miserere, precor ! nam sola levare 

tu potes hunc," dixit " videar modo dignus, amorem. 

quanta sit herbarum, Titani, potentia, nulli 

quam mihi cognitius, qui sum mutatus ab illis. 15 

neve mei non nota tibi sit causa furoris : 

litore in Italico, Messenia moenia contra, 

Scylla mihi visa est. pudor est promissa precesque 

blanditiasque meas contemptaque verba referre ; 

at tu, sive aliquid regni est in carmine, carmen 20 

ore move sacro, sive expugnacior herba est, 

utere temptatis operosae viribus herbae 

nee medeare mihi sanesque haec vulnera mando, 



And now Aetna, heaped upon the giant's head, 1 and 
the fields of the C)'clops, which knew naught of the 
harrow or the plow, which owed no debt to yoked 
cattle, all these the Euboean haunter of the swelling 
waves had left behind ; he had left Zancle also, and 
the walls of Rhegium which lay opposite, and the 
shipwrecking strait which, confined by double shores, 
hems in the Ausonian and Sicilian land. Thence, 
swimming along with mighty strength through the 
Tyrrhene sea, Glaucus came to the herb-clad hills 
and the courts of Circe, daughter of the Sun, full of 
phantom beasts. When he beheld her, and a wel- 
come had been given and received, he thus addressed 
the goddess : " O goddess, pity a god, I pray you ! 
for you alone, if I but seem worthy of it, can help 
this love of mine. What magic potency herbs have, 
O Titaness, no one knows better than myself, for 1 was 
changed by them. That the cause of my mad passion 
may be known to you, on the Italian coast, opposite 
Messene's walls, I saw Scylla. I am ashamed to tell 
of the promises and prayers, the coaxing words I 
used, all scornfully rejected. But do you, if there is 
any power in charms, sing a charm with your sacred 
lips ; or, if herbs are more effectual, use the tried 
strength of efficacious herbs. And I do not pray that 
you cure me or heal me of these wounds, nor end my 

1 See V. 346 S 



fineque nil opus est : partem ferat ilia ealoris." 

at Circe (neque enim flammis habet aptius ulla 25 

talibus ingenium, seu causa est huius in ipsa, 

seu Venus indicio facit hoc offensa paterno,) 

talia verba refert : " melius sequerere volentem 

optantemque eadem parilique cupidine captam. 

dignus eras ultro (poteras certeque) rogari, 30 

et, si spem dederis, mihi crede, rogaberis ultro. 

neu dubites adsitque tuae fiducia formae, 

en ego, cum dea sim, nitidi cum filia Solis, 

carmine cum tantum, tantum quoque gramine possim, 

ut tua sim, voveo. spernentem sperne, sequenti 35 

redde vices, unoque duas ulciscere facto.'' 

talia temptanti " prius " inquit " in aequore frondes " 

Glaucus " et in summis nascentur montibus algae, 

sospite quam Scylla nostri mutentur amores." 

indignata dea est et laedere quatenus ipsum 40 

non poterat, (nee vellet amans), irascitur illi, 

quae sibi praelata est ; venerisque offensa repulsa, 

protinus horrendis infamia pabula sucis 

conterit et tritis Hecateia carmina miscet 

caerulaque induitur velamina perque ferarum 45 

agmen adulantum media procedit ab aula 

oppositumque petens contra Zancleia saxa 

Region ingreditur ferventes aestibus undas, 

in quibus ut solida ponit vestigia terra 

summaque decurrit pedibus super aequora siccis. 50 

parvus erat gurges, curvos sinuatus in arcus, 

grata quies Scyllae : quo se referebat ab aestu 



love ; let her but bear her part of this burning heat." 
But Circe (for no one has a heart more susceptible to 
such flames than she, whether the cause of this is in 
herself, or whether Venus, offended by her father's 
tattling, made her so) replied : " Much better would 
you follow one whose strong desire and prayer was 
even as your own, whose heart burned with an equal 
flame. You were worthy on your own part to be 
wooed, and could be, of a truth ; and, if you give 
some hope, I tell you truly you shall indeed be wooed. 
That you may believe this, and have some faith in 
your own power to charm, lo, I, goddess though I be, 
though the daughter of the shining Sun, though I 
have such magic powers in song and herb, I pray that 
I may be yours. Scorn her who scorns, and requite 
her love who loves you ; and so in one act repay us 
both." But to her prayer Glaucus replied : "Sooner 
shall foliage grow on the sea, and sooner shall sea- 
weeds spring up on the mountain-tops, than shall my 
love change while Scylla lives." The goddess was 
enraged ; and, since she could not harm the god him- 
self (and would not because of her love for him), she 
turned her wrath upon the girl who was preferred to 
her. In hurt anger at the refusal of her love, she 
straightway bruised together uncanny herbs with 
juices of dreadful power, singing while she mixed 
them Hecate's own charms. Then, donning an azure 
cloak, she took her way from her palace through the 
throng of beasts that fawned upon her as she passed, 
and made for Rhegium, lying opposite Zancle's rocky 
coast. She fared along the seething waters, on which 
she trod as on the solid ground, skimming dry-shod 
along the surface of the sea. There was a little pool, 
curving into a deep bow, a peaceful place where 
Scylla loved to come. Thither would she betake her 



et maris et caeli, medio cum plurimus orbe 
sol erat et minimas a vertice fecerat umbras, 
hunc dea praevitiat portentificisque venenis 55 

inquinat ; his fusis latices radice nocenti 
spargit et obscurum verborum ambage novorum 
ter noviens carmen magico demurmurat ore. 
Scylla venit mediaque tenus descenderat alvo, 
cum sua foedari latrantibus inguina monstris 60 

adspicit ac primo credens non corporis illas 
esse sui partes, refugitque abigitque timetque 
ora proterva canum, sed quos fugit, attrahit una 
et corpus quaerens femorum crurumque ped unique 
Cerbereos rictus pro partibus invenit illis : 65 

statque canum rabie subiectaque terga ferarum 
inguinibus truncis uteroque exstante coercet. 

Flevit amans Glaucus nimiumque hostiliter usae 
viribus herbarum fugit conubia Circes ; 
Scylla loco mansit cumque est data copia, primum 70 
in Circes odium sociis spoliavit Ulixen ; 
mox eadem Teucras fuerat mersura carinas, 
ni prius in scopulum, qui nunc quoque saxeus exstat, 
transformata foret : scopulum quoque navita vitat. 

Hunc ubi Troianae remis avidamque Charybdin 75 
evicere rates, cum iam prope litus adessent 
Ausonium, Libycas vento referuntur ad oras. 
excipit Aenean illic animoque domoque 
non bene discidium Phrygii latura mariti 


from the heat of sea and sky, when the sun at his 
strongest was in mid-heaven, and from his zenith had 
drawn the shadows to their shortest compass. This 
pool, before the maiden's coming, the goddess be- 
fouls and tinctures with her baleful poisons. When 
these had been poured out she sprinkles liquors 
brewed from noxious roots, and a charm, dark with 
its maze of uncanny words, thrice nine times she 
murmurs over with lips well skilled in magic. Then 
Scylla comes and wades waist-deep into the water ; 
when all at once she sees her loins disfigured with 
barking monster-shapes. And at the first, not be- 
lieving that these are parts of her own body, she 
flees in fear and tries to drive away the boisterous, 
barking things. But what she flees she takes along 
with her ; and, feeling for her thighs, her legs, her 
feet, she finds in place of these only gaping dogs'- 
heads, such as a Cerberus might have. She stands on 
ravening dogs, and her docked loins and her belly 
are enclosed in a circle of beastly forms. 

Glaucus, her lover, wept at the sight and fled the 
embrace of Circe, who had used too cruelly her potent 
herbs. But Scylla remained fixed in her place and, 
when first a chance was given her to vent her hate on 
Circe, she robbed Ulysses of his companions. She also 
would have wrecked the Trojan ships had she not 
before their coming been changed into a rock which 
stands there to this day. The rock also is the sailors' 

When the Trojan vessels had successfully passed 
this monster and greedy Charybdis too, and when 
they had almost reached the Ausonian shore, the wind 
bore them to the Libyan coast. There the Sidonian 
queen 1 received Aeneas hospitably in heart and home, 

1 Dido. 



Sidonis ; inque pyra sacri sub imagine facta 80 

incubuit ferro deceptaque decipit omnes. 

rursus harenosae fugiens nova moenia terrae 

ad sedemque Ervcis fidumque relatus Acesten 

sacrificat tumulumque sui genitoris honorat. 

quasque rates Iris Iunonia paene cremarat, 85 

solvit et Hippotadae regnum terrasque calenti 

sulphure fumantis Acheloiadumque relinquit 

Sirenum fcopulos, orbataque praeside pinus 

Inarimen Prochytenque legit sterilique locatas 

colle Pithecusas, habitantum nomine dictas. 90 

quippe deum genitor, fraudem et periuria quondam 

Cercopum exosus gentisque admissa dolosae, 

in deforme viros animal mutavit, ut idem 

dissimiles homini possent similesque videri, 

membraque contraxit naresque a fronte resimas 95 

contudit et rugis peraravit anilibus ora 

totaque velatos flaventi corpora villo 

misit in has sedes nee non prius abstulit usum 

verborum et natae dira in periuria linguae ; 

posse queri tantum rauco stridore reliquit. 1 00 

Has ubi praeteriit et Parthenopeia dextra 
moenia deseruit, laeva de parte canori 
Aeolidae tumulum et, loca feta palustribus undis, 
litora Cumarum vivacisque antra Sibyllae 
intrat, et ad manes veniat per Averna paternos, 105 
orat. at ilia diu vultum tellure moratum 



doomed ill to endure her Phrygian lord's departure 
On a pyre, built under pretence of sacred rites, she 
fell upon his sword ; and so, herself disappointed, she 
disappointed all. Leaving once more the new city 
built on the sandy shore, Aeneas returned to the land 
of Eryx and friendly Acestes, and there he made 
sacrifice and paid due honours to his father's tomb. 
Then he cast off the ships which Iris, Juno's messen- 
ger, had almost burned, and soon had sailed past the 
kingdom x of Hippotades, past the lands smoking 
with hot sulphur fumes, and the rocky haunt of the 
Sirens, daughters of Acheloiis. And now, his vessel 
having lost her pilot, he coasts along Inarime and 
Prochyte and Pithecusae, situate on a barren hill, 
called from the name of its inhabitants. For the 
father of the gods, hating the tricks and lies of the 
Cercopians and the crimes committed by that treach- 
erous race, once changed the men to ugly animals in 
such a way that they might be unlike human shape 
and yet seem like them. He shortened their limbs, 
blunted and turned back their noses, and furrowed 
their faces with deep wrinkles as of age. Then he sent 
them, clothed complete in yellow hair, to dwell in 
these abodes. But first he took from them the power 
of speech, the use of tongues born for vile perjuries, 
leaving them only the utterance of complaint in 
hoarse, grating tones. 

When he had passed these by and left the walled 
city of Parthenope upon the right, he came upon the 
left to the mound-tomb of the tuneful son of Aeolus 2 
and the shores of Cumae, teaming with marshy waters, 
and, entering the grotto of the long-lived sibyl, prayed 
that he might pass down through Avernus' realm and 
see his father's shade. The sibyl held her eyes long 
1 The Aeolian Isles. * Misenus. 



erexit tandemque deo furibunda recepto 

"magna petis," dixit, " vir factis maxime, cuius 

dextera per ferrum, pietas spectata per ignes. 

pone tamen, Troiane, metum : potiere petitis 1 10 

Elysiasque domos et regna novissima mundi 

me duce cognosces simulacraque cara parentis. 

invia virtuti nulla est via." dixit et auro 

fulgentem ramum silva Iunonis Avernae 

monstravit iussitque suo divellere trunco. 115 

paruit Aeneas et formidabilis Orci 

vidit opes atavosque suos umbramque send em 

magnanimi Anchisae ; didicit quoque iura locorurn, 

quaeque novis essent adeunda pericula bellis. 

inde ferens lassos adverso tramite passus 120 

cum duce Cumaea mollit sermone laborem. 

dumque iter horrendum per opaca crepuscula carpit, 

u seu dea tu praesens, seu dis gratissima," dixit, 

" numinis instar eris semper mihi, meque fatebor 

muneris esse tui, quae me loca mortis adire, 125 

quae loca me visae voluisti evadere mortis. 

pro quibus aerias meritis evectus ad auras 

templa tibi statuam, tribuam tibi turis honores." 

respicit hunc vates et suspiratibus haustis 

"nee dea sum/' dixit "nee sacri turis honore 130 

humanum dignare caput, neu nescius erres, 

lux aeterna mihi carituraque fine dabatur, 

si mea virginitas Phoebo patuisset amanti. 

dum tamen hanc sperat, dum praecorrumpere donis 

me cupit, ' elige,' ait ' virgo Cumaea, quid optes : 1 35 



fixed upon the earth, then lifted them at last and,full of 
mad inspiration from her god, replied: " Great things 
do you ask, you man of mighty deeds, whose hand, by 
sword, whose piety, by fire, has been well tried. But 
have no fear, Trojan ; you shall have your wish, 
and with my guidance you shall see the dwell- 
ings of Elysium and the latest kingdom of the uni- 
verse ; and you shall see your dear father's shade. 
There is no way denied to virtue." She spoke and 
showed him, deep in Avernal Juno's * forest, a bough 
gleaming with gold, and bade him pluck it from its 
trunk. Aeneas obeyed; then saw grim Orcus' pos- 
sessions, and his own ancestral shades, and the aged 
spirit of the great-souled Anchises. He learned also 
the laws of those places, and what perils he himself 
must undergo in new wars. As he retraced his 
weary steps along the upward way he beguiled the 
toil with discourse with his Cumaean guide ; and as 
he fared along the dismal road in the dim dusk he 
said : " Whether thou art a goddess in very truth, or 
a maid most pleasing to the gods, to me shalt thou 
always seem divine, and I shall confess that I owe 
my life to thee, through whose will I have approached 
the world of death, have seen and have escaped in 
safety from the world of death. And for these services, 
when I have returned to the upper regions, I will erect 
a temple to thee and there burn incense in thine 
honour." The sibyl regarded him and, sighing deeply, 
said : " I am no goddess, nor do thou deem any mortal 
worthy of the honour of the sacred incense. But, lest 
you mistake in ignorance, eternal, endless life was 
offered me, had my virgin modesty consented to Phoe- 
bus' love. While he still hoped for this and sought to 
break my will with gifts, he said : ' Chose what you will, 
1 i.e. Proserpina. 



optatis potiere tuis. ego pulveris hausti 

ostendi cumulum : quot haberet corpora pulvis, 

tot mihi natales contingere vana rogavi ; 

excidit, ut peterem iuvenes quoque protinus annos. 

hos tamen ille mihi dabat aeternainque iuventam, 

si Venerem paterer : contempto munere Phoebi 141 

innuba permaneo ; sed iam felicior aetas 

terga dedit, tremuloque gradu venit aegra senectus, 

quae patienda diu est. nam iam mihi saecula septem 

acta vides : superest, numeros ut pulveris aequem, 

ter centum messes, ter centum musta videre. 1 46 

tempus erit, cum de tanto me corpore parvam 

longa dies faciet, consumptaque membra senecta 

ad minimum redigentur onus : nee amata videbor 

nee placuisse deo, Phoebus quoque forsitan ipse 150 

vel non cognoscet, vel dilexisse negabit: 

usque adeo mutata ferar nullique videnda, 

voce tamen noscar ; vocem mihi fata relinquent." 

Talia convexum per iter memorante Sibylla 
sedibus Euboicam Stvgiis emergit in urbem 155 

Troius Aeneas sacrisque ex more litatis 
litora adit nondum nutricis habentia nomen. 
hie quoque substiterat post taedia longa laborum 
Neritius Macareus, comes experientis Ulixei. 
desertum quondam mediis sub rupibus Aetnae 160 
noscit Achaemeniden inprovisoque repertum 


maiden of Cumae, and you shall have your choice.' 
Pointing to a heap of sand, I made the foolish prayer 
that I might have as many years of life as there were 
sand-grains in the pile ; but I forgot to ask that those 
years might be perpetually young. He granted me 
the years, and promised endless youth as well, if I 
would yield to love. I spurned Phoebus' gift and 
am still unwedded. But now my joyous springtime of 
life has fled and with tottering step weak old age is 
coming on, which for long I must endure. Even now 
you see me after seven centuries of life, and, ere my 
years equal the number of the sands, I still must behold 
three hundred harvest-times, three hundred vintages. 
The time will come when length of days will shrivel 
me from my full form to but a tiny thing,andmy limbs, 
consumed by age, will shrink to a feather's weight. 
Then will I seem never to have been loved, never to 
have pleased the god. Phoebus himself, perchance, 
will either gaze unknowing on me or will denv 
that he ever loved me. Even to such changes shall 
I come. Though shrunk past recognition of the eye, 
still by my voice shall I be known, for the fates will 
leave me my voice." ^ 

While thus along the hollow way the sibyl told 
her story, out of the Stygian world Trojan Aeneas 
emerged near the Euboean city. 1 Making due 
sacrifices here, he next landed on a shore which 
did not yet bear his nurse's 2 name. Here also 
Neritian Macareus, a comrade of all-suffering Ulysses, 
had stayed behind after the long weariness of his wan- 
derings. He recognizes Achaemenides, 3 whom they 
had left long since abandoned midst the rocks of 
Aetna. Amazed thus suddenly to find him still 

1 Cumae. 2 Caieta. 

8 Aeneas had taken him on board near Aetna. 



vivere miratus, "qui te casusve deusve 

servat, Achaemenide ? cur" inquit " barbara Graium 

prora vehit ? petitur vestra quae terra carina ? " 

talia quaerenti, iam non hirsutus amictu, 1 65 

iam suus et spinis conserto tegmine nullis, 

fatur Achaemenides : "iterum Polyphemon et illos 

adspiciam fluidos humano sanguine rictus, 

hac mihi si potior domus est Ithaceque carina, 

si minus Aenean veneror genitore, nee umquam 170 

esse satis potero, praestem licet omnia, gratus. 

quod loquor et spiro caelumque et sidera solis 

respicio, possimne ingratus et inmemor esse ? 

ille dedit, quod non anima haec Cyclopis in ora 

venit, et ut iam nunc lumen vitale relinquam, 175 

aut tumulo aut certe non ilia condar in alvo. 

quid mihi tunc animi (nisi si timor abstulit omnem 

sensum animumque) fuit, cum vos petere alta relictus 

aequora conspexi ? volui inclamare, sed hosti 

prodere me timui : vestrae quoque clamor Ulixis 180 

paene rati nocuit. vidi, cum monte revulsum 

inmanem scopulum medias permisit in undas; 

vidi iterum veluti tormenti viribus acta 

vasta Giganteo iaculantem saxa lacerto 

et, ne deprimeret fluctus ventusve carinam, 185 

pertimui, iam me non esse oblitus in ilia. 

ut vero fuga vos a certa morte reduxit, 

ille quidem totam gemebundus obambulat Aetnam 

praetemptatque manu silvas et luminis orbus 

rupibus mcursat foedataque bracchia tabo 190 

in mare protendens gentem exsecratur Achivam 

atque ait : ' o si quis referat mihi casus Ulixen, 



alive, he says: "What chance, what god has saved 
you, Acliaemenides ? Why does a Greek sail in a 
Trojan ship? What land does your vessel seek?" 
And to his questions Achaemenides, no longer 
roughly clad, his garments no longer pinned with 
thorns, but his own man once more, replied : " May 
I look on Polyphemus yet again, and those wide 
jaws of his, dripping with human gore, if I prefer 
my home and Ithaca to this ship, if I revere Aeneas 
less than my own father. Nor can I ever pay my 
debt of gratitude, though I should give my all. That 
I speak and breathe and see the heavens and the con- 
stellations of the sun, for this can I cease to thank 
him, and be mindful of him ? 'Tis due to him that 
my life came not into the Cyclops' jaws, and though 
even now I should leave the light of life, I should 
be buried in a tomb, but surely not in that monster's 
maw. What were my feelings then (except that 
fear took away all sense and feeling) when, left be- 
hind, I saw you making for the open sea ? I longed 
to call out to you, but I feared to betray myself to 
the enemy. Even your vessel Ulysses' cry almost 
wrecked. I saw when Cyclops tore up a huge rock 
from the mountain-side and hurled it far out to sea. 
I saw him again throwing great stones with his 
gigantic arms as from a catapult, and I feared lest 
the waves or the wind * should sink the ship, for- 
getting that I was not in her. But when you escaped 
by flight from certain death, he, groaning the while, 
went prowling all over Aetna, groping through the 
woods with his hands, and blindly dashing against 
the rocks. Then would he stretch out his bleeding 
arms to the sea and curse the whole Greek race, 
and say : ' Oh, that some chance would but bring 
1 i.e. of the stone. 



aut aliquem e sociis, in quern mea saeviat ira, 
viscera cuius edam, cuius viventia dextra 
membra mea laniem, cuius mihi sanguis inundet 195 
guttur, et elisi trepident sub dentibus artus : 
quaiii nullum aut leve sit damnum mihi lucis 

ademptae ! ' 
haec et plura ferox, me lurid us occupat horror 
spectantem vultus etiamnum caede madentes 
crudelesque manus et inanem luminis orbem 200 

membraque et humano concretam sanguine baibam. 
mors erat ante oculos, minimum tamen ilia malorum, 
et iam prensurum, iam nunc mea viscera rebar 
in sua mersurum, mentique haerebat imago 
temporis illius, quo vidi bina meorum 205 

ter quater adfligi sociorum corpora terrae, 
cum super ipse iacens hirsuti more leonis 
visceraque et carnes cumque albis ossa medullis 
semianimesque artus avidam condebat in alvum; 
me tremor invasit : stabam sine sanguine maestus, 
mandentemque videns eiectantemque cruentas 211 
ore dapes et frusta mero glomerata vomentem • 
talia fingebam misero mihi fata parari 
perque dies multos latitans omnemque tremiscens 
ad strepitum mortemque timens cupidusque moriri 
glande famem pellens et mixta frondibus herba 2l6 
solus inops exspes leto poenaeque relictus 
hanc procul adspexi Ion go post tempore navem 
oravique fugam gestu ad litusque cucurri, 
et movi : Graiumque ratis Troiana recepit ' 220 



Ulysses back to me, or some one of his friends, 
against whom my rage might vent itself, whose 
vitals I might devour, whose living body I might 
tear asunder with my hands, whose gore might flood 
my throat, and whose mangled limbs might quiver 
between my teeth ! How nothing at all, or how 
slight a thing would the loss of my sight appear ! ' 
This and much more in furv. Pale horror filled 
me as I looked upon his face still smeared with 
blood, and his cruel hands, his sightless eye, his 
limbs and his beard, matted with human gore. 
Death was before my eyes, but that was the least 
of all my troubles. I kept always thinking: now 
he'll catch me, now he'll make my flesh part of his ; 
and the picture stuck in my mind of that time when 
I saw him catch up two of my friends at once and 
dash them thrice and again upon the ground ; and 
when, crouching like a shaggy lion over them, he 
filled his greedy maw with their vitals and their 
flesh, their bones full of white marrow, and their 
limbs still warm with life. A quaking terror seized 
me and I stood pale with horror as I watched him 
now chewing, now ejecting his bloody feast, now dis- 
gorging his scraps of food mingled with wine. Such 
fate 1 pictured as in store for wretched me. For 
many days I kept myself in hiding, trembling at 
ever}' sound, fearing death and yet longing to die, 
keeping off starvation with acorns and grass and 
leaves, alone, helpless and hopeless, abandoned to 
suffering and death. And then, after a long time, 
far in the distance I saw this ship, and I begged 
them by my gestures to save me, I rushed down to 
the shore and I touched their hearts : a Trojan ship 
received a Greek ! Now do you also tell of your 
adventures, best of comrades, what your leader 

, 315 


tu quoque pande tuos, comitum gratissime, casus 
et ducis et turbae, quae tecum est credita ponto." 

A.eolon ille refert Tusco regnare profundo, 
Aeolon Hippotaden, cohibentem carcere ventos ; 
quos bo vis inclusos tergo, memorabile munus, 225 
Dulichium sumpsisse ducem flatuque secundo 
lucibus isse novem et terrain aspexisse petitam ; 
proxima post nonam cum sese aurora moveret, 
invidia socios praedaeque cupidine victos 
esse ; ratos aurum, dempsisse ligamina ventis ; 230 
cum quibus isse retro, per quas modo venerat undas, 
Aeoliique ratem portus repetisse tyranni. 
" inde Lami veterem Laestrygonis " inquit " in urbem 
venimus : Antiphates terra regnabat in ilia. 
missus ad hunc ego sum, numero comitante duorum, 
vixque fuga quaesita salus comit ; que mihique, 236 
tertius e nobis Laestrygonis inpia tinxit 
ora cruore suo. fugientibus instat et agmen 
concitat Antiphates ; coeunt et saxa trabesque 
coniciunt merguntque viros merguntque carinas. 240 
una tamen, quae nos ipsumque vehebat Ulixen, 
effugit. amissa sociorum parte dolentes 
multaque conquesti terris adlabimur illis, 
quas procul hinc cernis (procul est, mihi crede, 

insula visa mihi !) tuque o iustissime Troum, 245 

nate dea, (neque enim finito Marte vocandus 
hostis es, Aenea) moneo, fuge litora Circes ! 
nos quoque Circaeo religata in litore pinu, 
Antiphatae memores inmansuetique Cyclopia, 


suffered and the company which put to sea with 

Then Macareus told how Aeolus ruled over the 
Tuscan waters, Aeolus, son of Hippotes, confining 
the winds in prison. These winds, enclosed in a 
bag of bull's hide, the Dulichian captain had received, 
a memorable gift. Nine days they had sailed along 
with a good stern breeze and had sighted the land 
they sought ; but when the tenth morning dawned, 
Ulysses' comrades were overcome by envy and by lust 
of booty ; thinking that gold was in the bag, they 
untied the strings that held the winds. These blew 
the vessel back again over the waves they had just 
crossed, and she re-entered the harbour of the 
Aeolian tyrant. "After that," he said, "we came 
to the ancient city of Laestrygonian Lamus. Anti- 
phates was ruling in that land. I was sent to him 
with two companions. One comrade and myself by 
flight barely reached a place of safety ; but the third 
of us stained with his blood the Laestrygonians' 
impious mouths. Antiphates pursued us as we fled 
and urged his band after us. They came on in a 
mob, hurling stones and heavy timbers, and they 
sank our men and sank our ships. One of them, 
however, in which I and Ulysses himself sailed, 
escaped. Grieving for our lost companions and with 
many lamentations, we finally reached that land 
which you see at some distance yonder. (And, 
trust my word, I found 'twas best to see it at a 
distance.) And you, most righteous Trojan, son of 
Venus (for now that the war is over, you are no longer 
to be counted foe, Aeneas), I warn you, keep away 
from Circe's shores ! We also, having moored our 
vessel on Circe's shore, and remembering Antiphates 
and the cruel Cyclops, refused to go further, but were 



ire negabamus ; sed tecta ignota subire 250 

sorte sumus lecti : sors me fidumque Politen 
Eurylochumque simul nimioque Elpenora vino 
bisque novem socios Circaea ad moenia misit. 
quae simul attigimus stetimusque in limine tecti, 
mille lupi mixtaeque lupis ursaeque leaeque 255 

occursu fecere metum, sed nulla timenda 
nullaque erat nostro factura in corpore vulnus ; 
quin etiam blandas movere per aera caudas 
nostraque adulantes comitant vestigia, donee 
excipiunt famulae perque atria marmore tecta 260 
ad dominam ducunt : pulchro sedet ilia recessu 
sollemni solio pallamque induta nitentem 
insuper aurato circumvelatur amictu. 
Nereides nymphaeque simul, quae vellera motis 
nulla trahunt digitis nee fila sequentia ducunt : 265 
gramina disponunt sparsosque sine ordine flores 
secei-nunt calathis variasque coloribus herbas ; 
ipsa, quod hae faciunt, opus exigit, ipsa, quis usus 
quove sit in folio, quae sit concordia mixtis, 
novit et advertens pensas examinat herbas. 270 

haec ubi nos Vidit, dicta acceptaque salute 
diffudit vultus et reddidit omina votis. 
nee mora, misceri tosti iubet hordea grani 
mellaque vimque meri cum lacte coagula passo, 
quique sub hac lateant furtim dulcedine, sucos 275 
adicit. accipimus sacra data pocula dextra. 
quae simul arenti sitientes hausimus ore, 
et tetigit summos virga dea dira capillos, 
(et pudet et referam) saetis horrescere coepi, 
nee iam posse loqui, pro verbis edere raucum 280 


chosen by lot to approach the unknown houses. The 
lot sent me and the trusty Polites, Eurylochus also and 
Elpenor, too much given to wine, and eighteen others 
to Circe's city. When we arrived and stood within her 
courts, a thousand wolves and she-bears and lionesses 
in a mixed throng rushed on us, filling us with terror. 
But not one of them was to be feared ; not one of 
them was to give us a single scratch upon our bodies. 
Why, they even wagged their tails in show of kind- 
ness, and fawned upon us as they followed us along, 
until attendant maidens took us in charge and led us 
through the marble halls to their mistress' presence. 
She sat in a beautiful retreat on her throne of 
state, clad in a gleaming robe, with a golden veil 
above. Her attendants were Nereids and nymphs, 
who card no fleece and spin no woollen threads with 
nimble fingers ; their only task, to sort out plants, to 
select from a jumbled mass and place in separate 
baskets flowers and herbs of various colours. She 
herself oversees the work they do ; she herself 
knows what is the value of each leaf, what in- 
gredients mix well together, directs the tasks, and 
weighs the herbs. When she saw us and when 
welcome had been given and received, she smiled 
upon us and seemed to promise us the friendship we 
desired. At once she bade her maidens spread a feast 
of parched barley-bread, of hone}', sti'ong wine, and 
curdled milk ; and in this sweet drink, where they 
might lie unnoticed, she slyly squeezed some of her 
baleful juices. We took the cup which was offered by 
her divine hand. As soon as we had thirstily drained 
the cup with patched lips, the cruel goddess touched 
the tops of our heads with her magic wand ; and then 
(I am ashamed to tell, yet will I tell) I began to grow 
rough with bristles, and I could speak no longer, but in 



murmur et in terram toto procumbere vultu, 
osque meum sensi pando occallescere rostro, 
colla tumere toris, et qua modo pocula parte 
sumpta mihi fuerant, ilia vestigia feci 
cumque eadem passis (tantum medicamina possunt!) 
claudor hara, solumque suis caruisse figura 286 

vidimus Eurylochum : solus data pocula fugit ; 
quae nisi vitasset, pecoris pars una manerem 
nunc quoque saetigeri, nee tantae cladis ab illo 
certior ad Circen ultor venisset Ulixes. 290 

pacifer huic dederat florem Cyllenius album : 
moly vocant superi, nigra radice tenetur ; 
tutus eo monitisque simul caelestibus intrat 
ille domum Circes et ad insidiosa vocatus 
pocula conantem virga mulcere capillos 295 

reppulit et stricto pavidam deterruit ense. 
inde fides dextraeque datae thalamoque receptus 
coniugii dotem sociorum corpora poscit. 
spargimur ignotae sucis melioribus herbae 
percutimurque caput conversae verbere virgae, SOO 
verbaque dicuntur dictis contraria verbis, 
quo magis ilia canit, magis hoc tellure levati 
erigimur, saetaeque cadunt, bifidosque relinquit 
rima pedes, redeunt umeri et subiecta lacertis 
bracchia sunt : flentem flentes amplectimur ipsi 305 
haeremusque ducis collo nee verba locuti 
ulla priora sum us quam nos testantia gratos. 
annua nos illic tenuit mora, multaque praesens 


place of words came only hoarse, grunting sounds, and 
I began to bend forward with face turned entirely to 
the earth. I felt my mouth hardening into a long 
snout, my neck swelling in brawny folds, and with my 
hands, with which but now I had lifted the goblet to 
my lips, I made tracks upon the ground. And then I 
was shut up in a pen with others who had suffered the 
same change (so great was the power of her magic 
drugs !). We saw that Eurylochus alone was without 
the pig form ; for he alone had refused to take the cup. 
If he had not refused it, I should even now be one of 
the bristly herd, and Ulysses would never have been 
informed by him of our great calamity, and come to 
Circe to avenge us. , Peace-bringing Cyllenius had 
given him a white flower which the gods call moly. 
It grows up from a black root. Safe with this and 
the directions which the god had given him, Ulysses 
entered Circe's palace and, when he was invited to 
drink of the fatal bowl, he struck aside the wand with 
which she was attempting to stroke his hair, and 
threatened the quaking queen with his drawn sword. 
Then faith was pledged and right hands given and, 
being accepted as her husband, he demanded as a 
wedding gift the bodies of his friends. We were 
sprinkled with the more wholebome juices of some 
mysterious herb, our heads received the stroke of her 
reversed rod, and words were uttered over us which 
counteracted the words said before. And as she sang, 
more and still more raised from the ground we stood 
erect, our bristles fell away, our feet lost their cloven 
hoofs, our shoulders came back to us, and our aims 
resumed their former shape. Weeping, we embraced 
him, weeping too, and clung to our chieftain's neck ; 
and the first words we uttered were of gratitude to him. 
We tarried in that country for a year, and in so long a 



tempore tam longo vidi, multa auribus hausi, 

hoc quoque cum multis. quod clam mihi rettulit una 

quattuor e famulis ad talia sacra paratis. 311 

cum duce namque meo Circe dum sola moratur, 

ilia mihi niveo factum de marmore signum 

ostendit iuvenale gerens in vertice picum, 

aede sacra positum multisque insigne coronis. 315 

quis foret et quare sacra coleretur in aede, 

cur banc ferret avem, quaerenti et scire volenti 

' accipe ' ait, ' Macareu, dominaeque potentia quae 

hinc quoque disce meae ; tu dictis adice mentem ! 

" ' Picus in Ausoniis, proles Saturnia, terris 320 
rex fuit, utilium bello studiosus equorum ; 
forma viro, quam cernis, erat : licet ipse decorem 
adspicias fictaque probes ab imagine verum ; 
par animus formae ; nee adhuc spectasse per annos 
quinquennem poterat Graia quater Elide pugnam. 
ille suos dryadas Latiis in montibus ortas 326 

verterat in vultus, ilium fontana petebant 
numina, naiades, quas Albula, quasque Numici, 
quas Anienis aquae cursuque brevissimus Almo 
Nai*ve tulit praeceps et opacae Farfarus umbrae, 330 
quaeque colunt Scythicae stagnum nemorale Diana e 
finitimosque lacus ; spretis tamen omnibus unam 
ille colit nymphen, quam quondam in colle Palati 
dicitur ancipiti peperisse Venilia Iano. 
haec ubi nubilibus primum maturuit annis, 335 

praeposito cunctis Laurenti tradita Pico est, 


time many were the things I saw with my own eyes 
and many were the tales I heard. Here is one of 
the many which one of the four attendants appointed 
for such offices as have been mentioned * told me 
privately. For, while Circe was dallying alone with 
our leader, this nymph pointed out to me a snow- 
white marble statue of a young man with a wood- 
pecker on his head. The statue was set in a sacred 
fane and attracted attention for its many wreaths. 
When in my curiosity I asked who it was and why 
he was worshipped in that holy place and why he 
had the bird upon his head, she told me this story : 
( Listen, Macareus, and learn from this how strong 
is my mistress' magic. And do you give diligent 
heed to what I say. S 

" ' Picus, the son of Saturn, was once the king of 
the Ausonian country and was very fond of horses 
fit for war. The hero's form was as you see it. And, 
though you should look upon his living beauty, 
still would you approve the true in comparison 
with his mimic form. His spirit was equal to his 
body. He could not yet have seen, as the years 
went by, four quinquennial contests at Grecian 
Elis ; but already had he attracted to his beauty all 
the dryads sprung from the hills of Latium ; the 
nymphs of the fountains pined for him, and the 
naiads who dwell in tlie Albula, beneath Numicus* 
stream and Anio's, short-coursing Almo, headlong Nar, 
and Farfar's shady waters ; and those who haunt the 
wooded pool of Taurian Diana and the neighbouring 
lakes. But, spurning all these, he loved one nymph 
alone, whom once on the Palatine Venilia is said to 
have borne to two-headed Janus. This maid, when 
she had ripened into marriageable years, was given 
l See 1L 266 ff. 



rara quidem facie, sed rarior arte canendi, 

unde Canens dicta est: silvas et saxa movere 

et mulcere feras et flumina longa morari 

ore suo volucresque vagas retinere solebat. 340 

quae dum feminea modulatur carmina voce, 

exierat tecto Laurentes Picus in a^ros 

indigenas fixurus apros tergumque premebat 

acris equi laevaque hastilia bina ferebat 

poeniceam fulvo chlamydem contractus ab auro. 345 

venerat in silvas et filia Solis easdem, 

utque novas legeret fecundis collibus herbas, 

nomine dicta suo Circaea reliquerat arva. 

quae simul ac iuveneni virgultis abdita vidit, 

obstipuit : cecidere manu, quas legerat, herbae, 350 

flammaque per totas visa est errare medullas. 

ut primum valido mentem conlegit ab aestu, 

quid cuperet, fassura fuit : ne posset adire, 

cursus equi fecit circumfususque satelles. 

" non " ait " effugies, vento rapiare licebit, 355 

si modo me novi, si non evanuit omnis 

herbarum virtus, et non mea carmina fallunt." 

dixit et effigiem nullo cum corpore falsi 

fingit apri praeterque oculos transcurrere regis 

iussit et in densum trabibus nemus ire videri, 360 

plurima qua silva est et equo loca pervia non sunt. 

haut mora, continuo praedae petit inscius umbram 

Picus equique celer spumantia terga relinquit 

spemque sequens vanam silva pedes errat in alta. 



to Laurentian Picus, preferred above all suitors. 
Rare was her beauty, but rarer still her gift of song, 
whence was her name, Canens. She used to move 
woods and rocks, soften wild beasts, stop the long 
rivers with her singing, and stay the wandering- 
birds. Once, while she was singing her songs with her 
maidenly voice, Picus had sallied forth from home 
into the Laurentian fields to hunt the native boar. 
He bestrode a prancing courser, carrying in his left 
hand a brace of spears and wearing a purple mantle 
caught with a brooch of gold. The daughter x of the 
Sun also had come to those selfsame woods and, to 
gather fresh herbs on the fertile hills, she had left 
the fields called Circaean from her name. As soon as 
she saw the youth from her leafy hiding-place she 
was struck with wonder. The herbs which she had 
gathered fell from her hands and burning fire 
seemed to creep through her whole frame. As soon 
as she could master her passion and collect her 
thoughts she was on the point of confessing her 
desire ; but his swift-speeding horse and his throng- 
ing retinue prevented her approach to him. " You 
shall not escape me so," she cried, " not though the 
wind itself should bear you off, if I know myself, if 
my herbs' magic power has not wholly vanished, and 
if my charms have not failed." She spoke and 
fashioned an unsubstantial image of a boar and bade 
it rush across the trail before the prince's eyes and 
seem to take cover in a grove thick with fallen trees, 
where the woods were dense, places where a horse 
could not penetrate. The thing was done, and 
straightway Picus, all unconscious of the trick, 
made after his shadowy prey and, swiftly dismount- 
ing from his foaming steed, followed the empty lure 

1 Circe. 



concipit ilia preces et verba precantia dicit 865 

ignotosque deos ignoto carmine adorat, 

quo solet et niveae vultum confundere Lunae 

et patrio capiti bibulas subtexere nubes. 

turn quoque cantato der.setur carmine caelum 

et nebulas exhalat humus, caecisque vagantur 370 

limitibus comites, et abest custodia regis. 

nacta locum tempusque " per o, tua lumina," dixit 

"quae mea ceperunt, perque hanc, pulchenime, 

quae facit, ut supplex tibi sim dea, consule nostris 
ignibus et socerum, qui pervidet omnia, Solem 375 
accipe nee durus Titanida despice Circen." 
dixerat ; ille ferox ipsamque precesque repellit 
et "quaecumque es," ait " non sum tuus ; altera 

me tenet et teneat per longum, conprecor, aevum, 
nee Venere externa socialia foedera laedam, 380 

dum mihi Ianigenam servabunt fata Canentem " 
saepe retemptatis precibus Titania frustra 
"non inpune feres, neque" ait "reddere Canenti, 
laesaque quid faciat, quid amans, quid femina, disces 
[rebus," ait " sed amans est laesa et femina Circe ! "] 
turn bis ad occasus, bis se convertit ad ortus, 386 
ter iuvenem baculo tetigit, tria carmina dixit, 
ille fugit, sed se solito velocius ipse 
currere miratur : pennas in corpore vidit, 
seque novam subito Latiis accedere silvis 390 



and went wandering on foot amid the forest 
depths. She utters prayers and fell to muttering 
incantations, worshipping her weird gods with 
a weird charm with whioh it was her wont to 
obscure the white moon's features, and hide her 
father's face behind misty clouds. Now also by 
her magic song the heavens are darkened, and thick 
fogs spring up from the ground, while the retainers 
wander in the dim trails far from their king's de- 
fence. Having secured a fitting place and time, she 
says : " Oh, by those eyes which have enthralled my 
own, and by that beauty, fairest of youths, which has 
made even me, a goddess., suppliant to you, look 
with favour on my passion and accept the Sun, who 
beholds all things, as your father-in-law ; and do 
not cruelly reject Circe, the Titaness." But he 
fiercely repelled her and her prayers, and said : 
" Whoever you are, I am nol for you. Another has 
taken and holds my love in keeping, and I pray that 
she may keep it through all coming time. Nor will 
I violate my plighted troth by any other love so long 
as the fates shall preserve to me my Canens, Janus' 
daughter." Having tried oft-repeated prayers in 
vain, the Titaness exclaimed : " But you shall not go 
scathless, nor shall your Canens ever have you more ; 
and you shall learn by experience not alone what 
any woman, loving and scorned, can do, but what 
the woman, Circe, loving and scorned, can do ! " 
Then twice she turned her to the west and twice 
to the east ; thrice she touched the youth with 
her wand and thrice she sang her charms. He 
turned in flight, but was amazed to find himself 
running more swiftly than his wont, and saw wings 
spring out upon his body. Enraged at his sudden 
change to a strange bird in his Latian woods, he 



indignatus avem duro fera robora rostro 
figit et iratus longis dat vulnera ramis ; 
purpureum chlamydis pennae traxere colorem; 
fibula quod fuerat vestemque momorderat aurum, 
pluma fit, et fulvo cervix praecingitur auro, 395 

nee quicquam antiquum Pico nisi nomina restat. 

" ' Interea comites, clamato saepe per agros 
nequiquam Pico nullaque in parte reperto, 
inveniunt Circen (nam iam tenuaverat auras 
passaque erat nebulas ventis ac sole recludi) 400 
criminibusque premunt veris regemque reposcunt 
vimque ferunt saevisque parant incessere telis : 
ilia nocens spargit virus sucosque veneni 
et Noctem Noctisque deos Ereboque Chaoque 
convocat et longis Hecaten ululatibus orat. 405 

exsiluere loco (dictu mirabile) silvae, 
ingemuitque solum, vincinaque palluit arbor, 
sparsaque sanguineis maduerunt pabula guttis, 
et lapides visi mugitus edere raucos 
et latrare canes et humus serpentibus atris 410 

squalere et tenues animae volitare silentum : 
attonitum monstris vulgus pavet ; ilia paventis 
ora venenata tetigit mirantia virga, 
cuius ab attactu variarum monstra ferarum 
in iuvenes veniunt: nulli sua mansit imago. 415 

u ' Sparserat occiduus Tartessia litora Phoebus, 
et frustra coniunx oculis animoque Canentis 
exspectatus erat : famuli populusque per omnes 


pecked at the rough oak-trees with his hard beak 
and wrathfully inflicted wounds on their long 
branches. His wings took the colour of his bright 
red mantle, and what had been a brooch of gold 
stuck through his robe was changed to feathers, and 
his neck was circled with a sold en -yellow band ; 
and naught of his former self remained to Picaja- 
except his name. 

"'Meanwhile his companions, calling often and 
vainly for Picus throughout the countryside and 
finding him nowhere, came upon Circe (for now she 
had cleared the air and had permitted the clouds 
to be dispelled by wind and sun), charged her flatly 
with her crime, demanded back their king with 
threats of force, and were preparing to attack her 
with their deadly spears. But she sprinkled upon 
them her baleful drugs and poisonous juices, sum- 
moning to her aid Night and the gods of Night 
from Erebus and Chaos, and calling on Hecate in 
long-drawn, wailing cries. The woods, wonderful to 
say, leaped from their place, the ground rumbled, 
the neighbouring trees turned white, and the herbage 
where her poisons fell was stained with clots of blood. 
The stones also seemed to voice hoarse bellowings; 
the baying of dogs was heard, the ground was foul 
with dark, crawling things, and the thin shades of 
the silent dead seemed to be flitting about. The 
astounded crowd quaked at the monstrous sights 
and sounds ; but she touched the frightened, 
wondering faces with her magic wand, and at the 
touch horrid, beast-like forms of many shapes came 
upon the youths, and none kept his proper form. ^ 

"' Now the setting sun had bathed the Tartesstan 
shores, and vainly had Canens watched for her 
lord's return with eyes and heart. Her slaves and her 



discurrunt silvas atque obvia lumina portant ; 

nee satis est nymphae flere et lacerare capillos 420 

et dare plangorem (facit haec tamen omnia) seque 

proripit ac Latios errat vesana per agros. 

sex illam noctes, totidem redeuntia solis 

lumina viderunt inopem somnique cibique 

per iuga, per valles, qua fors ducebat, euntem ; 425 

ultimus adspexit Thybris luctuque viaque 

fessam et iam longa ponentem corpora ripa. 

illic cum lacrimis ipso modulata dolore 

verba sono tenui maerens fundebat, ut olim 

carmina iam moriens canit exequialia cygnus ; 430 

luctibus extremum tenues liquefacta medullas 

tabuit inque leves paulatim evanuit auras, 

fama tamen signata loco est, quern rite Canentem 

nomine de nymphae veteres dixere Camenae.' 

" Talia multa mihi longum narrata per annum 435 
visaque sunt, resides et desuetudine tardi 
rursus inire fretum, rursus dare vela iubemur, 
ancipitesque vias et iter Titan i a vastum 
dixerat et saevi restare pericula ponti : 
pertimui, fateor, nactusque hoc litus adhaesi." 440 

Finierat Macareus, urnaque Aeneia nutrix 
condita marmorea tumulo breve carmen habebat : 


solvitur herboso religatus ab aggere funis, 445 

et procul insidias infamataeque relinquunt 



people scattered through all the woods, bearing 
torches in hope to meet him. Nor was the nymph 
content to weep, to tear her hair and beat her 
breasts; (all these she did, indeed) and, rushing 
forth, she wandered madly through the Latian fields. 
Six nights and as many returning dawns beheld her 
wandering, sleepless and lasting, over hills, through 
valleys, wherever chance directed. The Tiber was 
the last to see her, spent with grief and travel-toil, 
laying her body down upon his far-stretching bank. 
There, with tears, in weak, faint tones, she poured 
out her mournful words attuned to grief; just as 
sometimes, in dying, the swan sings a last funeral- 
song. Finally, worn to a shade by woe, her very 
marrow changed to water, she melted away and 
gradually vanished into thin air. Still her story has 
been kept in remembrance by the place which 
ancient muses fitly called Canens from the name of 
the nymph.' -^ 

" Many such things I heard and saw during a long 
year. At length, grown sluggish and slow through 
inactivity, we were ordered to go again upon the sea 
and again to spread our sails. The Titaness had told us 
of the dubious pathways of the sea, their vast extent, 
and all the desperate perils yet to come. I own I 
was afraid to face them and, having reached this 
shore, I stayed behind." 

Macareus had finished his story ; and Aeneas' 
nurse, buried in a marble urn, had a brief epitaph 
carved on her tomb : 

Here me, Caieta, snatched from Grecian flames, 
My pious son consumed with fitting fire. 

Loosing their cables from the grass -grown shore, 
they kept far out from the treacherous island, the 


tecta deae lucosque petunt, ubi nubilus umbra 
in mare cum flava prorumpit Thybris barena ; 
Faunigenaeque domo potitur nataque Latini, 
non sine Marte tamen. bellum cum gente feroci 450 
siiscipitur, pactaque furit pro coniuge Turnus. 
concurrit Latio Tyrrhenia tota, diuque 
ardua sollicitis victoria quaeritur armis. 
auget uterque suas externo robore vires, 
et multi Elutulos, multi Troiana tuentur 455 

castra, neque Aeneas Euandri ad moenia frustra, 
at Venulus frustra profugi Diomedis ad urbem 
venerat : ille quidem sub Iapyge maxima Dauno 
moenia condiderat dotaliaque arva tenebat ; 
sed Venulus Turni postquam ma idata peregit 460 
auxiliumque petit, vires Aetolius beros 
excusat : nee se aut soceri committere pugnae 
velle sui populos, aut quos e gente suorum 
armet habere ullos, " neve haec commenta putetis, 
admonitu quamquam luctus renoventur amari, 465 
perpetiar memorare tamen. postquam alta cremata 

Ilios, et Danaas paverunt Pergama flammas, 
Naryciusque heros, a virgine virgine rapta, 
quam meruit poenam solus, digessit in omnes, 
spargimur et ventis inimica per aequora rapti 470 
fulmina, noctem, imbres, iram caelique marisque 
perpetimur Danai cumulumque Capherea cladis, 


home of the ill-famed goddess, and headed for the 
wooded coast where shady Tiber pours forth his 
yellow, silt-laden waters into the sea. There did 
Aeneas win the daughter and the throne of Latinus, 
Faunus'son; but not without a struggle. War with 
a fierce race is waged, and Turnus fights madly for 
his promised bride. All Etruria rushes to battle- 
shock with Latium, and with long and anxious 
struggle hard victory is sought. Both sides augment 
their strength by outside aid ; and many defend the 
Rutuli and many the Trojan camp. Aeneas had not 
gone in vain to Evander's home, but Venulus had 
vainly sought the city of the exiled Diomede. He 
had founded a large city x within Iapygian Daunus' 
realm, and was ruling the fields granted to him 
as a marriage portion. But when Venulus had done 
Turnus' bidding and asked for aid, the Aetolian hero 
pleaded his lack of resources as his excuse, saying that 
he was not willing to expose himself or his father-in- 
law's people to the risk of battle, nor did he have 
men of his own nation whom he might equip for war. 
"And, that you may not think my excuses false, 
although the very mention of my woes renews my 
bitter grief, still will I endure the telling of them. 
After high Ilium had been burned and Pergama had 
glutted the furious passions of the Greeks ; and after 
the Narycian hero 2 from a virgin goddess 3 for a 
violated virgin had brought on us all the punishment 
which he alone deserved, we Greeks were scattered 
and, blown by winds over the angry waters, we 
suffered lightning blasts, thick darkness, storms, the 
rage of sky and sea and Caphereus, the climax of our 

l Arpi. 

a Ajax, the son of Oileus, who violated Cassandra. 

3 Minerva. 



neve morer referens tristes ex ordine casus, 
Graecia turn potuit Priamo quoque flenda videri. 
me tamen armiferae servatum cura Minervae 475 
fluctibus eripuit, patriis sed rursus ab Argis 
pellor, et antiquo memores de vulnere poenas 
exigit alma Venus, tantosque per alta labores 
aequora sustinui, tantos terrestribus armis, 
ut mihi felices sint illi saepe vocati, 480 

quos communis hiems inportunusque Caphereus 
mersit aquis, vellemque horum pars una fuissem. 

" Ultima iam passi comites belloque fretoque 
deficiunt finemque rogant erroris, at Acmon 
fervidus ingenio, turn vero et cladibus asper, 485 

' quid superest, quod iam patientia vestra recuset 
ferre, viri?' dixit ' quid habet Cytherea, quod ultra, 
velle puta, faciat ? nam dum peiora timentur, 
est locus in vulnus : sors autem ubi pessima rerum, 
sub pedibus timor est securaque summa malorum. 490 
audiat ipsa licet et, quod facit, oderit omnes 
sub Diomede viros, odium tamen illius omnes 
spernimus, et magno stat magna potentia nobis.' 
talibus inritans Venerem Pleuronius Acmon 
instimulat verbis veteremque resuscitat iram. 495 
dicta placent paucis, numeri maioris amici 
Acmona conripimus ; cui respondere volenti 
vox pariter vocisque via est tenuata, comaeque 
in plumas abeunt, plumis nova colla teguntur 
pectoraque et tergum, maiores bracchia pennas 500 


disasters. Not to delay you by telling our sad mis- 
haps in order, Greece at that time could have moved 
even Priam's tears. Well-armed Minerva's care, 
however, saved me from the waves ; but again I was 
driven forth from my native Argos, for fostering 
Venus, still mindful of the old wound I had given 
her, now exacted the penalty. So great toils did I 
endure on the high seas and so great toils of war on 
land that often did I call those blessed of heaven 
whom the storm, which all had suffered, and cruel 
Caphereus drowned beneath the waves ; and I wished 
that I, too, had been one of them. 

" And now my companions, having endured the 
uttermost in war and sea, became disheartened and 
begged me to make an end of wandering. But 
Acmon, who was naturally hot-headed and who was 
then especially intractable because of our sufferings, 
exclaimed : ( What is there left, men, for your long- 
suffering to refuse to bear ? What is there left for 
Venus to do further, supposing she wishes it ? For, 
so long as we fear worse fortunes, we lie open to 
wounds ; but when the worst possible lot has fallen, 
then is fear beneath our feet and the utmost mis- 
fortune can bring us no further care. Though she 
herself should hear and, as indeed she does, should 
hate all the followers of Diomede, still do we all 
scorn her hatred ; and much we reck of her mighty 
power ! ' 1 With such insulting words did Pleuronian 
Acmon rouse Venus and revive her former anger. 
But few approved his words. We, the greater num- 
ber of his friends, upbraided Acmon ; and when he 
would have replied, his voice and throat together 
grew thin ; his hair was changed to feathers, and 
feathers clothed a new-formed neck and breast 

1 The phrase is ironical and the variant parvo gives the 
same sense. 



accipiunt, cubitique leves sinuantur in alas ; 

magna pedum digitos pars occupat, oraque cornu 

indurata rigent finemque in acumine ponunt. 

hunc Lvcus, hunc Idas et cum Rhexenore Nycteus, 

hunc miratur Abas, et dum mirantur, eandem 505 

accipiunt faciem, numerusque ex agmine maior 

subvolat et remos plausis circumvolat alis : 

si volucrum quae sit du hi arum forma requiris, 

ut non cygnorum, sic albis proxima cygnis. 

vix equidem has sedes et Iapygis arida Dauni 510 

arva gener teneo minima cum parte meorum." 

Hactenus Oenides, Venulus Calydonia regna 
Peucetiosque sinus Messapiaque arva relinquit. 
in quibus antra videt, quae, multa nubila silva 
et levibus cannis latitantia, semicaper Pan 515 

nunc tenet, at quodam tenuerunt tempore nymphae. 
Apulus has ilia pastor regione fugatas 
terruit et primo subita formidine movit, 
mox, ubi mens rediit et contempsere sequentem, 
ad numerum motis pedibus duxere choreas ; 520 

inprobat has pastor saltuque imitatus agresti 
addidit obscenis convicia rustica dictis, 
nee prius os tacuit, quam guttura condidit arbor: 
arbor enim est, sucoque licet cognoscere mores, 
quippe notam linguae bacis oleaster amaris 525 

exhibet : asperitas verborum cessit in illas. 

Hinc ubi legati rediere, negata ferentes 
arma Aetola sibi, Rutuli sine viribus illis 


and back. His arms acquired large pinion-feathers 
and his elbows curved into nimble wings ; his toes 
were replaced by webbed feet and his face grew stiff 
and horny, ending in a sharp-pointed beak. Lycus 
viewed him in wonder, so also Idas, Rhexenor and 
Nycteus and Abas too ; and, while they wondered, 
they became of the same form. The greater number 
of the flock flew up and circled round the rowers with 
Happing wings, iff you ask of what sort were these 
questionable birds, while they were not swans, they 
were very like snowy swans. And now, as son-in- 
law of Iapygian Daunus, I have hard work to hold 
this settlement and this parched countryside with 
but a pitiful remnant of my friends." 

So spoke the grandson of Oeneus. And Ventilus 
departed from the Calydonian realm, passing the 
Peucetian bay and the regions of Messapia. Here 
he saw a cavern, dark with forest shades and hidden 
by a growth of waving reeds. The half-goat Pan now 
claims the place, but at one time the nymphs dwelt 
there. An Apulian shepherd of that region caused 
them to run away in terror, filling them at first with 
sudden fear. But soon, when their courage returned 
and they saw with scorn who was pursuing them, 
they returned to their choral dancing again with 
nimble feet. Still did the shepherd mock them, 
imitating their dance with his clownish steps, adding 
to this boorish insults and vulgar words. Nor did 
he cease speaking until the rising wood covered his 
mouth. For now he is a tree. You could tell his 
character from the savour of its fruit; for the wild olive 
bears the traces of his tongue in its bitter berries. 
The sharpness of his woi'ds has passed to them. 

When the ambassadors returned with the news 
that Aetolian help had been refused them, the Rntuli 



bella instructs gerunt, multumque ab utraque cruoris 

parte datur; fert ecce avidas in pinea Turnus 530 

texta faces, ignesque timent, quibus unda pepercit. 

iamque picem et ceras alimentaque cetera flammae 

Mulciber urebat perque altum ad carbasa malum 

ibat, et incurvae fumabant transtra carinae, 

cum memor has pinus Idaeo vertice caesas 535 

sancta deum genetrix tinnitibus aera pulsi 

aeris et inflati conplevit murmure buxi 

perque leves domitis invecta leonibus auras 

" inrita sacrilega iactas incendia dextra, 

Turae!" ait. " eripiam : nee me patiente cremabit 

ignis edax nemorum partes et membra meorum." 541 

intonuit dicente dea, tonitrumque secuti 

cum saliente graves ceciderunt grandine nimbi, 

aeraque et tumidum subitis concursibus aequor 

Astraei turbant et eunt in proelia fratres. 545 

e quibus alma parens unius viribus usa 

stuppea praerupit Phrygiae retinacula classis, 

fertque rates pronas medioque sub aequore mergit ; 

robore mollito lignoque in corpora verso 

in capitum facies puppes mutantur aduncae, 550 

in digitos abeunt et crura natantia remi, 

quodque prius fuerat, latus est, mediisque carina 

subdita navigiis spinae mutatur in usum, 

lina comae molles. antemnae bracchia fiunt, 

caerulus, ut fuerat, color est ; quasque ante timebant, 

illas virgineis exercent lusibus undas 556 



without that help went on with the war they had 
begun ; and much blood was spilled on both sides. 
But lo, Turnus brought devouring torches against the 
pine fabric of the ships, and what the waves had 
spared feared the flames. And now Mulciber was 
burning the pitchy, resinous mass and other rich food 
for flames, and was spreading even to the tall masts 
and sails, while the cross-banks of the curving hulls 
were smoking; when the holy mother of the gods, 
mindful that these pines were felled on Ida's top, 
filled the air with the harsh beat of brazen cymbals 
and the shrill music of the boxwood flute. Then, 
borne by her tamed lions through the yielding air, 
she cried : "Vainly, O Turnus, with impious hand 
you hurl those brands. For I shall rescue the burn- 
ing ships, nor with my consent shall the greedy flames 
devour what was once part and parcel of my sacred 
woods." While yet the goddess spoke it thundered 
and, following the thunder, a heavy shower of rain 
began to fall, mingled with leaping hail, and the 
winds, Astraean brothers, wrought wild confusion in 
the air and on the waves, swollen by the sudden rush 
of waters, and mingled in the fray. The all-fostering 
mother, with the help of one of these, broke the 
hempen fastenings of the Phrygian ships and, forcing 
them head down, plunged them beneath the water. 
Straightway the wood softened and turned to flesh, 
the ships' curved prows changed to heads, the oars 
to toes and swimming legs ; what had been body 
before remained as body and the deep-laid keel was 
changed into a spine ; cordage became soft hair, and 
sail-yards, arms; the sea-green colour was unchanged. 
And now, as water-nymphs, with maiden glee they 
sport in the watei-s which they feared before. Though 
born on the rough mountain-tops, they now throng 



Naides aequoreae durisque in montibus ortae 
molle fretum celebrant nee eas sua tangit origo ; 
non tamen oblitae, quam multa pericula saepe 
pertulerint pelago, iactatis saepe carinis 560 

subposuere manus, nisi siqua vehebat Achivos : 
cladis adhuc Phrygiae memores odere Pelasgos 
Neritiaeque ratis viderunt fragmina laetis 
vultibus et laetis videre rigescere puppim 
vultibus Alcinoi saxumque increscere ligno. 565 

Spes erat, in nymphas aniraata classe marinas 
posse metu monstri Rutulum desistere bello : 
perstat, habetque deos pars utraque, quodque deorum 

instar, habent animos ; nee iam dotalia regna, 
nee sceptrum soceri, nee te, Lavinia virgo, 570 

sed vicisse petunt deponendique pudore 
bella gerunt, tandemque Venus victricia nati 
arma videt, Turnusque cadit : cadit Ardea, Turno 
sospite dicta potens ; quem postquam barbarus ensis 
abstulit et tepida latuerunt tecta favilla, 575 

congerie e media turn primum cognita praepes 
subvolat et cineres plausis everberat alis. 
et sonus et macies et pallor et omnia, captam 
quae deceant urbem, nomen quoque mansit in ilia 
urbis, et ipsa suis deplangitur Ardea pennis. 580 

Iamque deos omnes ipsamque Aeneia virtus 
Iunonem veteres finire coegerat iras, 
cum, bene fundatis opibus crescentis Iuli, 
tempestivus erat caelo Cythereius heros. 
ambieratque Venus superos colloque parentis 585 


the yielding waves and no trace of their first state 
troubles them. And yet, remembering the many 
perils they have often suffered on the deep, they often 
place helping hands beneath storm-tossed barques, 
except such as carried Greeks. Remembering still 
the Phrygian calamity, they hated the Pelasgian 
race and they rejoiced to see the broken timbex-s of 
Ulysses' ship, rejoiced to see the vessel of Alcinoiis 
grow stiff and its wood turn to stone. 

After the fleet had been changed to living water- 
nymphs, there was hope that the Rutuli, in awe of 
the portent, would desist from war. But the war 
went on and both sides had their gods to aid them, 
and, what is as good as gods, they had courage too. 
And now neither a kingdom given in dowry, nor the 
sceptre of a father-in-law, nor you, Lavinian maiden, 
did they seek, but only victory, and they kept on 
warring through sheer shame of giving up. At length 
Venus saw her son's arms victorious and Turnus fell. 
Ardea fell, counted a powerful city in Turnus' life- 
time. But after the outlander's sword destroyed it 
and warm ashes hid its ruins, from the confused 
mass a bird flew forth of a kind never seen before, 
and beat the ashes with its flapping wings. Its 
sound, its meagre look, its deathly paleness, all 
things which become a captured city, yes, even the 
city's name remained in the bird ;* and Ardea's self 
is beaten in lamentation by its wings. ^ 

Now had Aeneas' courageous soul moved all the 
gods and even Juno to lay aside their ancient anger, 
and, since the fortunes of the budding lulus were 
well established, the heroic son of Cytherea was ripe 
for heaven. Venus had approached the heavenly 
gods and, throwing her arms around her father's 
i i.e. Ardea, a heron. 



circumfusa sui "numquam mi.hi " dixerat " ullo 
tempore dure pater, nunc sis mitissimus, opto, 
Aeneaeque meo, qui te de sanguine nostro 
fecit avum, quamvis parvum des, optime, numen, 
dummodo des aliquod ! satis est inamabile regnum 590 
adspexisse semel, Stygios semel isse per amnes." 
adsensere dei, nee coniunx regia vultus 
inmotos tenuit placatoque adnuit ore ; 
turn pater " estis " ait " caelesti munere digni, 
quaeque petis pro quoque petis ; cape, nata, quod 
optas ! " 595 

fatus erat : gaudet gratesque agit ilia parenti 
perque leves auras iunctis invecta columbis 
litus adit Laurens, ubi tectus harundine serpit 
in freta flumineis vicina Numicius undis. 
hunc iubet Aeneae, quaecumque obnoxia morti, 600 
abluere et tacito deferre sub aequora cursu ; 
corniger exsequitur Veneris mandata suisque, 
quicquid in Aenea fuerat mortale, repurgat 
et respersit aquis ; pars optima restitit illi. 
lustratum genetrix divino corpus odore 605 

unxit et ambrosia cum dulci nectare mixta 
contigit os fecitque deum, quem turba Quirini 
nuncupat Indigetem temploque arisque recepit. 

Inde sub Ascanii dicione binominis Alba 
resque Latina fuit. succedit Silvius illi. 6l0 

quo satus antiquo tenuit repetita Latinus 
nomina cum sceptro, clarus subit Alba Latinum. 
Epytus ex illo est ; post hunc Capetusque Capysque, 
sed Capys ante fuit; regnum Tiberinus ab illis 


neck, had said : " O father, who hast never at any 
time been harsh to me, now be most kind, I pray. 
To my Aeneas, who is thy grandson and of our blood, 
grant, O most excellent, some divinity, however 
small I care not, if only thou grant any. It is enough 
once to have looked upon the unlovely kingdom, 
once to have crossed the Stygian stream." The gods 
all gave assent; nor did the queen-consort keep an 
unyielding face, but peacefully consented. Then 
Father Jove declared : " You are both worthy of this 
heavenly boon, both thou who prayest and he for 
whom thou prayest. Have then, my daughter, what 
thou dost desire." He spoke, and Venus, rejoicing, 
gave her father thanks. Then, borne aloft through 
the yielding air by her harnessed doves, 6he came 
to the Laurentian coast, where the river Numicius, 
winding through beds of sheltering reeds, pours its 
fresh waters into the neighbouring sea. She bade 
the river-god wash away from Aeneas all his mortal 
part and carry it down in his silent stream into the 
ocean depths. The horned god obeyed Venus' com- 
mand and in his waters cleansed and washed quite 
away whatever was mortal in Aeneas. His best part 
remained to him. His mother sprinkled his body and 
anointed it with divine perfume, touched his lips with 
ambrosia and sweet nectar mixed, and so made him 
a god, whom the Roman populace styled Indiges and 
honoured with temple and with sacrifice. 

Next Alba and the Latin state came under the 
sway of Ascanius of the double name. 1 Silvius suc- 
ceeded him ; his son, Latinus, took a name inherited 
with the ancient sceptre. Illustrious Alba succeeded 
Latinus; Epytus next, and after him Capetus and 
Capys, but Capys first. 2 Tiberinus received the 

1 i.e. lulus. 

1 The metre prevents the proper order of these names. 



cepit et in Tusci demersus fluminis undis 6l5 

nomina fecit aquae; de quo Remulusque feroxque 
Acrota sunt geniti. Remulus maturior annis 
fulmineo periit, imitator fulminis, ictu. 
fratre suo sceptrum moderatior Acrota forti 
tradit Aventino, qui, quo regnarat, eodem 620 

monte iacet positus tribuitque vocabula monti ; 
iamque Palatinae summam Proca gentis habebat. 

Rege sub hoc Pomona fuit, qua nulla Latinas 
inter hamadryadas coluit sollertius hortos 
nee fuit arborei studiosior altera fetus ; 625 

uncle tenet nomen : non silvas ilia nee amnes, 
rus araat et ramos felicia poma ferentes ; 
nee iaculo gravis est, sed adunca dextera falce, 
qua modo luxuriem premit et spatiantia passim 
bracchia conpescit, fisso modo cortice lignum 630 
inserit et sucos alieno praestat alumno ; 
nee sentire sitim patitur bibulaeque recurvas 
radicis fibras labentibus inrigat undis. 
hie amor, hoc studium, Veneris quoque nulla cupido 

est ; 
vim tamen agrestum metuens pomaria claudit 635 
intus et accessus prohibet refugitque viriles 
quid non et Satyri, saltatibus apta iuventus, 
fecere et pinu praecincti cornua Panes 
Silenusque, suis semper iuvenilior annis, 
quique deus fures vel falce vel inguine terret, 640 
ut poterentur ea ? sed enim superabat amando 
hos quoque Vertumnus neque erat felicior illis. 
o quotiens habitu duri messoris aristas 


kingdom after them, and he, drowned in the waters 
of the Tuscan stream, gave his name to that river. 
His sons were Remulus and warlike Acrota. Remulus, 
the elder, perished by a thunderbolt while striving 
to imitate the thunder. Acrota, less daring than 
his brother, resigned the sceptre to brave Aventinus. 
He lies buried on the same hill where he had reigned 
and has given his name to the hill. And now Proca 
held dominion over the Palatine race. 

Pomona flourished under this king, than whom 
there was no other Latian wood-nymph more skilled 
in garden-culture nor more zealous in the care of 
fruitful trees. Hence was her name. She cared 
nothing for woods and rivers, but only for the fields 
and branches laden with delicious fruits. She carried 
no javelin in her hand, but the curved pruning-hook 
with which now she repressed the too luxuriant 
growth and cut back the branches spreading out on 
every side, and now, making an incision in the bark, 
would engraft a twig and give juices to an adopted 
bough. Nor would she permit them to suffer thirst, 
but watered the twisted fibres of the thirsty roots 
with her trickling streams. This was her love ; this 
was her chief desire ; nor did she have any care 
for Venus ; yet, fearing some clownish violence, she 
shut herself up within her orchard and so guarded 
herself against all approach of man. What did not 
the Satyrs, a young dancing band, do to win her, and 
the Pans, their horns encircled with wreaths of pine, 
and Silenus, always more youthful than his years, and 
that god x who warns off evil-doers with his sickle or 
his ugly shape ? But, indeed, Vertumnus surpassed 
them all in love ; yet he was no more fortunate than 
they. Oh, how often in the garb of a rough reaper did 

1 Priapua. 



corbe tulit verique fuit messoris imago ! 
tempora saepe gcrens faeno religata recenti 645 

desectum poterat gramen versasse videri ; 
saepe manu stiraulos rigida portabat, ut ilium 
iurares fessos modo disiunxisse iuvencos. 
falce data frondator erat vitisque putator; 
induerat scalas : lecturum poma putares ; 650 

miles erat gladio, piscator harundine sumpta ; 
denique per multas aditum sibi saepe figuras 
repperit, ut caperet spectatae gaudia formae. 
ille etiam picta redimitus tempora mitra, 
innitens baculo, positis per tempora cards, 655 

adsimulavit anum cultosque intravit in hortos 
pomaque mirata est " tanto " que " potentior ! " inquit 
paucaque laudatae dedit oscula, qualia numquam 
vera dedisset anus, glaebaque incurva resedit 
suspiciens pandos autumni pondere ramos. 660 

ulmus erat contra speciosa nitentibus uvis : 
quam socia postquam pariter cum vite probavit, 
"at si sta> - et" ait " caelebs sine palmite truncus, 
nil praeter frondes, quare peteretur, haberet ; 
haec quoque, qua° iuncta est, vitis requiescit in 
ulmo : 665 

si non nupta foret, terrae acclinata iaceret ; 
tu tamen exemplo non tangeris arboris huius 
concubitusque fugis nee te coniungere curas. 
atque utinam velles 1 Helene non pluribus esset 


he bring her a basket of barley-ears ! And he was the 
perfect image of a reaper, too. Often he would come 
with his temples wreathed with fresh hay, and could 
easily seem to have been turning the new-mown 
grass. Again he would appear carrying an ox-goad 
in his clumsy hand, so that you would swear that he 
had but now unyoked his weary cattle. He would be 
a leaf-gatherer and vine-pruner with hook in hand ; 
he would come along with a ladder on his shoulder 
and you would think him about to gather apples. 
He would be a soldier with a sword, or a fisherman 
with a rod. In fact, by means of his many disguises, 
he obtained frequent admission to her presence and 
had much joy in looking on her beauty. He also put 
on a wig of grey hair, bound his temples with a 
gaudy head-cloth, and, leaning on a staff, came in 
the disguise of an old woman, entered the well-kept 
garden and, after admiring the fruit said : " But you are 
far more beautiful," and having praised he kissed her 
several times as no real old woman ever would have 
done. The bent old creature sat down on the grass, 
gazing at the branches bending beneath the weight of 
autumn fruits. There was a shapely elm-tree opposite, 
covered with gleaming bunches of grapes. After he 
had looked approvingly at this awhile, together with 
its vine companion, he said : " But if that tree stooo 
there unmated to the vine, it would not be sought save 
for its leaves alone ; and this vine, which clings to and 
rests safely on the elm, if it were not thus wedded, 
it would lie languishing, flat upon the ground. But 
you are not touched by the vine's example and you 
shun wedlock and do not desire to be joined to another. 
And I would that you did desire it ! Then would 
you have more suitors than ever Helen had, or she * 
l Hippodamia. 
m 347 


sollicitata procis nee quae Lapitheia movit 670 

proelia nee coniunx timidi, hautl audacis UHxis. 
nunc quoque, cum fugias averserisque petentes, 
mille viri cupiunt et scmideique deique 
et quaecumque tenent Albanos numina montes. 
sed tu si sapies, si te bene iungere anumque 675 
hanc audire voles, quae te plus omnibus illis, 
plus, quam credis, arao : vulgares reice taedas 
Vertumnumque tori socium tibi selige ! pro quo 
me quoque pignus habes : neque enim sibi notior ille 

quam mihi ; nee passim toto vagus errat in orbe, 680 
haec loca magna colit ; nee, uti pars magna procorum, 
quam modo vidit, amat : tu primus et ultimus illi 
ardor eris, solique suos tibi devovet annos. 
adde, quod est iuvenis, quod naturale decoris 
munus habet formasque apte fingetur in omnes, 685 
et quod erit iussus, iubeas licet omnia, fiet. 
quid, quod amatis idem, quod, quae tibi poma coluntur, 
primus habet laetaque tenet tua munera dextra ! 
sed neque iam fetus desiderat arbore demptos 
nee, quas hortus alit, cum sucis mitibus herbas 690 
nee quicquam nisi te : miserere ardentis et ipsum, 
quod petit, ore meo praesentem crede precari. 
ultoresque deos et pectora dura perosam 
Idalien memoremque time Rhamnusidis iram ! 
quoque magis timeas, (etenim mihi multa vetustas 695 


for whom the Lapithae took arms, or the wife of 
the timid, not the bold, Ulysses. And even as it 
is, though you shun them and turn in contempt from 
their wooing, a thousand men desire you, and half- 
gods and gods and all the divinities that haunt the 
Alban hills. But if you will be "wise, and consent to 
a srood match and will listen to an old woman like 
me, who love you more than all the rest, yes, more 
than you would believe, reject all common offers 
and choose Vertumnus as the consort of your couch. 
You have me also as guaranty for him ; for he is not 
better known to himself than he is to me. He does not 
wander idly throughout the world, but he dwells in 
the wide spaces here at hand ; nor, as most of your 
suitors do, does he fall in love at sight with every 
girl he meets. You will be his first love and his last, 
and to you alone he will devote his life. Consider 
also that he is young, blest with a native charm, 
can readily assume whatever form he will, and what 
you bid him, though without stint you bid, he will 
perform. Moreover your tastes are similar, and 
the fruit which you so cherish he is the first to 
have and with joyful hands he lays hold upon your 
gifts. But neither the fruit of your trees, nor the 
sweet, succulent herbs which your garden bears, 
nor anything at all does he desire save you alone. 
Pity him who loves you so, and believe that he him- 
self in very presence through my lips is begging for 
what he wants. And have a thought for the avenging 
gods and the Idalian 1 goddess who detests the hard 
of heart, and the unforgetting wrath of Nemesis! 
And that you may the more fear these (for my long 
life has brought me knowledge of many things), I 
will tell you a story that is well known all over 
1 i.e. Cyprian an epithet of Venus. 



scire dedit) referam tota notissima Cypro 
facta, quibus flecti facile et mitescere possis. 

" Viderat a veteris generosam sanguine Teucri 
Ipbis Anaxareten, humili de stirpe creatus, 
viderat et totis perceperat ossibus aestum 700 

luctatusque diu, postquam ratione furorem 
vincere non potuit, supplex ad limina venit 
et modo nutrici miserum confessus amorem, 
ne sibi dura foret, per spes oravit alumnae, 
et modo de multis blanditus cuique ministris 705 
sollicita petiit propensum voce favorem ; 
saepe ferenda dedit blandis sua verba tabellis, 
interdum madidas lacrimaium rore coronas 
postibus intendit posuitque in limine duro 
molle latus tristisque serae convicia fecit. 710 

saevior ilia freto surgente cadentibus Haedis, 
durior et ferro, quod Noricus excoquit ignis, 
et saxo, quod adhuc vivum radice tenetur, 
spernit et inridet, factisque inmitibus addit 
verba superba ferox et spe quoque fraudat amantem. 
non tulit impatiens longi tormenta doloris 71 6 

Ipliis et ante fores haec verba novissima dixit : 
'vineis, Anaxarete, neque erunt tibi taedia tandem 
ulla ferenda mei : laetos molire triumphos 
et Paeana voca nitidaque incingere lauru ! 720 

vincis enim, moriorque libens : age, ferrea, gaude ! 
certe aliquid laudare mei cogens amoris, 
quo tibi sim gratus, meritumque fatebere nostrum, 
non tamen ante tui curam cxcessisse memento 
quam vitam geminaque simul mihi luce carendum. 725 


Cyprus, by which you may learn to be easily per- 
suaded and to be soft of heart. ^ 

" Iphis, a youth of humble birth, had chanced to 
see Anaxarete, a proud princess of old Teucer's line. 
He saw her, and at once felt the fire of love through 
all his frame. Long did he fight against it ; but 
when he found he could not overcome his passion by 
the power of reason, he came as a suppliant to her 
door. Now he confessed his unhappy love to her 
nurse and begged her by her fond hopes for her dear 
foster-child not to be hard towards him ; now, coaxing 
some one of her many servants, he earnestly begged 
her to do him a kindly turn ; often he gave them 
coaxing messages on tablets to bear to her ; at times 
he would hang garlands of flowers upon her door, 
wet with his tears, and lay his soft body down upon 
her hard threshold, complaining bitterly of her 
unfeeling bars. But she, more savage than the 
waves that rise at the setting of the Kids, harder 
than steel tempered in Noric fire, or living rock, 
which still holds firmly to its native bed, spurns him 
and mocks at him. And to her heartless deeds she 
adds insolent, haughty words, and utterly deprives 
her lover of hope itself. Unable to bear further the 
torment of his long agony, before her door Iphis 
cries these words as his last message to her : * You 
win, Anaxarete, and no more need you be annoyed 
on my account. Celebrate your glad triumph, sing 
songs of victory, set a gleaming wreath of laurel on 
your head ! For you have won, and I die gladly. 
Come then, rejoice, you of the iron heart ! Surely 
you will be forced to admit that there is some feature 
of my love in which I am pleasing to you, and you 
will confess my merit. But remember that my love 
for you ended only with my life and that I must 



nee tibi fama mei ventura est nuntia leti : 

ipse ego, ne dubites, adero praesensque videbor, 

corpore ut exanimi crudelia lumina pascas. 

si tamen, o superi, mortalia facta videtis, 

este mei memores (nihil ultra lingua precari 7S0 

sustinet) et longo facite ut narremur in aevo, 

et, quae dempsistis vitae, date tempora famae 1 * 

dixit, et ad postes ornatos saepe coronis 

umentes oculos et pallida bracchia toll ens, 

cum foribus laquei religaret vincula summis, 735 

' haec tibi serta placent, crudelis et inpia ! ' dixit 

inseruitque caput, sed turn quoque versus ad illam, 

atque onus infelix elisa fauce pependit. 

icta pedum motu trepidantum ut multa gementem 

visa dedisse sonum est adapertaque ianua factum 740 

prodidit, exclamant famuli frustraque levatum 

(nam pater occiderat) referunt ad limina matris ; 

accipit ilia sinu conplexaque frigida nati 

membra sui postquam miserarum verba parentum 

edidit et matrum miserarum facta peregit, 745 

funera ducebat mediam lacrimosa per urbem 

luridaque arsuro portabat membra feretro. 

forte viae vicina domus, qua flebilis ibat 

pompa, fuit, duraeque sonus plangoris ad aures 

venit Anaxaretes, quam iam deus ultor agebat. 750 

mota tamen ' videamus ' ait ' miserabile funus ' 

et patulis iniit tectum sublime fenestris 



suffer the loss of two lights at once. And 'twill be no 
mere rumour that comes to announce my death to 
you ; I shall myself be there, be well assured, and 
that, too, in visible presence, that you may feast 
your cruel eyes upon my lifeless body. But if, O 
gods, you see the things we mortals do, remember 
me (nothing further can my tongue hold out to pray) 
and have my story told long ages hence ; and what 
time you have taken from my life give to my fame.' 
He spoke, and raising his tearful eyes and pale arms 
to the door-posts that he had often decorated with 
his floral wreaths, he fastened a rope to the topmost 
beam, saying the while : ' Does this garland please 
you, cruel and wicked girl ? ' Then he thrust his 
head into the noose, even in that act turning his face 
towards her, and then, poor fellow, hung there, a 
lifeless weight with broken neck. The door was 
struck by the convulsive motion of his feet; it 
seemed to give out a sound suggesting many fearful 
things and, being thrown open, showed what had 
happened there. The servants cried out in horror 
and took him down, but all in vain. Then (for his 
father was dead) they bore him to his mother's house. 
She took him in her arms and embraced her son's 
cold limbs. And after she had said the words 
which wretched parents say, and done the things 
which wretched mothers do, through the midst of 
the city she led his tearful funeral, and bore the 
pale corpse on a bier to the funeral pyre. Anaxarete's 
house chanced to be near the street where the mourn- 
ful procession was passing, and the sound of mourn- 
ing came to the ears of the hard-hearted girl, whom 
already an avenging god was driving on. Yet, moved 
by the sound, she said : ' Let us go see this tearful 
funeral.' And she went into her high dwelling with 



vixque brine inpositum lecto prospexerat Iphin : 
deriguere oculi, calidusque e corpore sanguis 
inducto pallore fugit, conatrque retro 755 

ferre pedes haesit, conata avertere vultus 
hoc quoque non potuit, paulatimque occupat artus, 
quod fuit in duro iam pridem pectore, saxum. 
neve ea ficta putes, dominae sub imagine signum 
servat adhuc Salamis, Veneris quoque nomine 

templum '"0 

Prospicientis habet. — quorum memor, o mea, lentos 
pone, precor, fastus et amanti iungere, nympha : 
sic tibi nee vernum nascentia frigus adurat 
poma, nee excutiant rapidi florentia venti ! " 

Haec ubi nequiquam formae deus aptus anili 765 
edidit, in iuvenem rediit et anilia demit 
instrumenta sibi talisque apparuit illi, 
qualisubi oppositas nitidissima solis imago 
evicit nubes nullaque obstante reluxit, 
vimque parat : sed vi non est opus, inque figura 770 
capta dei nympha est et mutua vulnera sensit. 

Proximus Ausonias iniusti miles Amuli 
rexit opes, Numitorque senex amissa nepotis 
munere regna capit, festisque Palilibus urbis 
moenia conduntur ; Tatiusque patresque Sabini 775 
bella gerunt, arcisque via Tarpeia reclusa 
dignam animam poena congestis exuit armis ; 
inde sati Curibus tacitorum more luporum 
ore premunt voces et corpora victa sopore 
invadunt portasque petunt, quas obice firmo 780 

clauserat I Hades : unam tamen ipsa reclusit 


its wide-open windows. Scarce had she gained a 
good look at I phis, lying there upon the bier, when 
her eyes stiffened at the sight and the warm blood 
fled from her pale body. She tried to step back from 
the window, but she stuck fast in her place. She 
tried to turn her face away, but this also she could 
not do ; and gradually that stony nature took pos- 
session of her body which had been in her heart 
all along. And that you may not think this story 
false, Salamis still keeps a marble statue, the image 
of the princess. It has a temple in honour of the 
Gazing Venus also. Have thought of these things, 
I pray you, and put away, dear nymph, your stubborn 
scorn ; yield to your lover. So may no late spring 
frost ever nip your budding fruit, and may no rude 
winds scatter them in their flower." 

When the god in the form of age had thus pleaded 
his cause in vain, he returned to his youthful form, 
put off the old woman's trappings, and stood revealed 
to the maiden as when the sun's most beaming face 
has conquered the opposing clouds and shines out 
with nothing to dim his radiance. He was all ready 
to force her will, but no force was necessary ; and the 
nymph, smitten by the beauty of the god, felt an 
answering passion. 

Next false Amulius by force of arms rules the 
Ausonian state ; but old Numitor by the aid of his 
grandson gains the kingdom he has lost, and the 
walls of the City are founded on the shepherd's festal 
day. Tatius and the Sabine fathers wage their war, 
and Tarpeia, having betrayed the passage to the 
citadel, gives up her life as forfeit beneath the arms 
heaped on her. Then the men of Cures, like silent 
wolves, with hushed voices steal on the Romans buried 
in slumber, and try the gates which Ilia's son has 



nee strepitum verso Saturnia cardine fecit ; 

sola Venus portae cecidisse repagula sensit 

et clausura fuit, nisi quod rescindere numquam 

dis licet acta deum. Iano loca iuncta tenebant 785 

naides Ausoniae gelido rorantia fonte : 

has rogat auxdium, nee nymphae iusta petentem 

sustinuere deam venasque et flumina fontis 

elicuere sui ; nondum tamen invia Iani 

ora patentis erant, neque iter praecluserat unda : 790 

lurida subponunt fecundo sulphura fonti 

incenduntque cavas fumante bitumine venas. 

viribus his aliisque vapor penetravit ad ima 

fontis, et Alpino modo quae certare rigori 

audebatis aquae, non ceditis ignibus ipsis ! 795 

flammifera gemini fumant aspergine postes, 

portaque nequiquam rigidis promissa Sabinis 

fonte fuit praestructa novo, dum Martius anna 

indueret miles ; quae postquam Romulus ultro 

obtulit, et strata est tellus Romana Sabinis 800 

corporibus strata estque suis, generique cruorem 

sanguine cum soceri permiscuit inpius ensis. 

pace tamen sisti bellum nee in ultima ferro 

decertare placet Tatiumque accedere regno. 

Occiderat Tatius, populisque aequata duobus, 805 
Rornule, iura dabas : posita cum casside Mavors 
talibus adfatur divumque hominumque parentem : 
" tempus adest, genitor, quoniam fundamine magno 
res Romana valet nee praeside pendet ab uno, 


fastened with strong bars. But Saturnian Juno her- 
self unfastened one of these, opening the gate on 
noiseless hinges. Venus alone perceived that the 
gate's bars had fallen, and would have closed it ; but 
it is never permitted to gods to undo the acts of 
gods. Now the Ausonian water-nymphs held a 
spot near Janus' fane, where a cold spring bubbled 
forth. Venus asked aid of these, nor did the 
nymphs refuse the goddess her just request, but 
opened up their fountain's streaming veins, Up to 
that time the pass of Janus was still open, nor had 
the water ever blocked the way. Now they placed 
yellow sulphur beneath their living spring and heated 
the hollow veins with burning pitch. By these and 
other means the reeking steam filled the fountain 
through and through, and you waters, which dared 
but now to vie with Alpine cold, did not yield in 
heat to fire itself ! The two gate-posts smoked with 
the hot fumes; and the gate, which had been opened 
(but now in vain) to the hardy Sabines, was made 
impassable by the new fountain, until the Roman 
soldiery could arm themselves. Then Romulus took 
the offensive, and soon the Roman plain was strewn 
with the Sabine dead and with its own as well, and 
the impious swords mingled the blood of son-in-law 
with blood of father-in-law. At last it was their 
will to end the war in peace, and not strive with the 
sword to the bitter end; and 'twas agreed that 
Tatius should share the throne. 

Tatius had fallen and now, Romulus, you were 
meting equal laws to both the tribes, when Mars 
put off his gleaming helmet and thus addressed the 
father of gods and men : " The time is come, O 
father, since the Roman state stands firm on strong 
foundations and no longer hangs on one man's 



praemia, (sunt promissa mihi dignoque nepoti) 810 
solvere et ablatum terris inponere caelo. 
tu mihi concilio quondam praesente deorum 
(nam memoro memorique animo pia verba notavi) 
' unus erit, quern tu tolles in caerula caeli ' 
dixisti : rata sit verborum suraraa tuorum ! " 815 

adnuit omnipotens et nubibus aera caecis 
occuluit tonitruque et fulgure terruit orbem. 
quae sibi promissae sensit rata signa rapinae, 
innixusque hastae pressos temone cruento 
inpavidus conscendit equos Gradivus et ictu 820 

verberis increpuit pronusque per aera lapsus 
constitit in summo nemorosi colle Palati 
reddentemque suo non regia iura Quiriti 
abstulit Iliad en : corpus mortale per auras 
dilapsum tenues, ceu lata plumbea funda 825 

missa solet medio glans intabescere caelo ; 
pulchra subit facies et pulvinaribus altis 
dignior, est qualis trabeati forma Quirini. 

Flebat ut amissum coniunx, cum regia Iuno 
Irin ad Hersilien descendere limite curvo 830 

imperat et vacuae sua sic mandata referre : 
" o et de Latia, o et de geute Sabina 
praecipuum, matrona, decus, dignissima tanti 
ante fuisse viri coniunx, nunc esse Quirini, 
siste tuos fletus, et, si tibi cura videndi 835 

coniugis est, duce me lucum pete, colle Quirini 


strength alone, to grant the reward which was pro- 
mised to me and to thy worthy grandson, to take 
him from earth and set him in the heavens. Once 
to me, in full council of the gods (for I treasured up 
thy gracious words in retentive mind, and now recall 
them to thee), thou didst declare : ' One shall there 
be whom thou shall bear up to the azure blue of 
heaven.' Now let the full meaning of thy words be 
ratified." The omnipotent Father nodded his assent ; 
then, hiding all the sky with his dark clouds, 
he filled the earth with thunder and lightning. 
Gradivus knew this for the assured sign of the 
translation which had been promised him ; and, 
leaning on his spear, dauntless he mounted his 
chariot drawn by steeds straining beneath the bloody 
yoke, and swung the loud-resounding lash. Gliding 
downward through the air, he halted on the summit 
of the wooded Palatine. There, as Ilia's son was 
giving kindly l judgment to his citizens, he caught him 
up from earth. His mortal part dissolved into thin 
air, as a leaden bullet hurled by a broad sling is 
wont to melt away in the mid-heavens. And now a 
fair form clothes him, worthier of the high couches 
of the gods, such form as has Quirinus, clad in the 
sacred robe. 

His wife was mourning him as lost, when regal 
Juno bade Iris go down to Hersilia on her arching 
way with these directions for the widowed queen : 
" O queen, bright glory both of the Latin and of the 
Sabine race, most worthy once to have been the 
consort of so great a man, and now of divine Quirinus, 
cease your laments and, if you would indeed behold 
your husband, come with me to yonder grove which 
stands green on Quirinus' hill, shading the temple of 
1 i.e. not kingly or tyrannical. 



qui viret et templum Roman i regis obumbrat" ; 
paret et in terram pictos delapsa per arcus, 
Hersilien iussis conpellat vocibus Iris ; 
ilia verecundo vix tollens lumina vultu 840 

" o dea (namque mihi nee, quae sis, dicere promptum 

et liquet esse deaui) due, o due" inquit "et offer 
coniugis ora mihi, quae si modo posse videre 
fata semel dederint, caelum accepisse fatebor !" 
nee mora, Romuleos cum virgine Thaumantea 845 
ingreditur colles : ibi sidus ab aethere lapsum 
decidit in terras ; a cuius lumine flagrans 
Hersilie crinis cum sidere cessit in auras : 
hanc manibus notis Romanae conditor urbis 
excipit et priscum pariter cum corpore nomen 850 
mutat Horamque vocat, quae nunc dea iuncta Quirino 




the king of Rome." Iris obeyed and, gliding to 
earth along her rainbow arch, accosted Hersilia in 
the words which had been given her. She, scarce 
lifting her eyes and with modest look, replied : " O 
goddess (for I may not tell who thou art, and yet 
'tis plain thou art a goddess), lead, oh, lead me on, 
and show me my husband's face. If only the fates 
grant me but once to see him, then shall I say I 
have gained heaven indeed." Straightway she fared 
along with Thaumas' daughter to the hill of Romulus. 
There a star from high heaven came gliding down to 
earth, and Hersilia, her hair bursting into flame from 
its light, goes up together with the star into thin air. 
Her with dear, familiar hands Rome's founder re- 
ceives, and changes her mortal body and her old-time 
name. He calls her Hora, and now as goddess is 
she joined once more to her Quirinus. 




Qvaeritvr interea quis tantae pondera molis 

sustineat tantoque queat succedere regi : 

destinat imperio claruin praenuntia veri 

FamaNumam; non ille satis cognosse Sabinae 

gentis habet ritus, animo maiora capaci 5 

concipit et, quae sit rerum natura, requirit. 

huius amor curae patria Curibusque relictis 

fecit ut Herculei penetraret ad hospitis urbem. 

Graia quis Italicis auctor posuisset in oris 

moenia, quaerenti sic e senioribus unus 10 

rettulit indigenis, veteris non inscius aevi : 

" dives ab Oceano bobus love natus Hiberis 

litora felici tenuisse Lacinia cursu 

fei tur, et armento teneras errante per herbas 

ipse domum magni nee inhospita tecta Crotonis 1 5 

intrasse et requie longum relevasse laborem 

atque ita discedens, ' aevo ' dixisse ' nepotum 

hie locus urbis erit,' promissaque vera fuerunt. 

nam fuit Argolico generatus Alemone quidam 

Myscelus, illius dis acceptissimus aevi. 20 

hunc super incumbens pressum gravitate soporis 

claviger adloquitur : * patrias, age, desere sedes 



Meanwhile it is a question who can sustain the 
burden of so great a task, who can succeed so great 
a king. Then Fame as a faithful herald selects illus- 
trious Numa for the throne. He, not content with 
knowing the usages of the Sabine race, conceives 
larger plans in his generous soul, and seeks to know 
what is Nature's general law. His great fondness 
for this pursuit caused him to leave his native Cures 
and take his way to the city 1 which once gave 
hospitality to Hercules. There, when he asked who 
was the founder of this Grecian city on Italian soil, 
one of the old inhabitants of the place, well versed 
in its ancient lore, thus answered him : " 'Tis said 
that the son of Jove, returning from the Ocean 
enriched with the herds of Spain, came by good 
fortune to the borders of Lacinium, and there, while 
his cattle grazed upon the tender grass, he entered 
the home and beneath the friendly roof of the great 
Croton and refreshed himself by quiet rest from his 
long toil. And as he took his leave he said : '. Here, 
ages hence, shall stand the city of your descendants.' 
And the words proved true. For there was a certain 
Myscelus, son of Alemon of Argos, the man of all 
that generation most beloved of heaven. Standing 
over him as he lay buried in deep slumber, the club- 
bearer 2 thus addressed him : ' Up and away from 
1 Crotona. * Hercules. 



et pete diversi lapidosas Aesaris undas ! ' 
et, nisi paruerit, multa ac metuenda minatur ; 
post ea discedunt pariter somnusque deusque 25 

surgit Alemonides tacitaque recentia mente 
visa refert, pugnatque diu sententia secum : 
numen abire iubet, prohibent discedere leges, 
poenaque mors posita est patriam mutare volenti, 
candidus Oceano nitidum caput abdiderat Sol, SO 
et caput extulerat densissinia sidereum Nox : 
visus adesse idem deus est eademque monere 
et, nisi paruerit, plura et graviora minari. 
et timuit patriumque simul transferre parabat 
in sedes penetrale novas : fit murmur in urbe, S5 
spretarumque agitur legum reus, utque peracta est 
causa prior, crimenque patet sine teste probatum, 
squalidus ad superos tollens reus ora manusque 
' o cui ins caeli bis sex fecere labores, 
fer, precor ' inquit ' opem ! nam tu mihi criminis 
auctor.' 40 

mos erat antiquus niveis atrisque lapillis, 
his damnare reos, illis absolvere culpa ; 
tunc quoque sic lata est sententia tristis, et omnis 
calculus inmitem demittitur ater in urnam : 
quae simul effudit numerandos versa lapillos, 45 

omnibus e nigro color est mutatus in album, 
candidaque Herculeo sententia numine facta 


your native land ; go, seek out the rocky channel of 
the distant Aesar'; and he threatened him with 
many fearful things should he not obey. Then did 
his slumber and the presence of the god withdraw 
together. The son of Alemon arose and silently 
recalled the vision which was still vivid in his 
memory. Long was he in great stress of doubt : the 
god bade him depart, his country's laws prohibited his 
departure. The punishment of death was appointed 
to the man who should desire to change his father- 
land. The bright Sun had hidden his shining face 
beneath the sea, and thick Night had raised her 
starry face from the waters, when the same god 
seemed to stand before him, to give the same 
commands, and to threaten worse and heavier 
penalties if he should not obey. He was sore 
afraid. And as soon as he made ready to move his 
household belongings to a new abode, the rumour 
got abroad in the town, and he was tried as a breaker 
of the laws. When the case for the prosecution had 
been closed and the charge was clearly proved 
without need of witnesses, the wretched culprit, 
raising his face and hands to heaven, cried out : ' O 
thou to whom thy twelve great labours gave thee a 
claim to heaven, help me, I pray ! for thou art 
responsible for my sin.' It was the custom in ancient 
times to use white and black pebbles, the black for 
condemning prisoners and the white for freeing them 
rrom the charge. At this time also the fatal vote 
was taken in this way ; and every pebble that was 
dropped into the pitiless urn was black ! But when 
the urn was turned and the pebbles poured out for 
counting, the colour of them' all was changed from 
black to white ; and so, by the will of Hercules, the 
vote was made favourable, and Alemon's son was 



solvit Alemoniden : grates agit ille parenti 
Amphitryoniadae ventisque faventibus aequor 
navigat Ionium Sallentinumque Neretum 50 

praeterit et Sybarin Lacedaemoniumque Tarentum 
Sirinosque sinus Crimisenque et Iapygis arva, 
vixque pererratis, quae spectant litora, terris, 
invenit Aesarei fatalia fluminis ora 
nee procul hinc tumuluui, sub quo sacrata Crotonis 55 
ossa tegebat humus, iussaque ibi moenia terra 
condidit et nomen tumulati traxit in urbem." 
talia constabat certa primordia fama 
esse loci positaeque Italis in finibus urbis. 

Vir fuit hie ortu Samius, sed fugerat una 60 

et Samon et dominos odioque tyrannidis exul 
sponte erat isque, licet caeli regione remotos, 
mente deos adiit et, quae natura negabat 
visibus humanis, oculis ea pectoris hausit, 
cumque animo et vigili perspexerat omnia cura, 65 
in medium discenda dabat coetusque silentum 
dictaque mirantum magni primordia mundi 
et rerum causas et, quid natura, docebat, 
quid deus, unde nives, quae fulminis esset origo, 
Iuppiter an venti discussa nube tonarent, 70 

quid quateret terras, qua sidera lege mearent, 
et quodcumque latet, primusque animalia mensis 
arcuit inponi, primus quoque talibus ora 
docta quidem solvit, sed non ct credita, verbis : 


freed. He first gave thanks to his patron, Amphi- 
tryon's son, and soon with favouring winds was 
sailing over the Ionian sea. He passed by Salentine 
Neretum, and Sybaris and Spartan Tarentum, the 
bay of Siris, Crimisa, and the lapygian coast ; and 
scarcely had he passed the lands which border on 
that coast when he found the destined mouth of 
Aesar's stream, and near by this a mound of earth 
which guarded the consecrated bones of Croton. 
There in that land, as the god had bidden him, he 
laid his city's walls and named it from him who had 
been buried there." Such was the ancient tale, 
confirmed by established fame, both of the place and 
the founding of the city on Italian soil. 

There was a man here, a Samian by birth, but he 
had fled forth from Samos and its rulers, and through 
hatred of tyranny was living in voluntary exile. He, 
though the gods were far away in the heavenly 
regions, still approached them with his thought, and 
what Nature denied to his mortal vision he feasted 
on with his mind's eye. And when he had surveyed 
all things by reason and wakeful diligence, he 
would give out to the public ear the things worthy 
of their learning and would teach the crowds, which 
listened in wondering silence to his words, the 
beginnings of the great universe, the causes of things 
and what their nature is : what God is, whence come 
the snows, what is the origin of lightning, whether 
it is Jupiter or the winds that thunder from the riven 
clouds, what causes the earth to quake, by what law 
the stars perform their courses, and whatever else is 
hidden from men's knowledge. He was the first to 
decry the placing of animal food upon our tables. 
His lips, learned indeed but not believed in this, he 
was the first to open in such words as these : 



** Parcite, mortales, riapibus temerare nefandis 75 
corpora ! sunt fruges, sunt deducentia ramos 
pondere poma suo tumidaeque in vitibus uvae, 
sunt herbae dulces, sunt quae mitescere fiamma 
mollirique queant ; nee vobis lacteus umor 
eripitur, nee mella thymi redolentia flore : 80 

prodiga divitias alimentaque mitia tellus 
suggerit atque epulas sine caede et sanguine praebet. 
came ferae sedant ieiunia, nee tamen omnes : 
quippe equus et pecudes avmentaque gramine vivunt ; 
atquibus ingenium est inmansuetumque ferumque, 85 
Armeniae tigres iracundique leones 
cumque lupis ursi, dapibus cum sanguine gaudent. 
heu quantum scelus est in viscera viscera condi 
congestoque avidum pinguescere corpore corpus 
alteriusque animantem animantis vivere leto ! 90 

scilicet in tantis opibus, quas, optima matrum, 
terra parit, nil te nisi tristia mandere saevo 
vulnera dente iuvat ritusque referre Cyclopum, 
nee, nisi perdideris alium, placare voracis 
et male morati poteris ieiunia ventris ! Q5 

" At vetus ilia aetas^ cui fecimus aurea noraen, 
fetibus arboreis et, quas humus educat, herbis 
fortunata fuit nee polluit ora cruore. 
tunc et aves tutae movere per aera pennas, 
et lepus inpavidus mediis erravit in arvis, 100 

nee sua credulitas piscem suspenderat hamo : 
cuncta sine insidiis nullamque timentia fraudem 
plenaque pacis erant. postquam non utilis auctor 


" O mortals, do not pollute your bodies with a food 
so impious ! You have the fruits of the earth, you 
have apples, bending down the branches with their 
weight, and grapes swelling to ripeness on the vines ; 
you have also delicious herbs and vegetables which 
can be mellowed and softened by the help of fire. 
Nor are you without milk or honey, fragrant with 
the bloom of thyme. The earth, prodigal of her 
wealth, supplies you her kindly sustenance and offers 
you food without bloodshed and slaughter. With 
flesh the wild beasts appease their hunger, and 
yet not all, since the horse, the sheep and cattle 
live on grass ; but those whose nature is savage and 
untamed, Armenian tigers, raging lions, bears and 
wolves, all these delight in bloody food. Oh, how 
criminal it is for flesh to be stored away in flesh, for 
one greedy body to grow fat with food gained from 
another, for one live creature to go on living through 
the destruction of another living thing ! And so in 
the midst of the wealth of food which Earth, the best 
of mothers, has produced, it is your pleasure to chew 
the piteous flesh of slaughtered animals with your 
savage teeth, and thus to repeat the Cyclops' horrid 
manners ! And you cannot, without destroying 
other life, appease the cravings of your greedy and 
insatiable maw ! 

"But that pristine age, which we have named the 
golden age, was blessed with the fruit of the trees 
and the herbs which the ground sends forth, nor did 
men defile their lips with blood. Then birds plied 
their wings in safety through the heaven, and the 
hare loitered all unafraid in the tilled fields, nor did 
its own guilelessness hang the fish upon the hook. 
All things were free from treacherous snares, fearing 
no guile and full of peace. But after someone, an 



victibus invidit, quisquis fuit ille, leonum 
corporeasque dapes avidum demersit in alvum, 105 
fecit iter sceleri, primoque e caede ferarum 
incaluisse potest maculatum sanguine ferrum 
(idque satis fuerat) nostrumque petentia letum 
corpora missa neci salva pietate fatemur : 
sed quam danda neci, tam non epulanda fuerunt. 1 10 

" Longius inde nefas abiit, et prima putatur 
nostia sus meruisse mori, quia semina pando 
eruerit rostro spemque interceperit anni ; 
vite caper morsa Bacchi mactatus ad aras 
dicitur ultoris : nocuit sua culpa duobus ! 115 

quid meruistis oves, placidum pecus inque tuendos 
natum homines, pleno quae fertis in ubere nectar, 
mollia quae nobis vestras velamina lanas 
praebetis vitaque magis quam morte iuvatis ? 
quid meruere boves, animal sine fraude dolisque, 120 
innocuum, simplex, natum tolerare labores ? 
inmemor est demum nee frugum munere dignus, 
qui potuit curvi dempto modo pondere aratri 
ruricolam mactare suum, qui trita labore 
ilia, quibus totiens durum renovaverat arvum, 125 
tot dederat messes, percussit colla securi. 
nee satis est; quod tale nefas committitur : ipsos 
inscripsere deos sceleri numenque supernum 
caede laboriferi credunt gaudere iuvenci 1 
victima labe carens et praestantissima forma ISO 



ill exemplar, whoever he was, envied the food 
of lions, and thrust down flesh as food into his 
greedy stomach, he opened the way for crime. 
It may be that, in the first place, with the killing of 
wild beasts the steel was warmed and stained with 
blood. This would have been justified, and we admit 
that creatures which menace our own lives may be 
killed without impiety. But, while they might be 
killed, they should never have been eaten. 

" Further impiety grew out of that, and it is 
thought that the sow was first condemned to death 
as a sacrificial victim because with her curved snout 
she had rooted up the planted seeds and cut off the 
season's promised crop. The goat is said to have 
been slain at the avenging altars because he had 
browsed the grape-vines. These two suffered be- 
cause of their own offences ! But, ye sheep, what 
did you ever do to merit death, a peaceful flock, born 
for man's service, who bring us sweet milk to drink 
in your full udders, who give us your wool for soft 
clothing, and who help more by your life than by 
your death ? What have the oxen done, those 
faithful, guileless beasts, harmless and simple, born 
to a life of toil ? Truly inconsiderate he and not 
worthy of the gift of grain who could take off the 
curved plow's heavy weight and in the next moment 
slav his husbandman ; who with his axe could smite 
that neck which was worn with toil for him, by 
whose help he had so often renewed the stubborn 
soil and planted so many crops. Nor is it enough 
that we commit such infamy : they made the gods 
themselves partners of their crime and they affected 
to believe that the heavenly ones took pleasure in 
the blood of the toiling bullock ! A victim without 
blemish and of perfect form (for beauty proves his 



(nam placuisse nocet) vittis insignis et auro 
sistitur ante aras auditque ignara precantem 
inponique suae videt inter cornua fronti, 
quas coluit, fruges percussaque sanguine cultros 
inficit in liquida praevisos forsitan unda. 135 

protinus ereptas viventi pectore fibras 
inspiciunt mentesque deum scrutantur in illis; 
inde (fames homini vetitorum tanta ciborum est !) 
audetis vesci, genus o mortale ! quod, oro, 
ne facite, et monitis animos advertite nostris! 140 
cumque boum dabitis caesorum membra palato, 
mandere vos vestros scite et sentite colbnos. 

" Et quoniam deus ora movet, sequar ora moventem 
rite deum Delphosque meos ipsumque recludam 
aethera et augustae reserabo oracula mentis: 145 
magna nee ingeniis investigata priorum 
quaeque diu latuere, canam ; iuvat ire per alta 
astra, iuvat terris et inerti sede relicta 
nube vehi validique umeris insistere Atlantis 
palantesque homines passim et rationis egentes 1 50 
despectare procul trepidosque obitumque timentes 
sic exhortari seriemque evolvere fati ! 

" O genus attonitum gelidae formidine mortis, 
quid Styga, quid tenebras et nomina vana timetis, 
materiem vatum falsique pericula mundi? 155 

corpora, sive rogus flamma seu tabe vetustas 


bane), marked off" with fillets and with gilded horns, 
is set before the altar, hears the priest's prayer, not 
knowing what it means, watches the barley-meal 
sprinkled between his horns, barley which he himself 
laboured to produce, and then, smitten to his death, 
he stains with his blood the knife which he has 
perchance already seen reflected in the clear pool. 
Straightway they tear his entrails from his living 
breast, view them with care, and seek to find re- 
vealed in them the purposes of heaven. Thence 
(so great is man's lust for forbidden food !) do you 
dare thus to feed, O race of mortals ! I pray you, do 
not do it, but turn your minds to these my words of 
warning, and when you take the flesh of slaughtered 
cattle in your mouths, know and realize that you are 
devouring your own fellow-labourers. 

" Now, since a god inspires my lips, I will 
dutifully follow the inspiring god ; I'll open Delphi 
and the heavens themselves and unlock the oracles 
of the sublime mind. Great matters, never traced 
out by the minds of former men, things that have 
long been hidden, I will sing. It is a delight to 
take one's way along the starry firmament and, 
leaving the earth and its dull regions behind, to 
ride on the clouds, to take stand on stout Atlas' 
shoulders and see far below men wandering aimlessly, 
devoid of reason, anxious and in fear of the here- 
after, thus to exhort them and unroll the book of 

" O race of men, stunned with the chilling fear 
of death, why do you dread the Styx, the shades 
and empty names, the stuff that poets manufacture, 
and their fabled sufferings of a world that never 
was ? As for your bodies, whether the burning pyre 
or long lapse of time with its wasting power shall 



abstulerit, mala posse pati non ulla putetis ! 
morte carent animae semperque priore relicta 
sede uovis domibus vivunt habitantque receptae : 
ipse ego (nam memini) Troiani tempore belli 160 
Panthoides Euphorbus eram, cui pectore quondam 
haesit in adverso gravis hasta minoris Atridae ; 
cognovi clipeum, laevae gestamina nostrae, 
nuper Abanteis templo Iunonis in Argis ! 
omnia mutantur, nihil interit : errat et illinc 165 
hue venit, hinc illuc, et quoslibet occupat artus 
spiritus eque feris humana in corpora transit 
inque feras noster, nee tempore deperit ullo, 
utque novis facilis signatur cera figuris 
nee manet ut fuerat nee formas servat easdem, 170 
sed tamen ipsa eadem est, animam sic semper eandem 
esse, sed in varias doceo migrare figuras. 
ergo, ne pietas sit victa cupidine ventris, 
parcite, vaticinor, cognatas caede nefanda 
exturbare animas, nee sanguine sanguis alatur ! 175 
" Et quoniam magno feror aequore plenaque ventis 
vela dedi : nihil est toto, quod perstet, in orbe. 
cuncta fluunt, omnisque vagans formatur imago ; 
ipsa quoque adsiduo labuntur tempora motu, 179 

non secus ac flumen ; neque enim consistere flumen 
nee levis hora potest : sed ut unda inpellitur unda 
urgueturque eadem veniens urguetque priorem, 
tempora sic fugiunt pariter pariterque sequuntur 
et nova sunt semper ; nam quod fuit ante, relictum 
est 184 

fitque,quod haut fuerat, momentaque cuncta novantur. 


have consumed them, be sure they cannot suffer any 
ills. Our souls are deathless, and ever, when they 
have left their former seat, do they live in new 
abodes and dwell in the bodies that have received 
them. I myself (for I well remember it) at the time 
of the Trojan war was Euphorbus, son of Panthous, 
in whose breast once hung the heavy spear of 
the younger Atrides. Recently, in Juno's temple in 
Argos, Abas' city, I recognized the shield which I 
once wore on my left arm ! All things are changing ; 
nothing dies. The spirit wanders, comes now here, 
now there, and occupies whatever frame it pleases. 
From beasts it passes into human bodies, and from 
our bodies into beasts, but never perishes. And, as 
the pliant wax is stamped with new designs, does 
not remain as it was before nor keep the same form 
long, but is still the selfsame wax, so do I teach that 
the soul is ever the same, though it passes into 
ever-changing bodies. Therefore, lest your piety 
be overcome by appetite, I warn you as a seer, do 
not drive out by impious slaughter what may be 
kindred souls, and let not life be fed on life. 

" And since I am embarked on the boundless sea 
and have spread my full sails to the winds, there is 
nothing in all the world that keeps its form. All 
things are in a state of flux, and everything is 
brought into being with a changing nature. Time 
itself flows on in constant motion, just like a river. 
For neither the river nor the swift hour can stop its 
course ; but, as wave is pushed on by wave, and as 
each wave as it comes is both pressed on and itself 
presses the wave in front, so time both flees and 
follows and is ever new. For that which once existed 
is no more, and that which was not has come to be ; and 
so the whole round of motion is gone through again. 



" Cernis et emensas in lucem tendere noctes, 
et iubar hoc nitidum nigrae succedere nocti; 
nee color est idem caelo, cum lassa quiete 
cuncta iacent media cumque albo Lucifer exit 
clarus equo rursusque alius, cum praevia lucis 190 
tradendum Phoebo Pallantias inficit orbem. 
ipse dei clipeus, terra cum tollitur ima, 
mane rubet, ten-aque rubet cum conditur ima, 
candidus in summo est, melior natura quod illic 
aetheris est terraeque procul contagia fugit. 195 

nee par aut eadem nocturnae forma Dianae 
esse potest umquam semperque hodierna sequente, 
si crescit, minor est, maior, si contrahit orbem. 

u Quid ? non in species succedere quattuor annum 
adspicis, aetatis peragentem imitamina nostrae ? 200 
nam tener et lactens puerique simillimus aevo 
vere novo est : tunc herba nitens et roboris expers 
turget et insolida est et spe delectat agrestes; 
omnia tunc florent, florumque coloribus almus 
ludit ager, neque adhuc virtus in frondibus ulla est. 
transit in aestatem post ver robustior annus 206 

fitque valens iuvenis : neque enim robustior aetas 
ulla nee uberior, nee quae magis ardeat, ulla est. 
excipit autumnus, posito fervore iuventae 
maturus mitisque inter iuvenemque senemque 210 
temperie medius, sparsus quoque tempora canis. 
inde senilis hiems tremulo venit horrida passu, 
aut spoliata suos, aut, quos habet, alba capillos. 


" You see how the spent nights speed on to dawn, 
and how the sun's bright rays succeed the darkness 
of the night. Nor have the heavens the same ap- 
pearance when all things, wearied with toil, lie at 
rest at midnight and when bright Lucifer conies out 
on his snowy steed; there is still another aspect 
when Pallantias, 1 herald of the morning, stains the sky 
bright for Phoebus' coming. The god's round shield 
itself is red in the morning when it rises from beneath 
the earth and is red when it is hidden beneath the 
earth again ; but in its zenith it is white, because 
there the air is of purer substance and it is far 
removed from the debasing presence of the earth. 
Nor has Diana, goddess of the night, the same phase 
always. She is always less to-day than she will be to- 
morrow if she is waxing, but greater if she is waning. 

"Then again, do you not see the year assuming four 
aspects, in imitation of our own lifetime? For in early 
spring it is tender and full of fresh life, just like a ^ 
little child ; at that time the herbage is bright, swell- 
ing with life, but as yet without strength and solidity, 
and fills the farmers with joyful expectation. Then 
all things are in bloom and the fertile fields run riot 
with their bright-coloured blossoms ; but as yet there 
is no strength in the green foliage. After spring 
has passed, the year, grown more sturdy, passes into 
summer and becomes like a strong young man. For 
there is no hardier time than this, none more abound- 
ing in rich, warm life. Then autumn comes, with its 
first flush of youth gone, but ripe and mellow, midway 
in mood between youth and age, with sprinkled grey 
showing on the temples. And then comes aged 
winter, with faltering step and shivering, its locks all 
gone or hoary. 

1 Aurora, see Index. 

n S7S 


" Nostra quoque ipsorum semper requieque sine ulla 
corpora vertuntur, nee quod fuimusve sumusve, 215 
eras erimus ; fuit ilia dies, qua semina tantum 
spesque hominum primae matris habitavimus alvo : 
artifices natura manus admovit et angi 
corpora visceribus distentae condita matris 
noluit eque domo vacuas emisit in auras. 220 

editus in lucem iacuit sine viribus infans ; 
mox quadrupes rituque tulit sua membra ferarum, 
paulatimque tremens et nondum poplite firmo 
constitit adiutis aliquo conamine nervis. 
inde valens veloxque fuit spatiumque iuventae 225 
transit et emeritis medii quoque temporis annis 
labitur occiduae per iter declive senectae. 
subruit haec aevi demoliturque prioris 
robora : fletque Milon senior, cum spectat inanes, 
illos, qui fuerant solidorum mole tororum 230 

Herculeis similes, fluidos pendere lacertos; 
flet quoque, ut in speculo rugas adspexit aniles, 
Tyndaris et secum, cur sit bis rapta, requirit. 
tempus edax rerum, tuque, invidiosa vetustas, 
omnia destruitis vitiataque dentibus aevi 235 

paulatim lenta consumitis omnia morte ! 

" Haec quoque non perstant, quae nos elementa 
quasque vices peragant, animos adhibete : docebo. 
quattuor aeternus genitalia corpora mundus 
continet ; ex illis duo sunt onerosa suoque 240 

pondere in inferius, tellus atque unda, feruntur, 
et totidem gravitate carent nulloque premente 


u Our own bodies also go through a ceaseless round 
of change, nor what we have been or are to-day shall 
we be to-morrow. There was a time when we lay in 
our first mother's womb, mere seeds and hopes of 
men. Then Nature wrought with her cunning hands, 
willed not that our bodies should lie cramped in 
our strained mother's body, and from our home sent 
us forth into the free air. Thus brought forth into the 
light, the infant lay without strength ; but soon it 
lifted itself up on all fours after the manner of the 
beasts ; then gradually in a wabbling, weak-kneed 
fashion it stood erect, supported by some convenient 
prop. Thereafter, strong and fleet, it passed over the 
span of youth ; and when the years of middle life 
also have been spent, it glides along the downhill 
path of declining age. This undermines and pulls 
down the strength of former years ; and Milon, grown 
old, weeps when he looks at those arms, which once 
had been like the arms of Hercules with their firm 
mass of muscles, and sees them now hanging weak and 
flabby. Helen also weeps when she sees her aged 
wrinkles in the looking-glass, and tearfully asks her- 
self why she should twice have been a lover's prey. 
O Time, thou great devourer, and thou, envious Age. 
together you destroy all things; and, slowly gnaw- 
ing with your teeth, you finally consume all tilings 
in lingering death ! 

"And even those things which we call elements 
do not persist. What changes they undergo, listen 
and 1 will tell you. In the eternal universe there 
are four elemental substances. Two of these, earth 
and water, are heavy and of their own weight sink 
down to lower levels. And two, air and fire, purer 
still than air, are without weight and, if unopposed, 
fly to the upper realms. These elements, although 



alta pctunt, aer atque aere purior ignis. 

quae quamquam spatio distent, tamen omnia fiunt 

ex ipsis et in ipsa cadunt : resolutaque tellus 245 

in liquid as rarescit aquas, tenuatus in auras 

aeraque umor abit, dempto quoque pondere rursus 

in superos aer tenuissimus ernicat ignes ; 

inde retro redeunt, idemque retexitur ordo. 

ignis enim densum spissatus in aera transit, 250 

hie in aquas, tellus glomerata cogitur inula. 

"Nee species sua cuique manet,reiumque novatrix 
ex aliis alias reparat natura figuras : 
nee perit in toto quicquam, mihi credite, mundo, 
sed variat faciemque novat, nascique vocatur 255 
incipere esse aliud, quam quod fuit ante, morique 
desinere illud idem, cum sint hue forsitan ilia, 
haec translata illuc, summa tamen omnia constant. 

rt Nil equidem durare diu sub imagine eadem 
crediderim : sic ad ferrum venistis ab auro, 260 

saecula, sic totiens versa est foituna locorum. 
vidi ego, quod fuerat quondam solid issima tellus, 
esse fretum, vidi factas ex aequore terras ; 
et procul a pelago conchae iacuere marinae, 
et yetus inventa est in montibus ancora summis ; 265 
quodque fuit campus, vallem decursus aquarum 
fecit, et eluvie mons est deductus in aequor, 
eque paludosa siccis humus aret harenis, 
quaeque sitlm tuleraut, stagnata paludiftfr ument. 
hie fontes natura novos em'sit, at illic 270 

clausit, et aut imis commota trernoribus orbis 


far separate in position, nevertheless are all derived 
each from the other, and each into other falls back 
again. The element of earth, set free, is rarefied 
into liquid water, and, thinned still further, the 
water changes into wind and air. Then, losing 
weight again, this air, already very thin, leaps up to 
fire, the highest place of all. Then they come back 
again in reversed order; for fire, condensed, passes 
into thick air, thence into water ; and water, packed 
together, solidifies into earth. 

" Nothing retains its own form ; but Nature, the 
great renewer, ever makes up forms from other 
forms. Be sure there's nothing perishes in the 
whole universe; it does but vary and renew its 
form. What we call birth is but a beginning to be 
other than what one was before ; and death is but 
cessation of a former state. Though, perchance, 
things may shift from there to here and here to 
there, still do all things in their sum total remain 

" Nothing, I feel sure, lasts long under the same 
appearance. Thus the ages have come from gold 
to iron ; thus often has the condition of places 
changed. I have myself seen what once was 
solid land changed into sea ; and again I have seen 
land made from the sea. Sea-shells have been seen 
lying far from the ocean, and an ancient anchor has 
been found on a mountain-top. What once was a 
level plain, down-flowing waters have made into a 
valley; and hills by the force of floods have been 
washed into the sea. What was once marsh is now a 
parched stretch of dry sand, and what once was dry 
and thirsty now is a marshy pool. Here Nature 
sends forth fresh fountains, there seals them up ; 
and rivers, stirred by some inward quakings of the 



flumina prosiliunt, aut exsiccata residunt. 

sic libi terreno Lycus est epotus hiatu, 

existit procul hinc alioque renascitur ore ; 

sic modo conbibitur, tecto modo gurgite lapsus 275 

redditur Argolicis ingens Erasinus in arvis, 

et Mysum capitisque sui ripaeque prioris 

paenituisse ferunt, alia nunc ire Caicum ; 

nee non Sicanias volvens Amenanus harenas 

nunc fluit, interdum suppressis fontibus aret. 280 

ante bibebatur, nunc, quas contingere nolis, 

fundit Anigrus aquas, postquam, nisi vatibus omnis 

eripienda fides, illic lavere bimembres 

vulnera, clavigeri quae fecerat Herculis arcus. 

quid ? non et Scythicis Hypanis de montibus ortus, 

qui fuerat dulcis, salibus vitiatur amaris? 286 

" Fluctibus ambitae fuerant Antissa Pharosque 
et Phoenissa Tyros : quarum nunc insula nulla est. 
Leucada continuam veteres habuere coloni : 
nunc freta circueunt; Zancle quoque iuncta fuisse 
dicitur Italiae, donee confinia pontus 291 

abstulit et media tellurem reppulit unda ; 
si quaeras Helicen et Burin, Achaidas urbes, 
invenies sub aquis, et adhuc ostendere nautae 
inclinata solent cum moenibus oppida mersis. 295 
est prope Pittheam tumulus Troezena, sine ullis 
arduus arboribus, quondam planissima campi 
area, nunc tumulus ; nam (res horrenda relatu) 
vis fera ventorum, caecis inclusa cavernis, 
exspirare aliqua cupiens luctataque frustra 300 



earth, leap forth or, dried up, sink out of sight. So, 
when Lycus is swallowed up by the yawning earth, 
he emerges far away and springs forth again with 
different appearance. So Erasinus is now engulfed 
and now, gliding along in a hidden stream, reappears 
as a lordly river in the Argolic fields. And they say 
that the Mysus, ashamed of his source and former 
banks, now flows in another region as Cai'cus. The 
Amenanus now flows full over the Sicilian sands, and 
at times, its sources quenched, is dry. The Anigrus 
was once wholesome to drink, but now it pours down 
waters which you would not wish to taste since there 
(unless all credence is to be denied to hards) the twi- 
formed centaurs bathed their wounds which the 
arrows of club-bearing Hercules had dealt. Further, 
is not the Hypanis, sprung from the Scythian 
mountains, which once was fresh and sweet, now 
spoiled with brackish water ? 

" Antissa and Pharos and Phoenician Tyre were 
once surrounded by the waters of the sea ; but now 
not one of them is an island. The old inhabitants of 
that region once possessed Leucas as part of 
the mainland ; but now the waves wash clear 
around it. Zancle also is said to have been a part 
of Italy until the sea washed away their common 
boundary and thrust back the land by the inter- 
vening water. If you seek for Helice and Buris, 
once cities of Achaia, you will find them beneath the 
waves ; and the sailors still show you the sloping 
cities with their buried walls. Near Troezen, ruled 
by Pittheus, there is a hill, high and treeless, which 
once was a perfectly level plain, but now a hill ; for 
(horrible to relate) the wild forces of the winds, shut 
up in dark regions underground, seeking an outlet 
for their flowing and striving vainly to obtain a 



liberiore frui caelo, cum carcere rima 

nulla foret toto nee pervia flatibus esset, 

extentam tumefecit humum, ceu spiritus oris 

tendere vesicam solet aut dcrepta bicorni 

terga capro ; tumor ille loci permansitet alti 305 

collis habet speeiem longoque induruit aevo. 

" Plurima cum subeant audita et cognita nobis, 
pauca super referam. quid ? non et lympha figuras 
datque capitque novas? medio tua, corniger Amnion, 
unda die gelida est, ortuque obituque calescit 310 
admotis Athamanas aquis accendere lignum 
narratur, minimns cum luna recessit in orbts. 
Humeri habent Cicones, quod potum saxea reddit 
viscera, quod tactis inducit marmora rebus ; 
Crathis et bine Sybaris nostris conterminus oris 315 
electro similes faciunt auroque capillos ; 
quodquemagismirum est, sunt, qui non corpora tan turn, 
verum animos etiam valeant mutare liquores : 
cui non audita est obscenae Salmacis undae 
Aethiopesque lacus ? quos si quis faucibus bausit, 320 
aut furit aut patitur mirum gravitate soporem ; 
Clitorio quicumque sitim de fonte levavit, 
vina fugit gaudetque mens abstemius undis, 
seu vis est in aqua calido contraria vino, 
sive,quod indigenae rnemorant, Amythaone natus, 325 
Proetidas attonitas postquam per carmen et herbas 
eripuit furiis, puvgamina mentis in illas 
misit aquas, odium que meri permansit in undis. 
huic fluit effectu dispar Lyncestius amnis, 


freer space, since there was no chink in all their 
prison through which their breath could go, puffed 
out and stretched the ground, just as when one 
inflates a bladder with his breath, or the skin of a 
horned goat. That swelling in the ground remained, 
has still the appearance of a high hill, ami has 
hardened as the years went by. 

" Though many instances that I have heard of and 
known suggest themselves to me, I shall tell b>.t a 
few more. Why, does not even water give and receive 
strange forms ? Thy stream, horned Amnion, at 
midday is cold, but warm in the morning and at 
eventide ; and they say that the Athamanians set 
wood on fire by pouring water on it when the moon 
has reached her last point of waning. The Cicones 
have a river whose waters, if drunk, turn the vitals 
into stone, make marble of everything they touch. 
Crathis and Sybaris, a stream not far from our own 
region, make hair like amber and gold ; and, what 
is still more wonderful, there are streams whose 
waters have power to change not alone the body, 
but the mind as well. Who has not heard of the 
ill-famed waves of Salmacis and of the Aethiopian 
lakes? Whoever drinks of these waters either goes 
raving mad or falls into a strange, deep lethargy. 
Whoever slakes his thirst from Ciitor's spring shuns 
the wine-cup and abstemiously enjoys pure water 
only; whether there is a power in the water which 
counteracts the heating wine, or whether, as the 
natives say, Amythaon's son, 1 after he had freed 
the frenzied daughters of Proetus of madness by 
his magic songs and herbs, threw into those waters 
his mind-purifying herbs, and the hate of wine re- 
mained in the spring. The Lyncestian river produces 

1 Melampus. 



quem quicumque parum moderato gutture traxit, 330 

haut aliter titubat, quam si mera vina bibisset. 

est locus Arcadiae, Pheneon dixere priores, 

ambiguis suspectus aquis, quas nocte timeto : 

nocte nocent potae, sine uoxa luce bibuntur ; 

sic alias aliasque lacus et flumina vires 335 

concipiunt. — tempusque fuit, quo navit in undis, 

nunc sedet Ortygie ; tirauit concursibus Argo 

undarum sparsas Symplegadas elisarum, 

quae nunc inmotae perstant ventisque resistunt. 

nee quae sulphureis ardet fornacibus Aetna, 340 

ignea semper erit, neque enim fuit ignea semper. 

nam sive est animal tellus et vivit babetque 

spiramenta locis flammam exhalantia multis, 

spirandi mutare vias, quotiensque movetur, 

has finire potest, illas aperire cavernas ; 345 

sive leves imis venti cohibentur in antris 

saxaque cum saxis et habentem semina flammae 

materiam iactant, ea concipit ietibus ignem, 

antra relinquentur sedatis frigida ventis ; 

sive bitumineae rapiunt incendia vires, 350 

luteave exiguis ardescunt sulphura fumis, 

nempe, ubi terra cibos alimentaque pinguia flammae 

non dabit absumptis per longum viribus aevum, 

naturaeque suum nutrimen deerit edaci, 

non feret ilia famem desertaque deseret ignis. 355 

" Esse viros fama est in Hyperborea Pallene, 
qui soleant levibus velari corpora plumis, 


an effect the opposite of this ; for if one drinks 
too copiously of its waters, he staggers in his 
walk just as if he had drunk undiluted wine. There 
is a place in Arcadia which the ancients called 
Pheneus, mistrusted for its uncertain waters. Shun 
them by night, for, drunk by night, they are injurious ; 
but in the daytime they may be drunk without 
harm. So lakes and streams have now these, now 
those effects. There was a time when Ortygia floated 
on the waves, but now she stands firm. The Argo 
feared the Symplegades, which at that time clashed 
together with high-flung spray; but now they stand 
immovable and resist the winds. And Aetna, which 
now glows hot with her sulphurous furnaces, will not 
always be on fire, neither was it always full of fire as 
now. For if the earth is of the nature of an animal, 
living and having many breathing-holes which exhale 
flames, she can change her breathing-places and, as 
often as she shakes herself, can close up these and 
open other holes ; or if swift winds are penned up in 
deep caverns and drive rocks against rocks and sub- 
stance containing the seeds of flame, and this catches 
fire from the friction of the stones, still the caves 
will become cool again when the winds have spent 
their force ; or if it is pitchy substances that cause 
the fire, and yellow sulphur, burning with scarce- 
seen flames, surely, when the earth shall no longer 
furnish food and rich sustenance for the fire, and its 
strength after long ages has been exhausted, and 
greedy Nature shall feel lack of her own nourish- 
ment, then she will not endure hunger and, being 
deserted, will desert her fires. 

" There is a story of certain men in Hyperborean 
Pallene who gain a covering of light feathers for 
their bodies after they have nine times plunged in 



cum Tritoniacam noviens subiere paludem ; 

haut equidem credo : sparsae quoquc membra venenis 

exercere artes Scythides memorantur easdem. 360 

" Siqua fides rebus tame n est addenda probatis, 
nonne vides, quaecumque mora fluidove calore 
corpora tabuerint, in parva animalia verti ? 
in scrobe delectos mactatos obrue tauros 
(cognita res usu) : de putri viscere passim 365 

florilegae nascuntur apes, quae more parentum 
rura colunt operique favent in spemque laborant. 
pressus humo bellator equus crabronis origo est ; 
concava litoreo si demas bracchia cancro, 
cetera supponas terrae, de parte sepulta 370 

scorpius exibit caudaque minabitur unca; 
quaeque sole; it canis frondes intexere filis 
agrestes tineae (res obse.vata colonis), 
ferali mutant cum papilione figuram. 

" Semina limus habet virides generantia ranas, 375 
et generat truncas pedibus, mox apta natai:do 
crura dat, utque eadem sint longis saltibus apta, 
posterior partes superat mensura priores. 
nee catulus, partu quem reddidit ursa recenti, 
sed male viva ckro est ; lambcndo mater in artus 3F0 
fingit et in formam, quantam capit ipsa, reducit. 
nonne vides, quos cera tegit sexangula fetus 
nielliferarum apium sine membris corpora nasci 



Minerva's pool. I do not vouch for it, but the 
Scythian women also are said to sprinkle their 
bodies with certain magic juices and nmduce the 
same effect. 

"Still, if credence is to be given to things that 
have actually been tested, do you not see that, when- 
ever dead bodies by lapse of time or by the liquefying 
power of heat have become thoroughly putrid, tiny 
animals are bred in them ? Bury the carcasses of 
choice bulls in a ditch after they have been offered 
in sacrifice (it is a well-known experiment), and from 
the putrid entrails everywhere will spring flower- 
culling bees which, after the fashion of their pro- 
genitors, frequent the country fields, are fond of 
work, and toil in hope of their reward. A horse, 
which is a warlike animal, buried in the ground will 
produce hornets. If you cut off the hollow claws of 
a sea-crab and bury the rest in the ground, from the 
buried part a scorpion will come forth threatening 
with his hooked tail. And worms that weave their 
white cocoons on the leaves of trees (a fact well 
known to country-folk) change into funereal butter- 
flies. 1 

" Slimy mud contains seeds that produce green 
frogs, without legs at first, but soon it gives them 
legs adapted to swimming, and, that these may be 
fitted for taking long leaps also, the hind-legs are 
longer than the fore. A cub that a she-bear has just 
brought forth is not a cub, but a scarce-living lump 
of flesh ; but the mother licks it into shape, and in 
this way gives it as much of a form as she has herself. 
Do you not see how the larvae of the honey-bearing 
bees, which the hexagonal waxen cell protects, are 

1 The departed soul is sometimes represented on tomb- 
stones as a butterfly. 



et serosque pedes serasque adsumere pennas ? 

Iunonis volucrem, quae cauda sidera portat, 385 

armigerumque Iovis Cythereiadasque colambas 

et genus omne avium mediis e partibus ovi, 

ni sciret fieri, quis nasci posse putaret ? 

sunt qui, cum elauso putrefacta est spina sepulcro, 

mutari credant humanas angue medullas. 390 

" Haec tamen ex aliis generis primordia ducunt, 
una est, quae reparet scque ipsa reseminet, ales : 
Assyrii phoenica vocant ; non fruge neque herbis, 
sed turis lacrimis et suco vivit amomi. 
haec ubi quinque suae conplevit saecula vitae, 395 
ilicet in ramis tremulaeque cacumine palmae 
unguibus et puro nidum sibi construit ore, 
quo simul ac casias et nardi lenis aristas 
quassaque cum fulva substravit cinnama murra, 
se super inponit finitque in odoribus aevum. 400 

inde ferunt, totidem qui vivere debeat annos, 
corpore de patrio parvum phoenica renasci ; 
cum dedit huic actas vires, onerique ferendo est, 
ponderibus nidi ramos levat arboris altae 
fertque pius cunasque suas patriumque sepulcrum 405 
perque leves auras Hvperionis urbe potitus 
ante fores sacras Hyperionis aede reponit. 

" Si tamen est aliquid mirae novitatis in istis, 
alternate vices et, quae modo femina tergo 
passa marem est, nunc esse marem miiemur liyaenam ; 


born mere memberless bodies and later put on feet 
and wings ? Juno's bird, which wears starry spots 
on its tail, and the weapon-bearing bird of Jove, and 
Cytherea's doves, and the whole family of birds — 
who would believe, who did not know the facts, that 
these could be born from the inside of an ers ? 
ihere are some who think that when the backbone 
of a man has decomposed in the narrow tomb the 
spinal marrow is changed into a snake. 

" Now all these things get their life's beginning 
from some other creature ; but there is one bird 
which itself renews and reproduces its own being. 
The Assyrians call it the phoenix. It does not live 
on seeds and green things, but on the gum of 
frankincense and the juices of amomum. This bird, 
you may know, when it has completed five centuries 
of its life, builds for itself a nest in the topmost 
branches of a waving palm-tree, using his talons and 
his clean beak ; and when he has covered this over with 
cassiabark and spikes of smooth nard, broken cinna- 
mon and yellow myrrh, he takes his place upon it and 
so ends his life amidst the odours. And from his 
father's body, so they say, a little phoenix springs 
up which is destined to attain the same length of 
years. When age has given him strength, and he 
is able to carry burdens, he relieves the tall palm's 
branches of the heavy nest, piously bears his own 
cradle and his father's tomb through the thin 
air, until, having reached the city of the Sun, he 
lays the nest down before the sacred doors of the 
Sun's temple. 

" But if there is anything to wonder at in such 
novelties as these, we might wonder that the hyena 
changes her nature and that a creature which was 
but now a female and mated with a male is now a 



id quoque, quod ventis animal nutritur et aura, 41 1 
protinus adsimulat, teligit quoscumque colores. 
victa racemifero lyncas dedit India Bacclio : 
e quibus, ut memorant, quicquid vesica remisit, 
vertitur in lapides et congelat aere tacto. 415 

sic et curalium quo priruum contigit auras 
tempore, durescit : mollis fuit herba sub undis. 

" Desinet ante dies et in alto Phoebus anhelos 
aequore tinguet equos, quam consequar omnia verbis 
in species translata novas : sic tempora vtrti 420 
cernimus atque illas adsumere robora gentes, 
concidere has ; sic magna fuit censuque virisque 
perque decern potuit tantum dare sanguinis annos, 
nunc humilis veteres tantummodo Troia ruinas 
et pro divitiis tumulos ostendit avorum ; 425 

clara fuit Sparte, magnae viguere Mycenae, 
nee non et Cecropis, nee non Amphionis arces. 
[vile solum Sparte est, altae cecidere Mycenae, 
Oedipodioniae quid sunt, nisi nomina, Thebae ? 
quid Pandioniae restaut, nisi nomen, Athenae ?] 430 
nunc quoque Dardaniam fama est consul gere Romam, 
Appenninigenae quae proxima Thybridis undis 
mole sub ingenti rerum fundamina ponit : 
haec igitur formam crescendo mutat et olim 
inmensi caput orbis erit ! sic dicere vates 4S5 

faticinasque ferunt sortes, quantumque recordor, 
dixerat Aeneae, cum res Troiana labaret, 
Priamides Helenus flenti dubioque salutis : 
' nate dea, si nota satis praesagia nostrae 
mentis babes, non tota cadet te sospite Troia ' 440 


male herself. That little animal, 1 also, which gets 
its nourishment from wind and air immediately takes 
the colour of whatever thing it rests upon. Conquered 
India gave to cluster-crowned Bacchus some lynxes 
as a present, whose watery secretions, as they say, 
change into stones and harden in contact with the 
air. So also coral hardens at the first touch ol air, 
whereas it was a soft plant beneath the water. 

" The day will come to an end and Phoebus will 
bathe his panting horses in the deep waters of the 
sea before I tell of all the things which have assumed 
new forms. So we see times changing, and some 
nations putting on new strength and others falling 
into weakness. So was Troy great in wealth and 
men, and for ten years was able to give so freely 
of her blood ; but now, humbled to earth, she has 
naught to show but ancient ruins, no wealth but 
ancestral tombs. Sparta was at one time a famous 
city; great Mycenae flourished, and Cecrops' and 
Amphion's citadels. Sparta is now a worthless 
countryside, proud Mycenae has fallen ; and what is 
the Thebes of Oedipus except a name ? What is left 
of Pandion's Athens but a name ? And now fame 
has it that Dardanian Rome is rising, and laying 
deep and strong foundations by the stream of Tiber 
sprung from the Apennines. She therefore is 
changing her form by growth, and some day shall 
be the capital of the boundless world ! So, they 
tell us, seers and fate-revealing oracles are declaring. 
And, as I myself remember, when Troy was tottering 
to her fall, Helenus, the son of Priam, said to Aeneas, 
who was weeping and doubtful of his fate : ' O son 
of Venus, if you keep well in mind my soul's pro- 
phetic visions, while you live Troy shall not wholly 
1 The chameleon. 



flamma tibi ferrumque dabunt iter : ibis et una 
Pergama rapta feres, donee Troiaeque tibique 
externum patria contingat amicius arvum, 
urbem et iam cerno Phrygios debere nepotes, 
quanta nee est nee erit nee visa prioribus annis. 445 
banc alii proceres per saecula longa potentem, 
sed dominam rerum de sanguine natus Iuli 
efficiet, quo cum tellus erit usa, fruentur 
aetheriae sedes, cael unique erit exitus illi.* 
baec Helenum cecinisse penatigero Aeneae 450 

mente memor refero cognataque moenia laetor 
crescere et utiliter Phrygibus vicisse Pelasgos. 
" Ne tamen oblitis ad metam tendere longe 
exspatiemur equis, caelum et quodcumque sub illo 

inmutat formas, tellusque et quicquid in ilia est, 455 
nos quoque, pars mundi, quoniam non corpora solum, 
verum etiam volucres animae sumus, inque ferinas 
possumus ire domos pecudumque in corpora condi. 
corpora, quae possint animas habuisse parentum 
aut fratrum aut aliquo iunctorum foedere nobis 460 
aut hbrriinum certe, tuta esse et honesta sinamus 
neve Thyesteis cumulemus viscera mensis ! 
quam male consuescit, quam se parat ille cruori 
inpius humano, vituli qui guttura ferro 
rumpit et inmotas praebet mugitibus aures, 46;3 

aut qui vagitus similes puerilibus haedum 
edentem iugulare potest aut alite vesci, 
cui dedit ipse cibos ! quantum est, quod desit in istis 


perish ! Fire and sword shall give way before you. 
You shall go forth and with you shall you catch up and 
bear away your Pergama, until you shall find a foreign 
land, kinder to Troy and you than your own country. 
I see even now a city destined to the descendants of 
the Phrygians, than which none greater is or shall 
be, or has been in past ages. Other princes through 
the long centuries shall make her powerful, but a 
prince sprung from lulus' blood shall make her 
mistress of the world. When earth shall have had 
her share of him, the celestial regions shall enjoy 
him and heaven shall be his goal.' These things I 
well remember that Helenus prophesied to Aeneas 
as he bore with him his guardian gods, and I rejoice 
that mv kindred walls are rising and that the Greeks 
conquered to the profit of the Phrygians. 

" But, not to wander too far out of my course, my 
steeds forgetting meanwhile to speed towards the 
goal, the heavens and whatever is beneath the 
heavens change their forms, the earth and all that 
is within it. We also change, who are a part of 
creation, since we are not bodies only but also winged 
souls, and since we can enter wild-beast forms and 
be lodged in the bodies of cattle. We should permit 
bodies which may possibly have sheltered the souls 
of our parents or brothers or those joined to us by 
some other bond, or of men at least, to be uninjured 
and respected, and not load our stomachs as with a 
Thyestean banquet 1 What an evil habit he is form- 
ing, how surely is he impiously preparing to shed 
human blood, who cuts a calf's throat with the knife 
and listens all unmoved to its piteous cries ! Or who 
can slay a kid which cries just like a little child, or 
feed on a bird to which he himself has just given 
food ! How much does such a deed as that fall short 



ad plenum facinus ? quo transitus hide paraturr* 

bos aret aut mortem senioribus inputet annis, 470 

horriferum contra bortan ovis arma ministret, 

ubera dent saturae manibus pressanda cap. llae ! 

retia cum pedieis laqueosque artcsque dolosas 

tollite ! nee volucrem viscata fallite virga 

nee formidatis cervos inludite pinnis 475 

nee celate cibis uncos fallacibus ham ; 

perdite siqua nocent, verum haec quoque perdite 

tantum : 
ora vacent epulis alimentaque mitia carpant ! " 

Talibus atque aliis instructo pectore dictis 
in patriam remeasse ferunt ultroque petitum 480 
accepisse Numam ] opuli Latialis habenas. 
coniuge qui Felix nympba ducibusque Camenis 
sacrilicos doeuit ritus gentemque feroci 
adsuetam bello pacis traduxit ad artcs. 
qui postquain senior regnumque aevumque peregit, 
exstinctum Latiacque nurus populusque patresque 486 
deflevere Numam ; nam coniunx urbe relicta 
vallis Aricinae densis latet abdita silvis 
sacraque Oresteae gemitu questuque Dianae 
inpedit. a! quotiens nymphae nemorisquelacusqne, 
ne faceret, monuere et consolantia verba 491 

dixerunt! quotiens flenti Thcseius heros 
" siste modum," dixit " neque enim fortuna querenda 
sola tua est; similes aliorum respice casus: 
mitius ista feres, utinamque exempla dolentem 495 
non mea te possent relevare ! sed et mea possunt 


of actual murder ? What is the end of such a course ? 
Let the bull plow and let him owe his death to length 
of days; let the sheep arm you against the rough 
north wind; let the she-goats give full udders to 
the milking. Have done with nets and traps, snares 
and deceptive arts. Catch not the bird with the 
limed twig ; no longer hem in the deer with fear- 
compelling feathers, 1 nor conceal the barbed hook 
beneath fair-seeming food. Kill creatures that work 
you harm, but even in the case of these let killing 
suffice. Make not their flesh your food, but seek a 
more harmless nourishment." 

They say that Numa, with mind filled with these 
and other teachings, returned to h^s own land and, 
being urged thereto, assumed the guidance of the 
Latin state. He, blessed with a nymph 2 for wife, 
blessed with the xMuses' guidance, taught holy rites 
and trained a fierce, warlike people in the arts of 
peace. When he, now ripe in years, laid down his 
sceptre and his life, the Latin mothers, the commons, 
arid the fathers all mourned for the departed Numa. 
For his wife fled from the city and hid herself away 
in the dense forests of the Arician vale, and by her 
groans and lamentations she disturbed the worship 
of Orestean Diana. Oh, how often the nymphs of 
wood and lake urged her to desist and spoke words 
of consolation ! How often to the weeping nymph 
the heroic son of Theseus said : " Have done with 
tears, for yours is not the only lot to be lamented. 
Think upon others who have borne equal losses ; 
then will you bear your own more gently. And I 
would that I had no experience of my own where- 
with to comfort you in your grief ! But even mine 
can comfort you. 
1 Hung on trees to scare the deer towards the uets. 2 Egeria. 



" Fando aliquem Hippolytum vestras, puto, contigit 
credulitate patris, sceleratae fraude novercae 
oc.cubuisse neci : mirabere, vixque probabo, 
sed tamen ille ego sum. me Pasipbaeia quondam 
temptatum frustra patrium temerare cubile, 501 

quod voluit, finxit voluisse et, crimine verso 
(indiciine metu magis offensane repulsae ?) 
damnavit, merituinque nihil pater eicit uibe 
hostilique caput prece detestatur euntis. 505 

Pittheam profugo curru Troezena petebam 
iamque Corinthiaci carpebam litora ponti, 
cum mare surrexit, cumulusque inmanis aquarum 
in montis speciem curvari et crescere visus 
et dare mugitus summoque cacumine findi ; 510 

corniger hinc taurus ruptis expellitur undis 
pectoribusque tenus molles ercctus in auras 
naribus et patulo partem maris evomit ore. 
corda pavent comitum, mihi mens interrita mansit 
exiliis intenta suis, cum colla feroces 515 

ad freta convertunt adrectisque auribus horrent 
quadrupedes monstrique metu turbantur et altis 
praecipitant currum scopulis ; ego ducere vana 
frena manu spumis albentibus oblita luctor 
et retro lentas tendo resupinus babenas. 520 

nee tamen has vires rabies superasset equorum, 
ni rota, perpetuum qua circumvertitur axem, 
stipitis occursu fracta ac disiecta fuisset. 
excutior curru, lorisque tenentibus artus 
viscera viva trahi, nervos in stipe teneri, 525 



" You may have heard some mention of Hippo- 
lytus, how he met his death through the easy credence 
of his father and the wiles of his accursed stepmother. 
You will be amazed and I shall scarce prove my 
statement, but nevertheless I myself am he. Pasi- 
phae's daughter once, when she had tried in vain to 
tempt me to defile my father's couch, perverting 
truth, pretended that I had willed what she herself 
had willed (was it through fear of discovery or 
offence at her repulse ?), and, guiltless though I was, 
my father drove me from the city and cursed me as 
I went with a deadly curse. Banished from home, 
I was making for Troezen, Pittheus' city, in my 
chariot, and now was coursing along the beach 
of the Corinthian bay, when the sea rose up and a 
huge mound of water seemed to swell and grow to 
mountain size, to give forth bellowings, and to be 
cleft at its highest point. Then the waves burst and 
a horned bull was cast forth, and, raised from the 
sea breast-high into the yielding air, he spouted out 
great quantities of water from his nostrils and wide 
mouth. The hearts of my companions quaked with 
fear ; but my own soul was unterrified, filled with ils 
own thoughts of exile. Then suddenly my spirited 
horses faced towards the sea and, with ears pncked 
forward, quaked and trembled with fear at the 
monstrous shape ; then dashed with the chariot at 
headlong speed over the steep, rocky way. I vainly 
strove to cheek them with the reins, flecked with 
white foam, and, leaning backward, strained at the 
tough thongs. Still would the horses' mad strength 
not have surpassed my own had not a wheel, striking 
its hub against a projecting stock, been broken and 
wrenched off from the axle. 1 was thrown from my 
car, and while the reins held my legs fast, you might 



membra rapi partim, partim reprensa relinqui, 
ossa gravem dare fracta sonum fessamque videres 
exhalari animam nu'lasque in corpore partes, 
noscere quas posses: unumque erat omnia vulnus. 
num potes aut audes cladi conponere nostrae, 530 
nympha, tuam ? vidi quoque luce carentia rcgna 
et laccrum fovi Phlegethontide corpus in unda, 
nee nisi Apollineae valido medicamine prolis 
reddita vita foret; quam postquam fortibus herbis 
atque ope Paeonia Dite indignante recepi, 535 

turn mihi, ne praesens augerem muneris huius 
invidiam, densas obiecit Cynthia nubes, 
utqu j forcm tutus posstmque inpune videri, 
addidit aetatem nee cognoscenda reliquit 
ora mihi Cretemque diu dubitavit habendam 540 

traderet an Delon : Creta Deloque relictis 
hie posuit nomenque simul, quod possit equorum 
admonuisse, iub'-t deponere 'qui ' que ' fuisti 
Hippolytus,' dixit ' nunc idem Virbius esto ! ' 
hoc nemus inde colo de disque minoribus unus 545 
numine sub dominae lateo atque accenseor illi." 

Non tamen Egeriae luctus aliena levare 
damua valent ; montisque iacens radicibus imis 
liquitur in lacrimas, donee pietate dolentis 
mota soror Phoebi gclidum de corpore fontem 5i>0 
fecit et aeternas artus tennavit in undas. 

Et nymphas tetigit nova res, et Amazone natus 


see my living flesh dragged along, my sinews held 
on the sharp stake, ray limbs partly drawn on and 
in part caught fast and left behind, and my bones 
broken with a loud, snapping sound. You might see 
my spent spirit breathed out and there was no part 
of my body which you could recognize, but it all was 
one great wound. Now can you, dare you, nymph, 
compare your loss with my disaster? Further, I saw 
the rayless world of death and bathed my torn 
body in the waves of Phlegethon. And there should 
I still be had not Apollo's son by his potent remedies 
given me back my life. And when I had regained 
it by the help of strong herbs and medicinal aid, 
though 'twas against the will of Dis, then Cynthia 
threw a thick cloud around me, lest I be seen and 
stir up envy of my gift of life. And, that I might be 
safe and able to be seen without fear of punishment, 
she gave me the look of age and left me no features 
that could be recognized. She debated long whether 
to give me Crete or Delos for my home. But, de- 
ciding against Crete and Delos, she placed me here 
and bade me lay aside the name which could remind 
me of my horses, and said : ' You who were Hip- 
poly tus shall now be Virbius.' From that time I 
have dwelt within this grove and, one of the 
lesser deities, I hide beneath my mistress' deity and 
am accepted as her follower." 

But Egeria's grief could not be assuaged by the 
woes of others, and, lying prostrate at the mountain's 
base, she melted away in tears ; until Phoebus' sister, 
in pity of her faithful sorrow, made her body into 
a cool spring and dissolved her slender limbs into 
unfailing streams. 

This strange event struck the nymphs with 
wonder ; and the son of the Amazon was no less 



haut aliter stupuit, quam cum Tyrrbenus arator 

fatalem glaebam mediis adspexit in arvis 

sponte sua primum nulloque agitante moveri, 555 

sumere raox hominis terraeque amittere formam 

oraque Venturis aperire recentia fatis : 

indigenae dixere Tagen, qui primus Etruscam 

edocuit gentem casus aperire futuros ; 

utve Palatinis haerentem collibus olim 560 

cum subito vidit frondescere Romulus bastam, 

quae radice nova, non ferro stabat adacto 

et iam non telum, sed lenti viminis arbor 

non exspectatas dabat admirantibus umbras ; 

aut sua fluminea cum vidit Cipus in unda 56.5 

cornua (vidit enim) falsamque in imagine credens 

esse fidem, digitis ad frontcra saepe relatis, 

quae vidit, tetigit, nee iam sua lumina damnans 

restitit, ut victor domito veniebat ab hoste, 

ad caelumque manus et eodem lumina tollens 570 

" quicquid," ait " superi, monstro portenditur isto, 

seu laetum est, patriae laetum populoque Quh ini, 

sive minax, mihi sit." viridique e caespite factas 

placat odoratis berbosas ignibus aras 

vinaque dat pateris macta tar unique bidentum, 575 

quid sibi significent, trepidantia consulit exta ; 

quae simul adspexit Tyrrbenae gentis baruspex, 

magna quidem rerum molimina vidit in illis, 

non manifesta tamen ; cum vero sustulit acre 

a pecudis fibris ad Cipi cornua lumen, 5S0 

"rex,"ait "o ! salve ! tibi enim, tibi, Cipe, tuisque 



amazed than was the Tyrrhene plowman when he 
saw in his fields a clod, big with fate, first moving of 
its own accord, and with no one touching it, then 
taking on the form of man and losing its earthy shape, 
and finally opening its new-made mouth to speak 
things that were to be. The natives called him 
Tages, who first taught the Etruscan race how to 
read the future. And no less amazed than was 
Romulus when of old he saw his spear, which he 
had planted on the Palatine hill, suddenly putting 
forth leaves, and standing, not with iron point 
driven in the earth, but with new-grown roots ; and 
now 'twas not a spear at all, but a tough-fibred tree, 
giving unexpected shade to those who gazed on it in 
wonder ; or than w as Cip us when in the river water 
he saw horns springing from his head. For he saw 
them and, thinking that he was deceived by the 
reflection, lifting his hands again and again to his 
forehead, he touched what he saw ; and now no 
longer disbelieving his eyes he halted on his 
triumphal march and lifting his hands and eyes 
to the heavens cried : " O ye gods, whatever is 
portended by this monstrous thing, if it be for- 
tunate, let the good fortune befall my country and 
the people of Quirinus ; but if it threaten ill, may 
the ill be mine." Then, making an altar of green 
turf, he appeased the gods with a fragrant burnt- 
offering, made a libation of wine, and consulted 
the quivering entrails of the slaughtered victims 
as to what they might mean for him. When the 
Etruscan seer inspected these he saw the signs of 
great enterprises there, but not yet clearly visible. 
But when he raised his keen eyes from the sheep's 
entrails to the horns of Cipus, he cried : " All hail, 
O king ! for to thee, to thee, Cipus, and to thy horns 



hie locus et Latiae parebunt cornibus arces. 

tu modo rumpe moras portasque intrare patentes 

adpropera ! sic fata iubent ; namque urbe receptus 

rex eris et sceptro tutug potiere perenni." 585 

rettulit iile pedem torvamque a moenibus urbis 

avertens faci' in " procul, a ! procul omnia " dixit 

" talia di pellant ! multoque ego iustius aevum 

exul agam, quam me videant Capitolia regem." 

dixit et extemplo populumque gravemque senatum 

convocat, ante tamen pacali cornua lauro 59! 

velat et aggeribus factis a milite forti 

insistit priscosque deos e more precatus 

"est" ait "hie unus, quem vos nisi pellitis urbe, 

rex erit : is qui sit, signo, non nomine dicam : 595 

cornua fronte gerit! quem vobis indicat augur, 

si Romam intrurit, famularia iura daturum. 

ille quidem potuit portas inrumpere apertas, 

sed nos obstitimus, quamvis coniunctior illo 

nemo mihi est: vos urbe virum prohibete, Quirites, 

vel, si dignus erit, gravibus vincite catenis 60 1 

aut finite metum fatalis morte tyrauni ! " 

qualia sucrinctis, ubi trux insibilat eurus, 

murmura pinetis fiunt, aut qualia fluctus 

aequorei faciunt, siquis procul audiat illos, 605 

tale sonat populus ; sed per confusa frementis 

verba tamen vulgi vox eminet una " quis ille est ? " 

et spectant frontcs praedictaque cornua quaerunt. 

rursus ad hos Cipus " quem poscitis," inquit 

" habetis " 


shall this place and Latiurn's citadels bow down. 
Only delay not and make speed to enter the open 
gates! Such is fate's command ; for, received within 
the city, thou shalt be king and wield the sceptre 
in safe and endless sway." He started hack and, 
keeping his gaze stubbornly turned from the city's 
walls, he said : " Far, oh, far from me may the gods 
keep every such fate. Better far it is that I should 
spend my days exiled from home than that the 
Capitol should see me king." He spoke and straight- 
way called a joint assembly of the people and the 
reverend senate. But first he hid his horns with a 
wreath of peaceful laurel ; then, standing on a mound 
raised by the brave soldiery and praying to the 
ancient gods according to the rite, he said : " There 
is one here who will be king unless you drive him 
from your city. Who he is, not by his name but by 
a sign I will disclose to you : he wears horns upon 
his brow ! The augur declares that if once he enters 
Rome he will reduce you to the rank of slaves. He 
might have forced his way through your gates, for 
they stand open ; but I withstood him, though no 
one is more closely bound to him than I. Do you, 
Qui rites, keep him from your city, or, if he deserves 
it, bind him with heavy fetters, or end jour fear 
of the fated tyrant by his death ! " At this such a 
murmur arose among the people as comes from the 
high-girt pine-groves when the boisterous wind 
whistles through them, or as the waves of the sea make 
heard from afar. But, midst the confused words of 
the murmuring throng, one cry rose clear : " Who is 
the man ? " They looked at each other's foreheads, 
and sought to find the horns that had been spoken 
of. Then Cipus spoke again and said : " Him whom 
you seek you have " ; and removing the wreath from 



et dempta capiti populo proliibente corona 6l0 

exhihuit gemino praesignia tempora cornu. 

demisere oculos omnes gemitumque dedere 

atque illud mentis clarum (quis credere possit ?) 

inviti videre caput : nee honore carere 

ulterius passi festam inposuere; 615 

at proceres, quoniam muros intrare vetaris, 

ruris honorati tantum tibi, Cipe, dedere, 

quantum depressosubiectis bobus aratro 

conplecti posses ad finem lucis ab ortu. 

cornuaque aeratis miram referenda formam 620 

postibus insculpunt, longum mansura per aevum. 

Pandite nunc, Musae, praesentia numina vat um, 
(scitis enim, nee vos fallit spatiosa vetustas,) 
unde Coroniden circumflua Thybridis alti 
insula Romuleae sacris adiecerit urbis. 625 

Diia lues quondam Latias vitiaverat auras, 
pallidaque exsangui squalebant corpora morbo. 
funeribus fessi postquam mortalia cernunt 
temptamenta nihil, nihil artes posse medentum, 
auxilium caeleste petunt mediamque tenentis 630 
orbis humum Delphos adeunt, oracula Plioebi, 
utque salutifera miseris succurrere rebus 
sorte velit tantaeque urbis mala finiat, oraut : 
et locus et laurus et, quas habet ipse pharetras, 
intremuere simul, cortinaque reddidit imo 635 

hanc adyto vocem pavefactaque pectora niovit  


his head, while the people sought to stay him, he 
showed to them his temples marked with the two 
horns. All cast down their eyes and groaned aloud, 
and (who could believe it ?) reluctantly looked upon 
that deservedly illustrious head. Then, not suffering 
him further to stand dishonoured, they replaced 
upon his head the festal wreath. But the senate, 
since you might not come within the walls, gave you, 
Cipus, as a gift of honour, as much land as you 
could enclose with a yoke of oxen and a plow from 
dawn till close of day. And the horns in all their 
wondrous beauty they engraved upon the bronze 
pillars of the gates, there to remain through all the 

Reveal to me now, O Muses, ye ever-helpful 
divinities of bards (for you know, nor has far- 
stretching time dimmed your memory), whence did 
the island bathed by the deep Tiber bring Coronis' 
son 1 and set him midst the deities of Rome. 

In olden time a deadly pestilence had corrupted 
Latium's air, and man's bodies lay wasting and pale 
with a ghastly disease. When, weary with caring 
fur the dead, men saw that their human efforts were 
as nothing, and that the healers' arts were of no 
avail, they sought the aid of heaven, and, coming to 
Delphi, situate in the earth's central spot, the sacred 
oracle of Phoebus, they begged that the god would 
vouchsafe with his health-bringing lots to succour 
them in their wretchedness and end the woes of 
their great city. Then did the shrine and the 
laurel-tree and the quiver which the god himself 
bears quake together, and the tripod from the 
inmost shrine gave forth these words and stirred 
their hearts trembling with fear : " What you seek 

1 Aesculapius. 



" quod petis hinc, propiore loco, Roniane, petisses, 

et pete nunc propiore loco: nee Apolline vobis, 

qui minuat luctus, opus est, sed Apolline nato. 

ite bonis avibus prolemque accersite nostram." 640 

iussa dei prudens postquam accepere senatus, 

quam colat, explorant, iuvenis Phoebeius urbem, 

quique petant ventis Epidauria litora, mittunt ; 

quae simul incurva missi tetigere carina, 

concilium Graiosque patres adiere, darentque, 645 

oravere, deum, qui praesens funera gentis 

finiat Ausoniae : certas ita dicere soites. 

dissidet et variat sententia, parsque negandum 

non putat auxilium, multi retinere suamque 

non emittere opem ncc numina tradere suadent : 650 

dum dubitant, seram pepulere crepuscula lucem; 

umbraque telluris tenebras induxerat orbi, 

cum deus in somnis opifer consistere visus 

ante tuum, Romane, torum, scd qualis in aede 

esse solet, baculumque tenens agreste sinistra 655 

caesariem longae dextra deducere barbae 

et placido tales emittere pectore voces : 

" pone metus ! veniam simulacraque nostra relinquam. 

hunc modo serpentem, baculum qui nexibus ambit, 

perspice et usque nota visu, ut cognoscere possis ! 660 

vertar in hunc : sed maior ero tantusque videbor, 

in quantum debent cae'estia corpora verti." 

extemplo cum voce deus, cum voce deoque 

somnus abit, somnique fugam lux alma secuta est. 

postera sidereos aurora fugaverat ignes : 665 



from this place you should have sought, O Roman, 
from a nearer place. And even now seek from that 
nearer place. Nor have you any need of Apollo to 
abate your troubles, but of Apollo's son. Go with 
kindly auspices and call on my son." When the 
senate, rich in wisdom, heard the commands of the 
god, they sought in what city the son of Phoebus 
dwelt, and sent an embassy by ship to seek out the 
coast of Epidaurus. When the embassy had beached 
their curved keel upon that shore, they betook them 
to the council of the Grecian elders and prayed that 
they would give the god who with his present deity 
might end the deadly woes of the Ausonian race; 
for thus the oracle distinctly bade. The elders 
disagreed and sat with varying minds. Some 
thought that aid should not be refused ; but the 
many advised to keep their god and not let go 
the source of their own wealth nor deliver up their 
deity. And while they sat in doubt the dusk of 
evening dispelled the lingering day and the darkness 
spread its shadows over the world. Then did the 
health-giving god seem in your dreams to stand 
before your couch, O Roman, even as he is wont to 
appear in his own temple, holding his rustic staff in 
his left hand and with his right stroking his flowing 
beard, and with calm utterance to speak these 
words : " Fear not ! I shall come and leave my 
shrine. Only look upon this serpent which twines 
about my staff, and fix it on your sight that you 
may know it. I shall change myself to this, but shall 
be larger and shall seem as great as celestial bodies 
should be when they change." Straightway the god 
vanished as he spoke, and with the voice and the god 
sleep vanished too, and the kindly day dawned as 
sleep fled. The next morning had put the gleaming 


incerti, quid agant, proceres ad templa petiti 
conveniunt operosa dei, quaque ipse morari 
sede velit, signis caelestibus indicet, orant. 
vix bene desierant, cum cristis aureus altis 
in serpente deus praenuntia sibila misit 670 

adventuque suo signumque arasque foresque 
marmoreumque solum fastigiaque aurea movit 
pectoribusque tenus media sublimis in aede 
constitit atque oculos circumtulit igne micantes : 
territa turba pavet, cognovit numina castos 675 

evinctus vitta crines albente sacerdos ; 
" en deus est, deus est ! animis linguisque favete, 
quisquis adest ! " dixit " sis, o pulcherrime, visus 
utiliter populosque iuves tua sacra colentes! " 
quisquis adest, iussum venerantur numen, et omnes 
verba sacerdotis referunt geminata piumque 681 

Aeneadae praestant et mente et voce favorem. 
adnuit his motisque deus rata pignora cristis 
et repetita dedit vibrata sibila lingua ; 
turn gradibus nitidis delabitur oraque retro 685 

flectit et antiquas abiturus respicit aras 
adsuetasque domos habitataque templa salutat. 
inde per iniectis adopertam floribus ingens 
serpit humum flectitque sinus mediamque per urbem 
tendit ad incurvo munitos aggere portus. 690 

restitit hie agmenque suum turbaeque sequentis 
officium placido visus dimittere vultu 
corpus in Ausonia posuit rate : numinis ilia 


stars to flight when the chiefs, still uncertain what 
to do, assembled at the sumptuous temple of 
the sough t-for god and begged him by heavenly 
tokens to reveal where he himself wished to abide. 
Scarce had they ceased to speak when the golden 
god, in the form of a serpent with high crest, uttered 
hissing warnings of his presence, and at his coming 
the statue, altars, doors, the marble pavement and 
gilded roof, all rocked. Then, raised breast-high in 
the temple's midst, he stood and gazed about with 
eyes flashing fire. The terrified multitude quaked 
with fear ; but the priest, with his sacred locks bound 
with a white fillet, recognized the divinity and cried : 
" The god ! behold the god ! Think holy thoughts 
and stand in reverent silence, all ye who are in this 
presence. And, O thou most beautiful, be this vision 
of thee expedient for us and bless thou this people 
who worship at thy shrine." All in the divine 
presence worshipped the god as they were bid, re- 
peating the priest's words after him, and the Romans, 
too, performed their pious devotions with heart and 
lips. The god nodded graciously to them and, 
moving his crest, assured them of his favour and with 
darting tongue gave forth repeated hisses. Then he 
glided down the polished steps and with backward 
gaze looked fixedly upon the ancient altars which ne 
was about to leave, and saluted his well-known home 
and the shrine where he had dwelt so long. Thence 
the huge serpent wound his way along the ground 
covered with scattered flowers, bending and coiling 
as he went, and proceeded through the city's midst 
to the harbour guarded by a curving embankment. 
Here he halted and, seeming with kindly expression 
to dismiss his throng of pious followers, he took his 
place within the Ausonian ship. It felt the burden 



sensit onus, pressa estque dei gravitate carina ; 
Aeneadae gaudent caesoqtte in litore tauro 695 

torta coronatae solvunt retinacula navis. 
inpulerat levis aura ratem : deus eminet alto 
inpositaque premens puppim cervice recurvam 
caeruleas dcspectat aquas modicisque per aequor 
Ionium zephyris sextae Pallmtidos ortu 700 

Italiam tenuit praeterque Laoinia templo 
nobilitata dcie Scylaceaque litora fertur ; 
liuquit Iapygiam laevisque Amphrisia remis 
saxa fugit, dextra praerupta Cocinthia parte, 
Romethiumque legit Caulonaque Naryeiamqae 705 
evincitque fretum Siculique angusta Pelori 
Hippotadaeque domos regis Temesesque metalla 
Leucosiamque petit tepidique rosaria Paesti. 
inde legit Capreas promunturiumque Minervae 
et Surrentino generosos palmite colles 710 

Kercuieamque urbein Stahiasque et in otia natain 
Parthenopen et ah hac Cumaeae tempi a Sibyllae. 
hinc calidi fontes lentisciferumque tenetur 
Liternum multamque trahens sub gurgite liarenam 
Volturnus niveis()ue frequens Sinuessa columbis 715 
Minturnaeque graves et quam tumulavit alumnus 
Antiphataeque domus Trachasque obsessa palude 
et tellus Circaea et spissi litoris Antium. 
hue ubi veliferam nautae ad.ertere carinam, 
(asper enim iam pontus erat), deus explicat orbes 7t»0 
perque sinus crebros et magna volumina labens 


of the deity and the keel was forced deep down by 
the god's weight. The Romans were filled with joy 
and, after sacrificing a bull upon the beach, they 
wreathed their ship with flowers and cast loose from 
the shore. A gentle breeze bore the vessel on, while 
the god, rising on high and reclining heavily with his 
neck resting upon the ship's curving stern, gazed 
down upon the azure waters. With fair winds lie 
sailed through the Ionian sea and on the sixth morn- 
ing he reached Italy,sailed past the shoresof Lacinium, 
famed for Juno's temple, past Scylaceum, left Iapygia 
behind, and, avoiding the Amphrisian rocks upon the 
left and the Cocinthian crags upon the right, skirted 
Romethium and Caulon and Narycia ; then passed 
the Sicilian sea and Pelorus' narrow strait, sailed by 
the home of King Hippotades, past the copper mines of 
Temesa, and headed for Leucosia and mild Paestum's 
rose-gardens. Thence he skirted Capreae, Minerva's 
promontory, and the hills of Surrentum rich in vines ; 
thence sailed to Herculaneum and Stabiaeand Parthe- 
nope, 1 for soft pleasure founded, and from there 
to the temple of the Cumaean Sibyl. Next the hot 
pools 2 were reached, and Liternum, thick grown with 
mastic-bearing trees, and the Volturnus, sweeping 
along vast quantities of sand beneath its whirling 
waters ; Sinuessa, with its thronging flocks of snow- 
white doves ; unwholesome Minturnae and the place 3 
named for her whose foster-son 4 entombed her 
there ; the home of Antiphates, marsh-encompassed 
Trachas, Circe's land also, and Antium with its hard- 
packt d shore. When to this place the sailors turned 
their ship with sails full spread (for the sea was 
rough) the god unfolded his coils and, gliding on 
with many a sinuous curve and mighty fold, entered 
1 i.e. Naples. * Of Baiae. 8 Caieta. • Aenean. 



templa parentis init flavum tangentia litus. 

aequore placato patrias Epidaurius aras 

linquit et hospitio iuncti sibi numinis usus 

litoream tractu squamae crepitantis harenam 725 

sulcat et innixus moderamine navis in alta 

puppe caput posuit, donee Castrumque sacrasque 

Lavini sedes Tiberinaque ad ostia venit. 

hue omnis populi passim matrumque patrumque 

obvia turba ruit, quaeque ignes, Troica, servant, 730 

Vesta, tuos, laetoque deum clamore salutant. 

quaque per adversas navis cita ducitur undas, 

tura super ripas aris ex ordine factis 

parte ab utraque sonant et odorant aera fumis, 

ictaque coniectos incalfacit hostia cultros. 735 

iamque caput rerum, Romanam intraverat urbem : 

erigitur serpens summoque acclinia rnalo 

colla movet sedesque sibi circumspicit aptas. 

scinditur in geminas partes circumfluus amnis 

(Insula nomen habet) laterumque a parte duorum 740 

porrigit aequales media tellure lacertos : 

hue se de Latia pinu Phoebeius anguis 

contulit et finem specie caeleste resumpta 

luctibus inposuit venitque salutifer urbi. 

Hie tamen accessit delubris advena nostris : 745 
Caesar in urbe sua deus est ; quem Marte togaque 
praecipuum non bella magis finita triumphis 
resque domi gestae properataque gloria rerum 
in sidus vertere novum stellamque comantem, 
quam sua progenies ; neque enim de Caesaris actis 750 


his father's temple set on the tawny strand. When 
the sea had calmed again, the Epidaurian god left 
his paternal altars and, having enjoyed the hospitality 
of his kindred deity, furrowed the sandy shore as he 
dragged his rasping scales along and, climbing up 
the rudder, reposed his head on the vessel's lofty 
stern, until he came to Castrum, the sacred seats of 
Laviniumand the Tiber's mouth. Hither the whole 
mass of the populace came thronging to meet him 
from every side, matrons and fathers and the maids 
who tend thy fires, O Trojan Vesta, and they saluted 
the god with joyful cries. And where the swift ship 
floated up the stream incense burned with a crackling 
sound on altars built in regular order on both the 
banks, the air was heavy with sweet perfumes, and 
the smitten victim warmed the sacrificial knife with 
his blood. And now the ship had entered Rome, 
the capital of the world. The serpent raised himself 
aloft and, resting his head upon the mast's top, 
moved it from side to side, viewing the places fit for 
his abode. The river, flowing around, separates at 
this point into two parts, forming the place called 
the Island ; on each side it stretches out two equal 
arms with the land between. On this spot the 
serpent-son of Phoebus disembarked from the Latian 
ship and, resuming his heavenly form, put an end 
to the people's woes and came to them as health- 
bringer to their city. 

Now he came to our shrines as a god from a foreign 
land ; but Caesar is god in his own city. Him, illus- 
trious in war and peace, not so much his wars 
triumphantly achieved, his civic deeds accomplished, 
and liis glory quickly won, changed to a new 
heavenly body, a flaming star ; but still more his 
offspring deified him. For there is no work among 



ullum maius opus, quam quod pater exstitit huius: 
scilicet aequoreos plus est domuisse Britannos 
perque papyriferi septemflua flumina Nili 
victrices egisse rates Numidasque rebelles 
Cinyphiumque Iubam Mithridateisque tumentem 755 
nominibus Pontum populo adiecisse Quirini 
et multos meruisse, aliquos egisse triumphos, 
quam tantum genuisse virum, quo praeside rerum 
humano generi, superi, favistis abunde ! 
ne foret hie igitur mortali semine cretus, 760 

ille deus faciendus erat ; quod ut aurea vidit 
Aeneae genetrix, vidit quoque triste parari 
pontifici letum et coniurata arma moveri, 
palluit et cunctis, ut cuique erat obvia, divis 
"adspice," dicebat " quanta mihi mole parentur 765 
insidiae, quantaque caput cum fraude petatur, 
quod de Dardanio solum mihi restat Iulo. 
solane semper ero iustis exercita curis, 
quam modo Tydidae Calydonia vulneret hasta, 
nunc male defensae confundant moenia Troiae, 770 
quae videam natum longis erroribus actum 
iactarique freto sedesque intrare silentum 
bellaque cum Turno gerere, aut, si vera fatemur, 
cum Iunone magis ? quid nunc antiqua recordor 
damna mei generis ? timor hie meminisse priorum 
non sinit ; en acui sceleratos cernitis enses ? 776 

quos prohibete, precor, facinusque repellite neve 
caede sacerdotis flammas exstinguite Vestae ! " 


all Caesar's achievements greater than this, that he 
became the father of this our Emperor. Is it indeed 
a greater thing to have subdued the sea-girt Britons, 
to have led his victorious fleet up the seven-mouthed 
stream of the papyrus-bearing Nile, to have added 
the rebellious Numidians, Libyan Juba, and Pontus, 
swelling with threats of the mighty name of Mithri- 
dates, to the sway of the people of Quirinus, to have 
celebrated some triumphs and to have earned many 
more — than to have begotten so great a man ? With 
him as ruler of the world, you have indeed, O 
heavenly ones, showered rich blessings upon the 
human race ! So then, that his son might not be 
born of mortal seed, Caesar must needs be made a 
god. When the golden mother of Aeneas saw this, 
and saw also that dire destruction was being plotted 
against her high-priest and that an armed conspiracy 
was forming, she paled with fear and cried to all the 
gods as she met them in turn : " Behold what a 
crushing weight of plots is prepared against me, and 
with what snares that life is sought which alone 
remains to me from Dardanian lulus. Shall I alone 
for ever be harassed by well-founded cares, since 
now the Calvdonian spear of Diomede wounds me 
and now the falling walls of ill-defended Troy o'er- 
whelm me, since I see my son driven by long 
wanderings, tossed on the sea, entering the abodes 
of the silent shades and waging war with Turnus, 
or, if we speak plain truth, with Juno rather ? But 
why do I now recall the ancient sufferings of my 
race ? This present fear of mine does not permit 
me to remember former woes. Look ! do you not 
see that impious daggers are being whetted ? Ward 
them off, I pray, prevent this crime and let not Vesta's 
6res be extinguished by her high-priest's blood ! " 



Talia nequiquam toto Venus anxia caelo 
verba iacit superosque movet, qui rumpere quamquam 
ferrea non possunt veterum decreta sororum, 781 
signa tamen luctus dant haut incerta futuri ; 
anna ferunt inter nigras crepitantia nubes 
terribilesque tubas auditaque cornua caelo 
praemonuisse nefas ; solis quoque tristis imago 785 
lurida sollicitis praebebat lumina terris ; 
saepe faces visae mediis ardere sub astris, 
saepe inter nimbos guttae cecidere cruentae ; 
caerulus et vultum ferrugine Lucifer atra 
sparsus erat, sparsi lunares sanguine currus ; 790 

tristia mille locis Stygius dedit omina bubo, 
mille locis lacrimavit ebur, cantusque feruntur 
auditi Sanctis et verba minantia lucis. 
victima nulla litat, magnosque instare tumultus 
fibra monet, caesumque caput reperitur in extis, 795 
inque foro circumque domos et templa deorum 
nocturnos ululasse canes umbrasque silentum 
erravisse ferunt motamque tremoribus urbem. 
non tamen insidias venturaque vincere fata 
praemonitus potuere deum, strictique feruntur 800 
in templum gladii : neque enim locus ullus in urbe 
ad facinus diramque placet nisi curia caedem. 
turn vero Cytherea manu percussit utraque 
pectus et Aeneaden molitur condere nube, 
qua prius infesto Paris est ereptus Atridae, 805 

et Diomedeos Aeneas fugerat enses. 
talibus hanc genitor : " sola insuperabile fatum, 


The anxious goddess cried these complaints 
throughout the sky, but all in vain. The gods were 
moved indeed ; and although they were not able to 
break the iron decrees of the ancient sisters, still 
they gave no uncertain portents of the woe that was 
at hand. They say that the clashing of arms amid 
the dark storm-clouds and fear-inspiring trumpets 
rand horns heard in the sky forewarned men of the 
crime ; also the darkened face of the sun shone with 
lurid light upon the troubled lands. Often firebrands 
were seen to flash amidst the stars ; often drops of 
blood fell down from the clouds ; the morning-star 
was of dusky hue and his face was blotched with 
dark red spots, and Luna's chariot was stained with 
blood. In a thousand places the Stygian owl gave 
forth his mournful warnings ; in a thousand places 
ivory statues dripped tears, and in the sacred groves 
wailing notes and threatening words were heard. 
No victim sufficed for expiation ; the liver warned 
that portentous struggles were at hand and its lobe 
was found cleft amidst the entrails In the market- 
place and around men's houses and the temples of 
the gods, they say, dogs howled by night, the shades of 
the silent dead walked abroad and the city was shaken 
with earthquakes. Yet even so, the warnings of the 
gods were unable to check the plots of men and the 
advancing fates. Naked swords were brought into 
the sacred curia ; for no place in the whole city 
would do for this crime, this dreadful deed of blood, 
save only that. T'hen indeed did Cytherea smite on 
her breast with both her hands and strive to hide 
her Caesar in a cloud in which of old Paris had been 
rescued from the murderous Atrides and in which 
Aeneas had escaped the sword of Diomede. Then 
thus the Father spoke : " Dost thou, by thy sole 



nata, movere paras ? intres licet ipsa sororum 

tecta trium : cernes illic molimine vasto 

ex aere et solido rerura tabularia ferro, 810 

quae neque concussum caeli neque fulminis iram 

nee metuunt ullas tuta atque aeterna ruinas ; 

invenies illic incisa adamante perenni 

fata tui generis : legi ipse animoque notavi 

et referam, ne sis etiamnum ignara futuri. 815 

luc sua conplevit, pro quo, Cytherea, laboras, 

tempora, perfectis, quos terrae debuit, annis. 

ut deus accedat caelo templisque colatur, 

tu facies natusque suus, qui nominis heres 

inpositum feret unus onus caesique parentis 820 

nos in bell a suos fortissimus ultor habebit. 

illius auspiciis obsessae moenia pacem 

victa petent Mutinae, Pharsalia sentiet ilium, 

Emathiique iterum madefient caede Philippi, 

st magnum Siculis nomen superabitur undis, 825 

Romanique ducis coniunx Aegyptia taedae 

non bene fisa cadet, frustraque erit ilia minata, 

servitura suo Capitolia nostra Canopo. 

quid tibi barbariem gentesque ab utroque iacentes 

oceano numerem ? quodcumque habitabile tellus 830 

sustinet, huius erit : pontus quoque serviet ill i ! 

1 i.e. Macedonian ; Emathia was a district of Macedonia. 

* Though Philippi is in Macedonia and Phar?alus in 
Thessalv, Ovid with poetic dariug practicably identifieg the 
two great battlefields. 



power, my daughter, think to inove the change- 
less fates ? Thou thyself rnayst enter the abode 
of the three sisters. Thou shalt there behold 
the records of all that happens on tablets of brass 
and solid iron, a massive structure, tablets which 
fear neither the crashings of the sky, nor the 
lightning's fearful power, nor any destructive 
shocks which may befall, being eternal and secure. 
There shalt thou find engraved on everlasting 
adamant thy descendant's fates. 1 have myself read 
these and marked them well in mind ; and these 
will I relate, that thou mayst be no longer ignorant 
of that which is to come. This son of thine, goddess 
of Cvthera, for whom thou s>rievest, has fulfilled his 
allotted time, and his years are finished which he 
owed to earth. That as a god he may enter heaven 
and have his place in temples on the earth, thou 
shalt accomplish, thou and his son. He as successor 
to the name shall bear alone the burden placed on 
him, and, as the most valiant avenger of his father's 
murder, he shall have us as ally for his wars. Under 
his command the conquered walls of leaguered Mutina 
shall sue for peace ; Pharsalia shall feel his power; 
Emathian 1 Philippi shall reek again 2 with blood ; 
and he of the great name 3 shall be overcome on 
Sicilian waters. A Roman general's Egyptian mis- 
tress, who did not well to rely upon the union, shall 
fall before him, and in vain shall she have threatened 
that our Capitol shall bow to her Canopus. But why 
should I recall barbaric lands to you and nations 
lying on either ocean-shore ? Nay, whatsoever 
habitable land the earth contains shall be his, and 
the sea also shall come beneath his sway ' 

3 Sextus Porxipeius, youngest son of Pompey the Great. 
He seems also to have assumed the name Magnu$. 



" Pace data terris animum ad civilia vertet. 
iura suuui legesque feret iustissimus auctor 
exemploque suo mores reget inque futuri 
temporis aetatem venturorumque nepotum 835 

prospiciens prolem sancta de coniuge natam 
ferre simul nomenque suum curasque iubebit, 
nee nisi cum senior Pylios aequaverit annos, 
aetherias sedes cognataque sidera tanget. 
hanc animam interea caeso de corpore raptam 840 
fac iubar, ut semper Capitolia nostra forumque 
divus ab excelsa prospectet Iulius aede ! " 

Vix ea fatus erat, media cum sede senatus 
constitit alma Venus nulli cernenda suique 
Caesaris eripuit membris nee in aera solvi 8*5 

passa recentem animam caelestibus intulit astris 
dumque fulit, lumen capere atque ignescere sensit 
emisitque sinu : luna volat altius ilia 
flammiferumque trahens spatioso limite crinem 
stella micat natique videns bene facta fatetur 850 
esse suis maiora et vinci gaudet ab illo. 
hie sua praeferri quamquam vetat acta paternis, 
libera fama tamen nullisque obnoxia iussis 
invitum praefert unaque in parte repugnat : 
sic magnus cedit titulis Agamemnonis Atreus, 855 
Aegea sic Theseus, sic Pelea vicit Achilles ; 
denique, ut exemplis ipsos aequantibus utar, 
gic et Saturnus minor est love : Iuppiter arces 


" When peace has been bestowed upon ali lands 
he shall turn his mind to the rights of citizens, and 
as a most righteous jurist promote the laws. By his 
own good example shall he direct the ways of men, 
and, looking forward to future time and coming 
generations, he shall bid the son, 1 born of his chaste 
wife, to bear at once his name and the burden of his 
cares ; and not till after he as an old man shall have 
equalled Nestor's years shall he attain the heavenly 
seats and his related stars. Meanwhile do thou catch 
up this 2 soul from the slain body and make him a star 
in order that ever it may be the divine Julius who 
looks forth upon our Capitol and Forum from his 
lofty temple." 

Scarce had he spoken when fostering Venus took 
her place within the senate-house, unseen of all, 
caught up the passing soul of her Caesar from his 
body, and not suffering it to vanish into air, she bore 
it towards the stars of heaven. And as she bore it she 
felt it glow and burn, and released it from her bosom. 
Higher than the moon it mounted up and, leaving 
behind it a long fiery train, gleamed as a star. And 
now, beholding the good dteds of his son, he con- 
fesses that they are greater than his own, and 
rejoices to be surpassed by him. And, though the 
son forbids that his own deeds be set above his 
father's, still fame, unfettered and obedient to no 
one's will, exalts him spite of his desire, and in this 
one thing opposes his commands. So does the great 
Atreus yield in honour to his son, Agamemnon ; so 
does Theseus rival Aegeus, and Achilles, Peleus ; 
finally, to quote an instance worthy of themselves, is 
Saturn less than Jove. Jupiter controls the heights 

1 Tiberius, son of Livia and Ti. Claudius Nero. 
 i.g. of Julius Caesar. 



temperat aetherias et mundi regna triformis, 
terra sub Augusto est ; pater est et rector uterque. 
di, precor, Aeneae comites, quibus ensis et ignis 86l 
cesserunt, dique Indigetes genitorque Quirine 
urbis et invicti genitor Gradive Quirini 
Vestaque Caesareos inter sacrata penates, 
et cum Caesarea tu, Phoebe domestice, Vesta, 865 
quique tenes altus Tarpeias Iuppiter arces, 
quosque alios vati fas appellare piumque est : 
tarda sit ilia dies et nostro serior aevo, 
qua caput Augustum, quem temperat, orbe relicto 
accedat caelo faveatque precantibus absens! 870 

Iamque opus exegi, quod nee Iovis ira nee ignis 
nee poterit ferrum nee edax abolere vetustas. 
cum volet, ilia dies, quae nil nisi corporis huius 
ius habet, incerti spatium mihi finiat aevi : 
parte tamen meliore mei super alta perennis 875 
astra ferar, nomenque erit indelebile nostrum, 
quaque patet domitis Romana potentia tern's, 
ore legar populi, perque omnia saecula fama, 
siquid habent veri vatum praesagia, vivam. 



of heaven and the kingdoms of the tri formed 
universe; but the earth is under Augustus' sway. 
Each is both sire and ruler. O gods, 1 pray you, 
comrades of Aeneas, before whom both fire and 
sword gave way, and ye native gods of Italy, and 
thou, Quirinus, father of our city, and Gradivus, 
invincible Quirinus' sire, and Vesta, who hast ever 
held a sacred place midst Caesar's household gods, 
and thou Apollo, linked in worship with our 
Caesar's Vesta, and Jupiter, whose temple sits high 
on Tarpeia's rock, and all ye other gods to whom 
it is fitting for the bard to make appeal : far distant 
be that day and later than our own time when 
Augustus, abandoning the world he rules, shall 
mount to heaven and there, removed from our 
presence, listen to our prayers ! 

And now my work is done, which neither the 
wrath of Jove, nor fire, nor sword, nor the gnawing 
tooth of time shall ever be able to undo. When it 
will, let that day come which has no power save over 
this mortal frame, and end the span of my uncertain 
years. Still in my better part I shall be borne 
immortal far beyond the lofty stars and I shall have 
an undying name. Wherever Rome's power extends 
over the conquered world, I shall have mention on 
men's lips, and, if the prophecies of bards have any 
truth, through all the ages shall I live in fame. 




7 he references are to books and lines in the Lntin text 

\bantiades, a patronymic epithet 
of Perseus as the great-grandson 
of Abas, iv. 673 

Ibaris, a companion of Phineus 
slain by Perseus, v. 86 

ibas : (1) king of Argos, father of 
Acrisius, great -grand fat her of 
Perseus, iv. 6 7 3 ; ( 2 ) a companion 
of Dionede, changed by Venus 
into a bird, xiv. 605 ; (3) a cen- 
taur, participant in the battle of 
the centaurs and Lapithae, xu. 

Absyrtus. a young brother of Me- 
dea, slain by her in order to retard 
the pursuit of her father, Aeetes, 
VII. 51 

Acastus, king of Thessaly, son of 
Pelias; granted Peleus absolution 
from his blood-guiltiness, xi. 409 

Acestes, a king in Sicily ; enter- 
tained Aeneas and his followers, 
xiv. 83 

Achaemenides, a companion of 
Ulysses, rescued from the Cy- 
clopes by Aeneas, xiv. 161 

Achaia, a country in the Northern 
Peloponnesus, by metonymy 
Greece, iv. 606 ; vin. 268 ; 
xin. 32S 

AcheloTa, Callirhoe, daughter of 
Acheloiis, IX. 413 

Achelo'fdes, daughters of Acheloiis, 
the Sireus, xiv. 87 

Acheloiis, a river and river-god 
whose stream separates Aetolia 
and Acarnauia ; the god enter- 
tainsTheseusand his companions 
on their way home from the Caly- 
doniau boar-hunt, vm. 649 ff. ; 
he has power to change his form, 
IX. 62 ff. ; describes his great fight 
witli Hercules, ix. 4 ff. : while in 
bull form his horn was torn off 
and given to Bona Copia, ix. 88 

Achernn,a river of the underworld, 
v. 541 ; by metonymy, the under- 
world, xi. 504 

Achilles, the most celebrated hero 
among the Greeks in the Trojan 
war, son of Peleus, king of Thes- 
saly, and Thetis, a goddess of the 
sea; account of the wedding of 
his parents and of his birth, XI. 
265 ; his mother, foreseeing his 
death if he went to the war. dis- 
guised him in girl's clothing and 
hid him among the maidens at 
the court of Lycomedes, king of 
Scyros, where he was discovered 
by the craft of Ulysses, xin. 
162 ff. ; his early conquests while 
on the way to Troy, ::mong these, 
Telephus, whom he wounded and 
afterwards cured, xm. 173 ff.; 
his flsrht with Cycnus, xu. 73 ff. ; 
description of his shield wrought 
by Vulcan at Thetis' request, xin. 



191 fl. : he was slain by an arrow 
of Paris directed by the hand of 
Apollo, who wai instigated by 
Neptune out of revenge for Cyc- 
nns' death, xn. 606 fl. ; his di art 
nody recovered from the battle- 
field by Ulysses, XIII. 280 ; his ar- 
mour was claimed by Ajax and 
Ulysse8,and awarded by the Greek 
chiefs to Ulysses, xn. 622 fl. ; on 
the Thracian coast where he was 
buried his ghost appeared to 
the Greeks, and demanded that 
Polyxena be sacrificed upon his 
tomb, xiu. 44 3 fl. 

Acis, son of Faunusand Symaethis, 
lover of Galatea, slain by the 
jealous Cyclops, Polyphemus, 
and changed to a river-god, XIU. 
750, 884 fl. 

Acmon, a companion of Diomede, 
changed by Venus into a bird, 
xiv. 484 

Acoetes, a shipmaster who tells to 
Pentheus the story of his finding 
the boy Bacchus, and of the 
marvels which ensued, III. 682 fl.; 
he was imprisoned by Pentheus, 
but miraculously delivered, in. 
692 fl. 

Aconteus, a companion of Perseus, 
petrified by the sight of the 
Gorgon-head, V. 201 

Acrisioniades, an epithet of Per- 
seus as the grandson of Acrisius, 
v. 70 

Acrisius, son of Abas, father of 
Danae, grandfather of Perseus, 
a king of Argos, opposed the 
Introduction of the worship of 
Bacchus into his city, ill. 659 ; 
iv. 604 : was driven from his 
throne by his brother, butrestored 
by his grandson, Perseus, v. 237 

Acropolis, confused with Areopa- 
gUB, vi. 70, note 

Acrota, a mythical Alban king, xiv. 

Actaeon, called Hyantlus from an 
ancient name of Boeotia, m. 
147; grandson of Cadmus, son 
ofAutonoe, ill. 198; chanced to 
see Diana in her bath, and fear- 
fully punished therefor, in. 198 fl.; 
Pentheus appeals to Autonoe in 
the name of her murdered son, 
ill. 720 

Actaeus — Atticus, n. 664,720; vi. 
711; VII. 681 ; VIII. 170 

Actium, a promontory in Epirus, 
made famous by the naval battle 
near that point between Augustus 
and Autony, xiu. 715 

Actorides, a descendant of Actor, 
applied to Erytus, v. 79, and to 
Patroclus, xm. 273 ; in plural, 
Actoridae, referring to Enrytua 
and Cleatus, vm. 308 

Admetns,*ee Pheretiades 

Adonis, son of Myrrha by her 
father, Cinyras, born after his 
mother had been transformed 
into a tree, x. 503 fl. ; beloved by 
Venus because of his extraor- 
dinary beauty, x. 624 fl.; slain by 
a boar, x. 708 fl. ; from his blood 
Venus caused the anemone Uower 
to spring, x. 735 

Aeacides, a descendant of Aeacus, 
applied to his son, Peleus, XI. 
227 ; XII. S65 ; to his grandson, 
Achilles, xn. 82, 96, 365; in 
plural, to his two sons, Peleus 
and Telamon, vm. 4 

Aeacus, son of Jupiter, xm. 28, 
and Aegina, grandson of Asopus, 
born in and ruled over the island 
of Aegina, which took its name 
from his mother, VII. 474 ; re- 
fuses to aid Minos against 
Athens, vn. 484 ; tells the story 
of the Myrmidons, vn. 517 fl. ; 
father of Telamon, xni. 25 ; 
made a Judsre in the Lower 
World on aceount of his justice 
oa earth, XIII. 85 ; hi- fntlier. 


Jupiter, cannot grant him im- 
mortality on earth, IX. 440 

Aeas, a river in Epirus, i. 580 

Aeetes, king of Colchis, son of Sol 
and Persa, father of Medea, re- 
ceived from Pbrixus the Golden 
Fleece on the preservation of 
which his kingdom depended, 
VII. 7, 69, 170 

Acctias, an epithet of Medea as the 
daughter of Aeetes, vn. 9, S26 

A eg aeon, a sea-god, n. 10 

Aegaeus, the Aegean Sea, IX. 448 ; 
XI. 66S 

Aegeus, son of Pandion, king of 
Athens, father of Theseus, xv. 
856 ; receives Medea after her 
flight from Corinth and marries 
her, vn. 403 ; detects her in her 
attempt to poison Theseus and 
drives her out, vn. 420 ff. : being 
threatened with war by Minos, 
who sought to avenge the death 
of his son, Androgeos, he appeals 
to Aeacus for aid, VII. 484 ff. 

Aegides, son of Aegeus, Thesens, 
vm. 174, 405, 660; Xll. 237, 

Aegina, daughter of the river-god, 
Asopus, hence called Asopis, vi. 
113 ; vn. 616 : she was loved by 
Jupiter, who carried her away to 
the island afterwards called by 
her name, vn. 474 ; their son was 
Aeacus, Vll. 524, 615 

Aegina, an island in the Saronio 
Gulf, vn. 474 

Aegyptius, belonging to Egypt, 
v. 323; xv. 826 

Aello, a harpy on the island of the 
Strophades who made threats 
against Aeneas, xm. 710 ; also 
the name of a swift-running dog, 
in. 219 
Aeueades, a descendant of Aeneas ; 
applied to Caesar, xv. 804 ; in 
plural, to the Komana in general, 
xv. 682, r>9» 

Aeneas, son of Anchises and Venus 
(sec Cytherei'us heros), one of the 
bravest of the Trojans, xm. 665 ; 
rescued by Venus from the 
sword of Diomede, xv. 806 ; 
leaves Troy with his father and 
son, xni.625 ; received by Auius 
at Delos. mi, 631 ; meets Dido 
at Canh*ge, xiv. 78 ; his wan- 
derings and sufferings described 
by Venus, xv. 770 ff. ; received 
by Acextes in Sicily, xiv. 83 ; 
meets the Cuinaean Sibyl and is 
conducted by her through the 
Lower World, xiv. 104 ff. ; 
reaches his journey's end aud is 
kindly received by Laiiuns, is 
opposed by Turnus, seeks aid 
from Evander, xiv. 445 ff. ; is 
drowned in the River Nuinicius, 
his mortal part there washed 
away, and his immortal part 
made a god and worshipped 
under the name of Indiges, xiv. 
600 ff. 
Aeolia virgo, daughter of Aeolus, 
applied to Canace, loved by Nep- 
tune, vi. 116 
Aeolides, a descendant of Aeolus, 
applied to his eon Athainus, IV. 
512; to Sisyphus, xm. 26; to 
his grandson Cephalus, vi. 681 ; 
vn. 672 ; to Misenus, the trum- 
peter of Aeneas (his father, bow- 
ever, was not the god of the 
winds, but a mortal of the same 
name), xiv. 103; in plural, to 
certain sons of Aeolus who com- 
milted incest with their sisters, 
ix. 507 
Aeolis, a daughter of Aeolnj, Al- 
cyone, XI. 444, 573 
Aeolius, belonging to Aeolis in 

Asia Minor, vn. 357 
Aeolus, god of the winds, who kept 
these shnt up in a cave in the 
Aeolian Isles between Sicily and 
Italy, i. 262 ; iv. 663 ; xiv. 224; 



xv. 707 ; son of Uippotas, iv. 
663 ; xi. 431 ; xiv. 224 ; xv. 707; 
father of Canace, vi. 116; father 
of Alcyone, xi. 431, 748 ; father 
of Athauias, iv. 487 ; called 
Aeolius tyranuus, xiv. 232 ; 
calms the waves in the nesting- 
time of the Halcyons xi. 748; 
gave Ulysses winds tied in a bag, 
xiv. 224. See Hippotades 

Aesacns, half-brother of Hector, 
son of Alexiroe and Priam ; 
because of his hopeless love (or 
Hesperie, he leaped from a cliff 
into the sea and was changed 
into a diving-bird, xi. 752 ff. ; 
mourned by Priam and Hector 
and all his brothers except Paris, 
XII. 1 ff. 

Aesar, a river in Lower Italy, 
xv. 23, 54 

Aesculapius, son of Apollo and 
Coronis, rescued by Apollo from 
the body of his dying mother 
and given to Chiron to rear, n. 
629 ff . ; called Coronides. xv. 624 ; 
Faeonins, xv. 535 ; his fate fore- 
told by Ocyrhoe, II. 635 ff . ; he 
restored the dead Hippolytus to 
life, xv. 533 ; was brought to 
Pome at a time of great pesti- 
lence in the form of a serpent 
and afterwards worshipped there 
as a god, xv. 626 ff. 

Aeson, a Thessalian prince whose 
brother, Pelias, usurped his 
throne ; father of Jason, vn. 84 ; 
in old age he was restored to 
youth by Medea's magic arts, 
VII. 162 ff. 

Aesonides, Jason, son of Aeson, 
vii. 60, 77,164; vni. 411 

Aeson ins heros. Jason, vn. 156 

Aethalion, a Tyrian sailor, com- 
panion of Acoetes, in. 647 

Aethion, an Ethiopian seer, v. 146 

Aethiopia, reason for the black 
skins of its people, II. 236 


Aethiops, Eimopian, I. 778 ; II. 
236 ; IV. 669 ; xv. 32 ) 

Aethon, one of the horses of the 
Sun, ii. 153 

Aetna, a volcanic mountain in 
Sicily, xin. 770 ; under it lies 
the giant Typhoeus, v. 352 ; 
xiv. 1 ; the home of Cyclops, 
xiv. 188 

Aetola arma, the assistanoe of Dio- 
mede, xiv. 528 

Aetolia, a country in Middle Greece, 
xiv. 461 

Aetolius heros, Diomede, XIT. 

Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, 
son of Atveus, brother of Meue- 
laiis, husband of Clytaemnestra, 
father of Orestes. Iphigeuia, and 
Ekctra ; commjinder-in-chief of 
the Greek forces in the Trojan 
war, hence called rex, xm. 217, 
276 ; his quarrel with Achilles, 
Xin. 444 ; bidden by the oracle, 
while waiting to sail from Aulis, 
to sacrifice his daughter Iphl- 
genia to Diana, whom he had 
offended, is persuaded by Ulysses 
to do so, xii. SO ; xm. 181 : cap- 
tured the daughters of Anius that 
with their miraculous power of 
turning what they touched to 
corn and wine they might feed 
bis army. xm. 655. See Atrides 
and Tantalides 

Aganippe, a celebrated fountain 
of the Muses on Mount Helicon, 
V. 312 

Agave, a daughter of Cadmus, 
mother of Pentheus ; in a Bac- 
chic frenzy she helped to tear 
her son to pieces, in. 725 ff. 

Agcnor, son of Neptune, king of 
Phoenicia, father of Cadmus, 
in. 51, 97 ; and of Europa, n. 

Agenorea domns i.e. the home of 
Cadmus, in. 108 


Agenorides, a descendant of Age- 
nor; Cadmus, ill. 8, 81,90; IV. 
563 ; Perseus (whose connexion 
with Ageuor, however, was very 
remote), iv. 772 

Aglauros. daughter of Cecrops, II, 
560 ; envies her sister Herse 
because of Mercury's love, II. 
740 ff. ; punished by Minerva for 
her treachery, n. 752 ff. ; changed 
by Mercury into a stone, II. 820 

Aiax : (1 ) sou ot Telamou, xn. 624 ; 
xni. 22, 123, 194, 231 ; grandson 
of Aeacus, xm. 25 ; great-grand- 
son of Jupiter, xni. 28 ; one of 
the stoutest of the Greek war- 
riors, xm. 38fi ; lord of the 
sevenfold shield, xm. 2, 347 ; 
he prevented Hector from burn- 
ing the Greek ships, xm. 7 ; 
chosen by lot to fight duel with 
Hector, xni. 82 fl., 275 ft; 
saves Ulysses on the field of 
battle, xm. 71 ft ; supports his 
claim against Ulysses for the 
armour of Achilles, xm. 2 ft ; 
defeated in this contest, he goes 
into a frenzy of rage and kills 
himself with his own sword, 
xm. 384 ft; from his blood a 
flower springs up whose petals 
are marked with his name, AIA2. 
X. 207 ; xm. S95. See Tela- 
monius and Telamoniades. (2) 
The son of Oi'leus, xn. 622 ; 
styled Aiax moderator, "the 
Less." xm. S56 ; violated Cas- 
sandra and slain by Minerva 
with a thunderbolt of Jupiter, 
xiv. 468. See Narycius heros 

Alastor, a Lycian, slain by Ulysses, 
XIII. 257 

Albula, ati ancient name for the 
Tiber, xiv. 328 

Alcauder, a Lycian, slain by Ulysses, 
xm. 258 

Alcathous, son of Pelops, founder 
of the city of Megara ; hence 

Megara is called urbs Alcathoi 
vin. 8 ; called also Alcathoe, vn 

AlcidamiiB, father of Ctesylla, vn. 

Alcide non, a Tyrian sailor, com- 
panion of Acoetes, in. 618 

Alcides, a descendant of Alceus, 
father of Amphitryon, usually 
applied to Hercules, the reputed 
son of Amphitryon, ix. 13, 61, 
110, 217 ; xi. 213 ; xn. 538. See 

Alciuoiis, king of the Phaeacians, 
who entertained Ulysses, xiv. 

Alcithoe, daughter of Minyas, who 
with her sisters opposed the wor- 
ship of Bacchus, iv. 1, 32 ft ; 
they were changed by Bacchus 
into bats, iv. 38 e ft 

Alcmaeon, son of Aniphiaraus and 
Eriphyle; killed his mother as 
directed by his father, ix. 408 ; 
pursued by the Furies, ix. 410 ; 
his first wife was Alphesiboea, 
daughter of Phegeus; he left her 
and married Callirhoe and was 
slain by the brothers of Alphesi- 
boea, ix. 412 

Alcmena, daughter of Electryon, 
king of Tiryns, wife of Amphi- 
tryon, mother of Hercules by 
Jupiter, ix. 23 : called Tirynthia 
from her birth-place at Tiryns in 
Argolis, vi. 112 ; called also Ar- 
golis from her native land, ix. 
276, 313 ; the mother-in-law of 
Deianira, Till. 544 ; relates her 
hard experience in the birth of 
Hercules, ix. 285 ft 

Alcon, a Boeotian, a famous en- 
graver, xni. 683 

Alcyone, daughter of Aeolus, wife 
of Ceyx, xi. 384 ; entreats her 
hushind not to take a sea jour- 
ney, bids him farewell, and after 
his wreck is informed by Juno 



of this through «. phantom-shape 
of Ceyx, xi. 416 ft. ; she and her 
husband were changed into Hal- 
cyons, xi. 741 

Alemon, a Greek, father of My- 
scelos, the founder of Crotona in 
Lower Italy, xv. 19 

llemonides, 6on of Alemon, My- 
scelos, xv. 26, 48 

Alexiroe, a nymph, daughter of 
the rirer-god Granicus, and 
mother by Priam of Aesacus, xi. 

Almo, a small river flowing Into 
the Tiber, xiv. 329 

Aloi'dae, putative sons of Aloeus, 
Otus and Ephialtes, but in reality 
the offspring of Neptune by Iphi- 
media, the wife of Aloeus, vi. 

Alpes, the Alps mountains, n. 226 ; 
xiv. 594 

Alpheias, an epithet of Arethusaas 
the beloved of the river-god Al- 
pheus, v. 487 

Alphenor, one of the seven sons of 
Niobe, vi. 248 

Alpheus, a river and river-god 
of Elis who loved Arethusa, 
II. 250; V. 576, 599 

Althaea, wife of Ounetis, king of 
Calydon, mother of Meleager ; on 
hearing that her son has killed 
her two brothers, she halts be- 
tween two feelings ; decides 
against her son and burns the 
fatal billet on which his life de- 
pends, vm. 445 ft. 

Amathus, a city in Cyprus sacred 
to Venus, x. 220,227 

Amazon, one of the Amazons, a race 
of warlike women who dwelt 
on the Therniodon River; in par- 
ticular, Hippolyte, the mother 
by Theseus of Hippolytus, xv. 

Ambracia, a city in Epirus, xm. 


Amenanns, a river in Sicily, XV. 

Ammon : (1) an Egyptian and Li- 
byan deity in the form of a ram, 
identified by the Greeks and Ro- 
mans with Zeus and Jupiter, IV. 
671 ; v. 17, 328 ; xv. 309 ; (2) a 
friend of Perseus, slain by Phi- 
neus, v. 107 

Amphiaraiis, a Greek seer, one of 
the heroes (Oeclides) at theCaly- 
donian boar-hunt, vm. 317 ; son 
of Oecleus, father of Alcmaeon, 
husband of Eriphyie, who be- 
trayed him for a golden necklace; 
he enjoined on his son the duty 
of punishing Eriphyie, ix. 407 

Aiuplumedon, a Libyan, follower 
of Phineus, v. 75 

Amphion, son of Jupiter and An- 
tiope, husband of Niobe ; king 
of Thelies, whose walls he built 
by the magical music of his lyre, 
vi. 176 ff. ; xv. 427 ; killed him- 
self because of grief at the death 
of his sons, vi. 271, 402 

Ampbissos, son of Apollo and 
Dryope, ix. 356 

Amphitrite, daughter of Nereus, 
wife of Neptune, a sea-goddess ; 
used by metonymy forthesea.i. 14 

Amphitryon, son of Alceus, king 
of Thebes, husband of Alcmcna 
and putative father of Hercules, 
vi. 112 

Amphltryoniailes, a name of Her- 
cules as the supposed son of Am- 
phitryon, ix. 140 ; xv. 49 

Amphrisia saxa, unknown rocks in 
Lower Italy, XV. 703 

Amphrysus, a small river in 
Thessaly.i. 680; vn. 229 

Ampycides, son of Ampyx.Mopsua, 
VIII. 316 ; XII. 456, 524 

Ampycus, a priest of Ceres, v. 110 

Ampyx : (1) a follower or Perseus, 
v. 184 ; (2) out of the Lapithae, 
xii. 450 


Amulius, younger son of the Alban 
king-, Proca, usurped the king- 
dom from his elder brother, Nu- 
mitor, but was dethroned by 
Numitor's grandsons, Romulus 
and Keinus, xiv. 722 

Amyclae, a town in Laconia, vni. 
314 : x. 162 

Amyclidcs, epithet of Hyacinthus 
as the descendant of Amyclas, 
builder of Amyclae, x. 162 

Amycus, a centaur, xn. 246 

Amymone, a famous spring 1 of Ar- 
gos, II. 240 

Amyntor, a king of the Dolopians 
in Thessaly, xn. 364; father of 
Phoenix, vm. 307 

Amythaon, father of Melampus, 
xv. 326 

Anaphe, an island of the Cyclades, 
vii. 462 

Anapis, a river and river-god 
of Sicily, beloved of Cyane, v. 

Anaxarete, a beautiful maiden of 
Cyprus, who disdained the love 
of Iphis and was turned to stone, 
xiv. 699 

Ancaeui, an Arcadian at the Caly. 
donian boar-hunt, vm. 315, 891, 

Anchises, sen of Capys, father of 
Aeneas by Venus, ix. 425 ; carried 
from burning Troy by Aeneas, 
xni. 62 4 ; visits Anius at Delos, 
xm. 640; visited by Aeneas in 
Hades, xiv. 118; his grave in 
Sicily, xiv. 84 

Andraemon : (1) the father of 
Amphissus and husband of 
Dryope, who was changed into 
a lotus-tree, ix. 333, 363 ; (2) an 
Aetolian king, father of Thoas 
and a combatant before Troy, 
xm. 367 

Androgeos, son of Minos, king of 
Crete, treacherously killed at 
Athens after having overcome 

all his competitors in wrestling, 
vn. 458; vm. 68 

Andromeda, daughter of Cephens 
and Cassiope; chained to a rock 
and exposed to a sea-monster be- 
cause of her mother's sin, saved 
by Perseus, iv. 670 ft.; married 
to Perseus, iv. 767 

Andros, a son of Anius, ruler of 
one of the islands of the Cyclades 
named for him, vn. 469 ; xm. 
649, 665 

Anemone, the "wind-flower" which 
sprang up from the blood of 
Adonis, x. 736 

Anguis, the constellation of the 
Serpent, lying high in the 
north, II. 138, 173; III. 46; 
vm. 182 

Anigrus, a little river in Elis, xv. 

Anio, a river in Latium, xiv. 329 

Anius, king and priest of Apollo 
on Delos, entertains Anchises 
and Aeneas, xm. 632 ff. ; to his 
daughters Bacchus had granted 
the power of turning objects 
at a touch to corn and wine 
and olives, xm. 650 ff. See 

Antaeus, a Libyan giant slain by 
Hercules, ix. 184 

Antandrus, a seaport in the Troad, 
xm. 628 

Antenor, one of the older Trojan 
chiefs who, with Priam, would 
have given Helen back at the 
demand of Ulysses, xm. 201 

Anthedon, a town in Boeotia, vn. 
232; XIII. 9u5 

Antigone, daughter of Laomedon, 
changed by Juno into a stork, 
vi. 93 

Antimachns, a centaur, xn. 460 

Antiope, called Nyctei's as daughter 
of king Nycteus ; mother by 
Jupiter of Amphion and Zethus, 
vi. Ill 


INDEX, king of the Laestry- 
goniaus, who sank Ulysses' ships 
and devoured one of his men, 
xiv. 233 ff. 

Antissa, a town on Lesbos, xv. 28/" 

Antium, a town in Latium, xiv. 718 

Antonius, the Roman leader who 
with Cleopatra fought the Ro- 
mans under Octavius in the naval 
battle near Actium, xv. 826 

Anubis, an Egyptiau god repre- 
sented with the head of a dog, 
IX. 690 

Aouia, a district of Boeotia in 
which lies Mount Helicon, I. 313 ; 
in. 339; v. 333; vi. 2; vn. 
763; IX. 112; x. 689; XII. 21 

Aonides, an epithet of the Muses 
because their favourite haunt, 
Mount Helicon, was in Aouia, 
an e.irlier name for Boeotia, v. 
333 ; VI. 2 

Apliare'i'a proles, the offspring of 
Aphareus, a king of the Mes- 
senians, referring to his sons, 
Lynceus and Idas, vin. 304 

Aphareus, a centaur, xn. 341 

Aphidas, a ceutaur, XII. 317 

Apidanus, a river in Thessaly, vii. 

Apis, the sacred ox worshipped as 
a god by the Egyptians, ix. 691 

Apollineus, an epithet of Orpheus 
as the son of Apollo, XI. 8 

Apollo, son of Jupiter, i. 517, and 
Latona ; twin brother of Diana, 
VI. 205 ff. ; born in the island of 
Delos, vi. 191 ; represented most 
frequently as Phoebus, ihe sun- 
god, whose chariot is the shining 
disc of the sun, II. 1 ff. et pas- 
sim ; the god of prophecy, i. 
517; in. 8, 130; ix. 332; xv. 
632 ; eod of the healing art, i. 
621, 566 ; ii. 618: x. 189 ; god 

^of music and especially of the 
lyre, I. 519; vi. 384 ; x. 108 ; 
xi. 155 ff. ; god of the bow, 


x. 108; kills the Python and in 
honour of this feat establishes 
the Pythian games, I. 441 ff. ; his 
various epithets are proles 
Letoi'a, vin. 15; Latoiis, vi. 384; 
Latogena, vi. 160; Latoius, xi. 
196 ; Dulius, I. 464 ; Delphicns, 
ii. 543, 677; Clarius, xi. 413; 
Paean, I. 566 ; xiv. 720 ; Sniin- 
theus, xn. 685 ; Phoebus, pas- 
sim ; deus arquitenens, I. 441; 
vi. 265 ; iuvenis deus, " god of 
eternal youth," I. 631 ; imonsus, 
xn. 585 ; and see m. 421 ; xi. 
166; lands sacred to him are 
Delos, Delphi, Cl.iros, 'IVnedos, 
Patara, I. 516; his sacred tree 
the laurel, I. 653 ; xv. 634 ; his 
loves were Daphne, I. 452 ff. ; 
Clymene, I, 751; Coronis, n. 
543; Leucothoe, iv. 196 ft; 
Isse, vi. 122 ; Dryope, ix. 331 ; 
Calliope, xi. 8 ; Chione, xi. 
303 ff. ; Cassandra, xiri. 410; 
Cumaean Sibyl, xiv. 133; his 
boy loves were Hyacinthus, x. 
162 ff., and Cyparissus, x. 106 
ff. ; his sous were Phaethon by 
Clymene, I. 751 ; Aesculapius by 
Coronis, n. 629 ; xv. 624 ; Ain- 
phissos by Dryope, ix. $56; 
Orpheus by Calliope, XI. 8 ; 
Philaiumon by Chione, xi. SI 7 ; 
he promised Fhaethon any gift 
he might name as proof of his 
fatherhood, II. 42 ff. ; mourns 
Phaethou's death and refuses to 
light the world for a whole day, 
II. 329, 381 ff. ; served as a shep- 
herd in Elis, II. 677; and with 
Admetus in Thessaly, vi. 122 ; 
discloses to Vulcan the shame of 
Mars and Venus, IV. 171 ff. ; 
takes refuge from pursuit of 
giants in the form of a crow, v. 
329 ; with his sister Diana de- 
stroys the children of Niobe at 
request of Latona, his mother, 


Tt. 204 IT. ; flays Marsyas, who 
challenged liim to a contest in 
music, vi. 582 ff. ; is challenged 
by Pan to a contest In music 
and wins over him, xi. 156 ff. ; 
helped Neptune build the walls 
of Troy, xn. 587, while in xi. 206 
it is Neptune alone who built 
them ; helped also with the 
walls of Megara, vnt. 15; 
changed Daedalion into a hawk, 
xi. 339 ; at Neptune's request 
directs the arrow of Paris against 
Achilles, xn. 598 ft*.; xm. 601 ; 
gave gift of augury to Andros, 
xm. 650 

Appennlnus, a range of mountains 
in Italy, n. 226 ; xv. 432 

Aquilo, the north wind, I. 262, 828 ; 
in plural, n. 132 ; v. 286 ; x. 77 ; 
as a god, Boreas, his two sons 
were Zetes and Calais, vn. 3 

Ara, the Altar, a southern constel- 
lation, ii. 139 

Arachne, daughter of Idmon, a Ly- 
dian maiden wonderfully gifted 
in weaving, vi. 6 ff. ; challenged 
Pallas to a contest in weaving, 
is defeated and changed by the 
goddess to a spider, vi. 52, 140 

Arcadia, a country in the centre of 
the Peloponnesus, I. 689 ; n. 405 ; 
IX. 192 ; XV. 332 

Areas, son of Jupiter and Callisto, 
II. 468 ; unwittingly hunts the 
bear into which his mother has 
been changed by Juno, n. 4»7 ; 
is set by Jupiter in the sky as 
the constellation of the Little 
Bear, II. 506 

A rcesius, son of Jupiter, father of 
Laertes, grandfather of Ulysses, 
xm. 144 

Arctos, the double constellation of 
the Great and Little Rears into 
which Juno changed Callisto 
and her son, and which Jupiter 
set in the heavens ; by Juno's 

request Neptune was not to allow 
them to bathe (set) in his waters, 
II. 132; m. 45, 696 ; IV. 625 ; 
XIII. 293, 726 

Ardea, a city of theRutulians,from 
whose ashes sprang the bird of 
the same name, the heron, xiv. 

Areopagus, Mars' Hill at Athens, 
confused with the Acropolis, vi. 
70, note 

Areos, a centaur, xn. 310 

Arcstorides, Argus, son of Arestor, 
I. 624 

Arethusa, a nymph of Klis, atten- 
dant of Diana, loved by Alpheus, 
v. 409 ; tells her story to Ceres, 
v. 672 ff. 

Argo, the ship of the Argonauts, 
xv. 837 

Argolica paelex, Io, 1.726; Pho- 
ronis, n. 624 

Argonauts, a band of heroes under 
Jason who sailed from Greece to 
Colchis in quest of the Golden 
Fleece, vn. 1 ; xm. 24 

Argos, the capital city of Argolis 
in the Peloponnesus, I. 601; n. 
240; vi. 414 ; xv. 164 

Argus, son of Arestor, a monster 
with eyes all over his body, set 
by Juno to guard the Io-heifer, 
i. 624 ; slain by Mercury at Ju- 
piter's order, I. 717 ; his eyes set 
by Juno in her peacock's tail, i. 
723; ii. 533 

Ariadne, daughter of Minos; in 
love with Theseus, she helps him 
escape the labyrinth, elopes with 
him, is deserted on the island of 
Dia, loved by Bacchus, who set 
her crown in the sky, vm, 172ff. 

Aricia, a town in Latium, xv. 488 

Arne, betrayed her fatherland, the 
island of Siphnos, and was 
changed into a daw, vn. 464 

Asbolus, a centaur with power of 
augury, XII. 308 



Ascalaphus, son of the Acheron and 
Oiphne, tattled on Proserpina 
and was changed by her into a 
screech-owl, v. 539 ff. 

Ascanins, son of Aeneas, xm. 627 ; 
xiv. 583 ; he builtand ruled over 
Alba Longa as its first king, 
xiv. 609 

Asia, v. 648 ; ix. 448 ; xm. 484 

Asopiades, an epithet of Aeacus as 
the grandson of the river-god 
Asopus, VII. 484 

Asopig, an epithet of Aegina as 
the daughter of Asopus, vi. 113 

Assaracus, a king of Phrygia, son 
of Tros, father of Capys and 
grandfather of Anchises, xi. 

Assyrius, an Assyrian, v. 60 ; xv. 

Asterie, daughter of Coeus, sister 
of Latona, wooed by Jupiter, vi. 

Astraea, the goddess of justice, last 
of the celestials to abandon the 
earth on account of man's wicked- 
ness, i. 150 

Astraens, a Titan, hnsband of 
Aurora and father of the winds; 
hence these are called Astraean 
brothers, xiv. 646 

Astyages, a companion of Phineus, 
v. 205 

Astyanax, son of Hector and An- 
dromache, who after the fall of 
Troy was hurled by the Greeks 
from a lofty tower, xm. 415 

Astypalei'us, belonging to the 
island of Astypalaea, one of the 
Sporades, vn. 462 

Atalnnta : (1) a daughter of lasos or 
Iasion of Arcadia, a participant 
in the Calydonian boar-hunt ; 
beloved by Meleager, was first 
to wound the boar, and was pre- 
sented by Meleager with the 
spoils ; she is called Tegeaea, 
via. 880, and Nonacria, vm. 

4 40 

426 ; (2) a daughter of King 
Schoeneus of Boeotia, famous for 
her beauty and swiftness of foot; 
was conquered in running by 
Hippomenes and married by him ; 
her story, x. 660 ff. ; was changed 
by the angry Cybele into a 
lioness, x. 689 ft. 

Athamantlades, an epithet of 
Palaemon as the former son of 
Athamas, xm. 919 

Athamas, son of Aeolus, iv. 487, 
612 ; brother of Sisyphus, iv. 
467 ; king of Boeotian Orcho- 
mcnuB, father of Phrixus and 
Helle, hnsband of Ino, the 
daughter of Cadmus, uncle of 
Pentheus, m. 664 ; iv. 420 ; 
driven mad by the Furies at the 
instance of Juno, he pursued his 
wife and her little son.Melicerta, 
over a cliff, iv. 481 ff. See Aeo- 

Atheuae, the city of Athens, v. 
652 ; VI. 421 ; VII. 507, 7J3 ; VIII. 
262 ; xv. 430 

Athis, an Indian youth, companion 
of Perseus, v. 47, 63 

Athos, a high mountain in Mace- 
donia, II. 217 : xi. 564 

Atlantiades, a descendant of Atlas, 
applied to Mercury, his grand- 
son, I. 682 ; II. 704, 834 ; vm. 
627 ; and to Mercury's son, Her- 
maphroditus, iv. 368 

Atlantis, Maia, the daughter of At- 
las, II. 686 

Atlas, a mountain In Northern 
Africa, personified as a giant, 
the son of Iapetos, iv. 632 ; holds 
the sphere of heaven on his 
shoulders, n. 296; vi. 175; father 
of the Pleiades, one of whom was 
Dione, mother of Niobe, vi. 174 ; 
another was Maia, mother of 
Mercury, i. 682 ; himself and his 
kino-dom described, iv. 631 ft.; 
had been warned by Themis that 


a son of Jupiter would despoil 
hiin of his golden tree, iv. 643 ; 
refused hospitality to Perseus and 
was changed into a rocky moun- 
tain hy a sight of the Gorgon- 
head, iv. 657 ff. ; conceived 
merely as a mountain, iv. 772: 
xv. 149 

Atracides, an epithet of Caeneus 
from his home town, Atrax, in 
Thessaly, xn. 209 

Atreus, son of Pelops, king of 
Mycene, father of Agamemnon 
and Menelaiis, xv. 855 

Atrides, the son of Atreus, applied 
to the older, Agamemnon, xn. 
623 ; XIII. 189, 230, 369, 365, 439, 
655; to the younger, Menelaiis, 
XII. 62S; XV. 162, 805 

Atticus, belonging to Attica, vn. 

Attis, a beautiful young Phrygian 
shepherd, beloved by Cybele, who 
made him her priest; but, having 
broken his vow of chastity, he 
was driven insane by the goddess 
and in a fit of maduess emas- 
culated himself, x. 104 

Augustus, a surname of Octavius 
Caesar after he became Emperor, 
pleased with the grief of his 
people at Julius Caesar's death, I. 
204 ; a laurel-tree Btood before 
the door of his palace, I. 562 ; his 
great glory as successor to 
Caesar's power is prophesied by 
Jupiter to Venus, xv. 807 ff. 

Aulis, a Boeotian harbour where 
the Greek fleet assembled prepa- 
ratory to sailing to Troy, xn. 10; 
xm. 182 

Aura, a breeze which Cephalus in- 
voked to soothe his heat ; Prodis, 
his wife, hearing of his words 
and thinking that this was a 
woman's name, was led to her 
unfortunate death, vn. 813 ff. 

Aurora, daughter of the Titan, 

Pallas, hence called Pallantias, 
IX. 421; xv. 191 ; and Pallantis, 
xv. 700; goddess of the morning, 
II. 113 ; v. 440; wife of Tithonus, 
ix. 422; laments the death of 
her son Memnon, in. 676 ff. ; is 
inflamed with love for Cephalus 
aud tries to win him from his 
wife Procris, vn. 703 

Ausonia, a country in Lower Italy, 
used poetically for Italy, v. 350 ; 
xm. 708 ; xiv. 7, 320, 772, 786 ; 
XV. 647 

Auster, the south wind, I. 66; II, 
853; V. 285; vil. 632: VIII. 3, 
121 ; XI. 192 ; XII. 510 : XIII. 725 

Autolycus, son of Mercury and 
Chione, father of Anticlea and 
grandfather of Ulysses, celebrated 
for his craftiness, xi. 313 ; he 
was the husband of Erysicht.hon's 
daughter, vm. 738 

Autonoe', daughter of Cadmus, 
mother of Actaeon, in. 198 ; aunt 
of Peutheus, whom she helps to 
tear in pieces, in. 720 

Antonoeius heros, Actaeon, son of 
Autonoe, ill. 198 

Aventinus, a mythical Alban king, 
xiv. 620 

Avernus, a name for the Lower 
World, iv. 487; v. 640; x. 51; 
xiv. 114 ; in plural, Averna, the 
entrance to the Lower World, 
xiv. 105 

Babylonius, belonging to the city 
Of Babylon, n. 248 ; iv. 44, 99 

Bacchiadae, an ancient royal 
family of Corinth, descended 
from Bacchis, one of the Hera- 
clidae, the founder of Syracuse, 
V. 407 

Bacchus, son of Jupiter and Semele, 
daughter of Cadmus, in. 520; v. 
829; snatched from his mother's 
dead body and sewed up in 
Jupiter'i thigh, in. 313 : given 



to Ino as foster-mother, in. 313 ; 
reared In a cave by the nymphs 
of N'ysa, m. 314 ; his worship 
enthusiastically received at 
Thebes, in. 528 ; opposed by 
Pentheus, in. 631 ff. ; the story 
of his capture by Tyrrhenian 
sailors and of their fate told by 
Acoetes, III. 582 ff. ; brings de- 
struction on Pentheus, in. 701 fL; 
and on Lycurgus. IV. 22 ; changes 
the daughters of Minyas into 
bats, iv. 391 ff. ; took refuge from 
pursuit of Giants in the form of 
a goat, v. 329 ; his amour with 
Erigone, VI. 125 ; gains from 
Medea renewed youtli for his 
nurses, vn. 295 ; loved Ariadne 
and set her crown in the sky, 
viii. 176; is the foster-son of 
Sileuus, xi. 99 ; rewards Midas 
for his kindness to Silenus, xi. 
100 ff. ; punishes the Thracian 
women for the murder of Orpheus, 
XI. 67 ; gave to the daughters of 
Aniiis the power tochangeobjects 
by touch to coin and wiue, xin. 
650; his conquest of India. IV. 
20, 606; XV. 413; his various 
epithets, iv. 11 ff. SeeThyoneus 

Bactrius, from the city of Bactra in 
Persia, v. 135 

Baliaricus, from the Balearic Is- 
lands, between Spain and Afri< a, 
II. 727 ; IV. 709 

Battus.arusticchauged by Mercury 
into a touch-stone, II. 688 

Baucis, wife of Philemon, vm. 
631 ff. 

Belides, the fifty daughters of 
DauaUs, granddaughters of Be- 
lus, kiug of Egypt, more fre- 
quently called Danaides ; forced 
to marry their cousins, the fifty 
sous of Aegyptus, they, with one 
exception, killed their husbands 
on their wedding-night, and for 


this suffered In Hades; their 
punishment was to fill a bottom- 
less cistern with water carried in 
sieves, iv. 463 ; x. 44 

Bellona, goddess of war, sister of 
Mars, v. 165 

Belus, a primitive Asiatic king, 
founder of the Assyrian king- 
dom, iv. 213; not the ancestor 
of the Belides 

Berecyntius heros, Midas, son of 
Cybele, so called from Berecyn- 
tus, a mountain In Phrygia, xi. 
16, 106 

Beroe, the old nurse of Semele, in. 

Bienor, a centaur, xn. 345 

Bisaltis, Theophane, daughter of 
Bisaltes, loved by Neptune, vi. 

Bistonius, belonging to the Bis- 
toues, a people of Thrace, xm. 

Boebe, a town in Thessaly, vn. 

Boeotia.a country in Middle Greece, 
n. 239 ; xn. 9 ; mythical origiu 
of the name, in. 1 3 

Bona Cop. a, goddess of abund- 
ance, ix. 88 

Bootes, a northern constellation 
near the Bears, called also Arcto- 
phylax, n. 176; vm. 206; x. 

Boreas, the north wind. I. 65 ; per- 
sonified as a god, his rough woo- 
ing of Orithyia, VI. 682 ff. ; 
father of Zetes and Calais, vi. 
712. See Aquilo 

Botres, son of Eumelus; while hit 
father was sacrificing to Apollo 
he ate the brain of the sacrificial 
animal and for this his angry 
father smote him down with a 
firebrand; Apollo pitied the fa- 
ther's lamentations and changed 
the boy into a bird, the bee-eater, 
vn. 390 


Britanni, tbe inhabitants of the 

British Isles, xv. 752 
Bromius, an epithet of Bacchus, it. 

Broinus, a centaur, xn. 459 
Broteas, a twin brother of Amnion 

and with him slain by Phineus, 

v. 107 ; also the name of one of 

the Lapithae, xn. 262 
Bubasis, from Bubasos, a town in 

Carta, ix 644 
Bubastis, a town in Egypt ; also 

the goddess who was worshipped 

there, corresponding to Diana, ix. 

Buris, a seaport town of Aohaia, 

xv. 293 
Busiiis, a kiugof Egypt, who sacri- 
ficed strangers and was himself 

slain by Hercules, ix. 183 
Butes, sou of Pallas, companion of 

Cephalus on his embassy to 

Aegiua, vii. 500 
Buthrotos, a city in Epirtis, xin. 

Byblis, daughter of Miletus, twin 

sister of Caunus, for whom she 

felt a hopeless passion, ix. 453 ff. ; 

she was changed into a fountain, 

ix. 664 

Cadmeis, Semele, the daughter of 
Cadmus, m. 287 

Cadmus, son of the Phoenician king 
Agenor, in. 3, 51, 81; ordered 
by his father to find his sister 
Europa on pain of exile, ill. 3 ; 
asks oracle of Phoebus as to a site 
for his new city, in. 9; follows 
sacred heifer, in. 17; kills serpent 
sacred to Mars, m. 32 ff. ; is 
warned by a voice that he, too, 
shall become a serpent, in. 97 ; 
at Pallis' bidding he sows the 
serpent's teeth in the ground 
from which spring armed men, 
in. 104 ; marries Harmouia, 
daughter of Mars and Venus, 

m. 132; he and his wife are 
changed to serpents, iv. 563 ff. 

Ca'jneus, a youth of Thessaly, called 
Atracidts from Atrax, a city of 
that country, xn. 209 ; born a 
girl, changed to a youth aud 
madeinvulneiable,vm.305 ; XII. 
172; participated in the battle 
against the centaurs, was killed 
by them and changed into a bird, 
xn. 459 ff. 

Caenis, daughter of Elatus of 
Thessaly, ravished by Neptune, 
who in requital and at her re- 
quest chauged her into a youth, 
Caeneus, and made her invulner- 
able, xn. 189 ff. 

Caesar, Julius, his assassination, i. 
201 ; his great deeds, his death, 
his deification at the behest of 
Venus, xv. 746 ff. 

Cai'cus, a river in Mysia, n. 248 ; 
xn. Ill ; xv. 278 

Cai'eta, the old nurse of Aeneas who 
died and was buried in the place 
in Italy called by her name, xiv. 
157, 443 ft. ; XV. 716 

Calais, one of the winged sons of 
Boreas and Orlthyia, was one of 
the Argonauts, vi. 716; with his 
brother drove the Harpies away 
from Phineus, vii. 3 

Calaurea, an island on the coast of 
Argolis, xn. 384 

Calchas. son of Thestor, a seer and 
priest who accompanied the 
Greeks to Troy; he interpreted 
the omen of the snake and birds 
at Aulis, xn. 19 ff. 

Calliope, mother of Orpheus, x. 148; 
oue of the Muses who sang the 
80ngof Ceres aud her wanderings 
in search of the stolen Proserpina, 
v. 339 ff. See Musae 

Callirhoe, daughter of Acheloiis, 
ix. 413; second wife of Alemaeon, 
IX. 411; gained from Jupiter 
immediate growth from infancy 



to manhood for her sons in order 
that they might avenge tlieir 
father, ix. 432 

Callisio, an Arcadian nymph, a 
favourite of Diana, ravished by 
Jupiter, ii. 409 ft. ; driven by 
Diana from her train, n. 464 ft ; 
changed by Juno into a hear, u. 
470 ff. ; is hunted as a bear by 
her son, Areas, II. 497 ff. ; is set 
by Jupiter in the sky as the con- 
stellation of the Great Bear, II. 
606 ; is forbidden by Ocean us at 
Juno's request to dip beneath his 
waves, ii. 628 

Calydon, an ancient city in Aetolia 
on the River Eueuus, vi. 416 ; 

VIII. 270, 324, 495,526,528, 727; 

IX. S, 112, 147; xiv. 31S; XV. 

Calydonian Boar-Hunt, a famous 
hunt, at which assembled all the 
heroes of Greece ; cause of the 
boar's coining, vni. 271 ff. ; the 
muster of the heroes, vni. 300 ff.; 
the place of the hunt described, 
vm. 329 ft; the hunt, vm. 
338 ff. ; the boar is first wounded 
by Atalanta, vm. 382 ; is killed 
by Meleager, VIII. 414 

Calymne, an island in the Aegean 
Sea, VIII. 222 

Camenae, ancient Italian nymphs 
with the gift of prophecy, later 
identified with the Muses, xiv. 
434 ; xv. 482 

Cauace. See Aeolia virgo 

Canens, daughter of Janus and 
Yen ilia, a mi wife of l'icus ; griev- 
ing for his strange loss, she is 
changed to water, xiv. 333 ff. 

Canopus, a city in Egypt, xv. 828 

Capaneus, an Arrive chief, one of 
the seven against Thebes, struck 
with lightning by Jupiter, ix. 

Capetus, one of the Alban kings, 
xiv. 813 


Caphareus, a rocky promontory on 
the coast of Eitboea, xiv. 472, 

Caphys. an Albau king, xiv. 613 

Capitolium, a hill in Rome on 
which stood a temple of Jupiter, 
1. 561 ; II. 638 ; xv. 689, 828. 866 

Capieae, an island in the Bay of 
Naples, xv. 709 

Cares, the inhabitants of Caria in 
Asia Minor, IV. 297; ix. 645 

Carpathius, from the islmid of Car- 
pathos, in the Aegean Sea, XI. 

Cartheius, from Carthaea, a town 
on the island of Ceos, vn. 8G8 ; 
x. 109 

Cassandra, daughter of Priam and 
Hecuba, gifted with prophecy by 
Apollo, captured and insulted by 
Ajax, son of Oileus, xin. 410 

Cassiope, wife of Cepheus, mother 
of Andromeda ; by her foolish 
boastlugof herbeantysheofFended 
the Nereids and brought punish- 
ment on the innocent Andromeda, 
IV. 670, 687, 738 

Castulia, a famous spring on Mount 
Paruasus, sacred to Apollo and 
the Muses, in. 14 

Castalius, belonging to the Cas- 
talian spring on Mount Parnasus, 
III. 14 

Castor, the son of Tyndarus and 
Leda, twin brother of Pollux; 
one of the heroes at the Caly- 
donian boar-hunt, vm. 101, 372. 
See Tyndaridae 

Castrum Iuui, or Castrum, an 
ancient city of the Rutuli, xv. 

Caucasus, a mountain range in 
Asia, II. 224 ; V. 86 ; VIII. 798. 

Caulon, a <ity in Bruttinm, v. 705 

Caunus, son of Miletus and Cyanee, 
the daughter of the river-god 
Maeauder, hence called Maean- 
drius, ix. 674; was the twin 


rother of Byblis, who conceived 
a hopeless love for him, ix. 453 IT.; 
founded the city of Caunus in 
Cania, ix 634 

Caystros, a river in Lydia famous 
for its many swans, 11. 253 ; v. 

Cea, the same as Ceos, an island 
of the Cyclades, vn. 368 ; x. 

Cebrenis, Heeperie, daughter of 
Cebren, a river-god of the Troad, 
XI. 769 

Cecropides, an epithet of Theseus 
as a descendant of Cecrops, vm. 
651 ; in plural, Ceoropidac, the 
Athenians, vn. 486, 671 

tJecropis, Aglauros, daughter of 
Cecrops, n. 806 ; in plural, Cecro- 
pides. the daughters of 1'audion, 
Procne and Philomela, as Athe- 
nians, vi. 667 

Cecropius ■= Athenian, applied to 
the citadel, vi. 70; xv. 427; the 
harbour, vi. 446 ; to Eumolpus, 

XI. 93 

Cecrops, the mythical founder of 
Athens, vi. 446; xv. 427; his 
three daughters were Herse, Pan- 
drosos, and Aglauros, n. 555 

Celadou:(l)an adversary of Perseus, 
v. 144; (2) one of the Lapithae, 

XII. 250 

Celuiis, a priest of Cybele, changed 
by Jupiter into stone, iv. 282 

Cenaens, an epithet of .lupiterwhom 
Hercules worshipped at Ceuaeum, 
the north-western point of the 
island of Euboea, ix. 136, 164 

Ceuchre'is, the wife of Cinyras, 
mother of Myrrha. x. 435 

Centaurs, fabulous creatures living 
in the mountains of Thessaly, 
half man and half horse, hence 
called biformes, ix. 121 : duplex 
natura, XII. 504 ; semlhomines, 
Xii. 636; biuietnbres, xv. 283; 
they were sons of Ixion and of a 

cloud In the form of Juno, ix. 
123 : xii. 504 ; hence called Nubi- 
genae, xn. 211, 641: at the 
marriageof Pirithoiisand Hippo- 
dam ia many ceutaurs were invited, 
and on account of aninsultoffered 
to the bride by Eurytus, one of 
their number, there ensued the 
famous battle of the Centaurs and 
Lapithae, xn. 210 ff. ; for famous 
individual centaurs, see Nessus 
and Chiron ; two female centaurs 
are Hylonome, the beloved of 
Cyllarus, and Ocyrhoe, daughter 
of Chiron 

Cephalus, an Atheniau prince, 
grandson of Aeolus, hence 
Aeolides, vi.681 : married Procrls, 
daughter of Erectheus, king of 
Athens; comes to ask aid of 
Aeacusfor Athens against Minos, 
vn. 493 ; tells the tragic story of 
Procris and of his mairic javelin, 
vn. 676 ff. ; beloved by Aurora 
but scorns her lovb, vn. 704 ff. 

Cepheues.a name for the Ethiopians 
from their king, Cepheus, v. 1, 

Cepheus, king of Ethiopia, husband 
of Casslope, brother of Phineus, 
father of Andromeda, iv. 669, 
738 ; he vainly tries to repress 
his brother's rash attack upon 
Perseus, v. 12 ff. 

Cephisius, an epithet of Narcissus 
as the son of the river-god 
Cephisus, m. 351 

Cephisus, a river in Phocis, I. 369 ; 
ill. 1 9 ; a river-god of the stream, 
father, by the nymph Liriope, of 
Narcissus, m. 343 ; his graudson 
was changed by Apollo into a 
sea-calf, vu. 388 

Ceramhus.a mythical character who 
In the timt of Deucalion"s flood 
escaped drowning by beiug 
miraculously changed into a 
beetle, vn. 35S 



Cernstae, a horned people in Cyprus, 
changed by the angry Veuns iuto 
bullocks, x. 222 fi. 

Cerberus, the three-headed watch- 
dog' of Hades, iv. 450; his origin 
is either from Echidna, vn. 408 : 
or from Medusa, x. 22 ; dragged 
forth from Hades by Hercules as 
his twelfth labour, vn. 409 fT. ; 
ix. 185 ; Hecks of foam falling; 
from his mouth grew into the 
plant called aconite, vn. 418 ; 
sight of him turned a man into 
atone, x. 65 

Cercopes, a people in Lydia changed 
by Jupiter into monkeys on 
account of their treacherous 
natures, XIV. 92 

Cercyon, a king of Eleusin, who 
required all travellers to wrestle 
with him and slew them when 
overthrown ; he was himself 
defeated and killed by Theseus 
vn. 439 

Ceres, the daughter of Saturn and 
Rhea, sister of Jupiter, v. 
564 ; to whom she bore Proser- 
pina, v. 615 ; goddess of agri- 
culture, v. 341 ft; sends Tripto- 
lemus in her dragon car to give 
grain-seed and teach agriculture 
to the world, v. 642 ff. ; her long 
wanderings in search of her 
daughter, who had been stolen 
away by Pluto, v. 438 ff. ; changes 
a boy who mocked at her into a 
lizard, v. 461 ; asks for and hears 
the story of Arethusa. v. 572 fl. ; 
appeals to Jupiter for the restora- 
tion of her daughter to earth, v. 
512 ff. ; loved by Neptune in the 
form of a horse, vi. 118 ; sends 
Famine to torment Erysichthon 
because he cut down her sacred 
oak, vm. 741 ; desires immor- 
tality f«. r her beloved Iasiou, ix. 
422; the festival of Ceres, x. 


Ceyx, son of Lucifer, XI. 271, 346, 
445 ; king of Trachis, on Oeta, 
XI. 383; husbind of Alcyone, XI. 
284; his death and change into 
a bird, xi. 411 ff. ; grants asylum 
to Peleus, xi. 274 

Chalciope, sister of Medea, whom 
Aeetes had given in marriage to 
Phrixus, vn. 51 

Chaonian oaks, a sacred oak-grove 
of Chaouia in Epirus at Dodona, 
where was situated an ancient 
oracle of Jupiter, x. 90 ; xn. 717 
See Dodona 

Chaonis, Chaonius, of Chaonia : (1) 
a country in Epirus, v. 163 ; x. 
90 ; xm. 117 ; (2) a city in 
Syria, v. 16S 

Chaos, the formless mass out of 
which the orderly universe was 
made, I. 7 ; n. 299 ; the shape- 
less underworld, x. 30 ; xiv. 

Charaxns, a Lapith, xn. 272 

Chariclo, a water-nymph, mother 
by Chiron of Ocyrhoe, II. 636 

Charon, tne ferryman who carries 
souls across tho river of death in 
the underworld, x. 73 

Charops, a Lycian, xm. 260 

Charybdis, a dangerous whirlpool 
between Italy and Sicily, opposite 
Scylla, vn. 63 ; vm. 121 ; xm. 
730; xiv. 75 

Chersidamas, a Lycian, xm. 259 

Chimaera, a fabulous monster in 
Lycia which had the head of a 
lion, the middle of a goat, and the 
tail of a snake ; it breathed forth 
fire, vi. 339 ; ix. 647 

Chioue, (laughter of Daedalion ; 
loved by Apollo and Mercury 
together, she bore twin 6ons, 
Philammon to Apollo and Auto- 
lycus to Mercury; daring: to slight 
Diana's beauty, she was sh"t 
through the tongue by the god- 
dess, xi. 301 ff. 





Chiron, a celebrated centaur, ion of 
Saturn and Philyra, n. 676 ; VI. 
126 ; Apollo entrusted to hirn the 
rearing of his sou Aesculapius, 
11. 630 ; his fate was foretold to 
him by his prophetic daughter, 
Ocyrhoe, II. 649 

Chius, of the island of Chios on the 
coast of Ionia, m. 697 

Chrotnis : (1) a companion of Pbi- 
neus, v. 103 ; (3) a centaur, xil 

Chromius, a Lyc.ian, xm. 257 

Chryse, a coast city of the Troad, 
xm. 174 

Chthonius, a centaur, xii. 441 

Cicones, a people of Thrace, VI. 
710 ; X. 2 ; xv. 513 ; the Ciconian 
women in a frenzy attack Or- 
pheus and tear him in pieces, 
xi. 3 ff. ; Bacchus in punishment 
changes them to trees, xi. 67 

Cllix, of Cilicia in Asia Minor, II. 

Cilia, a city of the Troad, xm. 174 

Cimmerians, a fabulous people sup- 
posed to have dwelt in caves in 
perpetual darkness, xi. 592 

Ciinolus, an island of the Cyclades, 
VII. 463 

Cinyphius, of the River Cinyps in 
Africa, V. 124; vn. 272; XV. 

Cinyras, an Assyrian king, whose 
daughter, on account of her pre- 
sumption, Juno changed to the 
steps of her temple, yi. 98 ; also 
a Cyprian king, son of Pygma- 
lion, father of Myrrha and by her 
of Adonis, x. 299 ff. ; Adonis is 
thence called Cinyreius, x. 712, 
Cipus, ft fabled Roman praetor 
upon whose head horns sprang 
forth, xv. 565 ff. 
Circe, daughter of Titan and Perse, 
a sea-nymph, famed for beauty 
and for magic arts, whose haunt 

was an island called Aeaca, in 
the region of the promontory of 
Circeii in Latium, iv. 205; xm. 
968; xiv. 10, 376, S82; she be- 
witched the followers of Ulysses, 
xiv. 247 ff. ; offered her love to 
Glaucus, was repulsed, and in 
revenge brought horrible dis- 
figurement upon his beloved 
Scylla, xiv. 10 ff. ; loved Picus, 
but, being repulsed by him, 
changed him into a woodpecker, 
xiv. 346 ff. 
Ciris, the name of the bird into 
which Scylla, the daughter of 
Nisus, was changed, vm. 161 
Cithaeron, a mountain in Boeotia, 

Ii. 223 ; ill. 702 
Clanis : (1 ) a companiou of Phineua, 

v. 140 ; (2) a centaur, XII. 379 
Clarius, an epithet of Apollo from 
Claros, a city in Ionia, where was 
a temple and oracle to the god, 
i. 516 
Claros, a city in Ionia, I. 516 ; xi. 

Cleonae, a town In Argolis, vi. 417 
Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, mistress 

of Antonius, xv. 826 
Clitorius, of the town of Clitor in 

Arcadia, xv. 322 
Clymene, daughter of Oceanns and 
Tethys, n. 156 ; wife of the 
Ethiopian king Merops, I. 763; 
beloved by Phoebus, iv. 204 ; 
mother by him of Phaethon, I. 
766 ; mourns the death of Phae- 
thon, n. 333 
Clymenei'us,an epithet of Phaethon 
from his mother Clymene, II. 19 
Clymenus, a companion of Phineus, 

v. 98 
Clytaemnestra, the wife of Aga- 
memnon , tricked into giving up 
her daughter Iphitreuia for sacri- 
fice at Aulis by a lie of Ulysses, 
who represented that 6he was to 
be married to Achilles, xm. 193 



Clytle, one of the aaughters of 
Oceanus, enamoured of Phoebus, 

IV. 206 : jealous of the sod's love 
for Leucothoe, she tells the story 
to the girl's father, iv. 236 ; 
pines away and is changed into 
a heliotrope, iv. 268 

Clytius, a companion of Fhineus, 

V. 140 

Clytus :(1) a companion of Phineus, 
v. 87 ; (2) a son of Pallas, an 
Athenian prince, vn. 500 

Cnidos, a city in Caria, x. 531 

Coae matres, the women of Cos, 
who were angTy because Hercules 
drove the captured cattle of 
Geryon through their fields : they 
reviled Juno, and were changed 
by her into cows, vn. 368 

Cocalus, a mythical king in Sicily 
who received Daedalus under hit 
protection after hie flight from 
Crete, vm. 261 

Cocinthins, of the promontory of 
Cociuthus in Bruitium, xv. 704 

Coeranus, a Lycian, XIII. 257 

Coeus, a Titan, the father of La- 
tona, vi. 186, 366 

Colchis, Colchu8, of Colchis, a 
country in Asia, east of the 
Black Sea, vn. 120, 296, 301, 
894 ; xm. 24 ; an epithet of 
Medea, a native of this land, vn. 
296, 301 

Colophonius, from Colophon, a 
city in Asia Minor, vi. 8 

Comhe, daughter of Ophius, mother 
of the Aetolian Curetes; in the 
midst of flight from the persecu- 
tion of hersons was changed into a 
bird, vn. 383 

Cometes, one of the Laplthae, xn. 

Corinthns, a city on the Isthmus, 
v. 407 ; vi. 16; XV. 507 

Coroneus, a king of Phocis, father 
of Corone, who was changed to a 
crow, ii. 669 


Coroni, two youths who sprang from 
the ashes of the daughters of 
Orion, xm. 698 

Corouides, an epithetof Aesculapius 
as the son of Coronisaud Apollo, 
XV. 624 

Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas of 
Larissa, hence called I.arissaea, 
n. 542 ; beloved by Apollo, who, 
however, slew her because of 
Jealousy, II. 542, 599 ; he saved 
their child, the unborn Aescula- 
pius, from his dead mother's body, 
II. 629 

CorycMes, nymphs who dwelt in 
the Coryciau cave on Mount Par- 
nasus, i. 320 

Cory thus : (1) a warrior from Mar- 
marica, v. 126 ; (2) son of Paris 
and Oenone, vn. 361 ; (3) one of 
the Lapithae, xn. 290 

Coiis, from the island of Cos, vn. 

Cragos, a mountain in Lydia, ix. 

Crantor, the armour-bearer of Pe- 
leus, slain by the centanr Demo- 
leou, xn. 361 

Crataeis, a nymph, the mother of 
Scylla, xm. 749 

Crenaeus, a centaur, xn. 313 

Cress:i, a Cretan woman, Telethusa, 
ix. 703 

Crete, the island of Crete, vn.434, 
481 ; vm. 99, 118 ; ix. 666, 735 ; 
xm. 706; XV. 540, 541 

Crimese, a town in Lucania, xv. 51 

Crocale, a nymph in the train of 
Diana, III. 169 

Crocus, a youth who pined away 
with hopeless love of the nymph 
Smilax, aud changed into a cro- 
cus-flower; Smilax also changed 
into a flower, it. 283 

Cromyon, a village near Corinth, 
VII. 435 

Croton, a mythical hero who had 
entertained Hercules at his noma 


in Italy ; Hercules promised that 
ages hence a city should be 
founded on that spot and be 
named from his host; the city 
ww Crotoua, xv. 16 ft, 

Crow, once a beautiful princess, 
daughter of Coroneus : pursued 
by Neptune, she was changed to 
a bird by her goddess Minerva, 
but lost favour because of her 
unwelcome tattling, II. 569 ft 

Ctesylla, daughter of Alcidamas, 
chauged into a dove, vu. 369 

Cumae, an ancient Euboean colony 
on the sea-coast of Campania, 
XIV. 104, 121, 135 ; xv. 712 

Cumaea, an epithet of the Sibyl 
of Cumae, who guided Aeneas 
through the underworld ; she 
tells to him the story of Apollo's 
wooing, xiv. 121, 135 ; she had a 
temple at Cumae, XV. 712 

Cupido, or Amor, the god of Love, 
son of Venus, I. 463 ; represented 
as a youug boy armed with bow 
and arrows, i. 456, 468 ; iv. 321 ; 
v. 366; ix. 543; x. 311 ; he 
caused Apollo to be inflamed 
with love for Daphne, i. 453 fl. ; 
and Pluto for Proserpina, v. 
380 ft 

Cures, the chief city of the Sabiues 
in ancient times, xiv. 778 ; 
xv. 7 

Curetes, the mythical origin of, iv. 

Curetis, of Crete, Villi 153 

Cyane, a fountain-nymph of Sicily 
whose waters flow into the River 
Anapis near Syracuse, v. 409 ; 
she was changed into water by 
Pluto because she strove to stop 
his abduction of Proserpina, v. 
425 ft 

Cyaneae, two small rocky islands at 
the entrance of the Kuxine Sea, 
which according to fable clashed 
together whenever any object 

attempted to pass between them, 
vu. 62. See Symplegades 

Cyanee, a nymph, daughter of 
Maeauder, mother by Miletus of 
Caunus and Byblis, ix. 452 

Cybele, mother of the gods, x. 104, 
686; xiv. 636; turret-crowned, 
x. 696 ; her favourite seats were 
Mounts Ida and Burecyntus, XI. 
16; xiv. 534; is drawn in a 
chariot with yoked lions, x. 704 ; 
xiv. 538 ; in wrath at the dese- 
cration of her temple, she changes 
Hippoineni-s and Atalsnta into 
lions, x. 696 ft ; rescues from 
fire the ships of Aeneas which 
had been built of her sacred pines 
on Ida, and changes them into 
water-nymphs, xiv. 535 ft 

Cyclades, a circle of islands in the 
Aegean Sea, n. 264 

Cyclopes, a fabulous race of giants 
ou the coast of Sicily, having one 
eye and that In the centre of 
the forehead ; they forged the 
thunderbolts of Jupiter, I. 259; 
in. 305 ; xiv. 2 ; xv. 93 ; oue in 
particular, Polyphemus, called 
Cyclops, in love with Galatea, 
xiii. 744 ft; his murderous 
attack on Ulysses and bis crew, 
xiv. 174,249. See Polyphemus 

Cycnus : (1) son of Sthenclus, griev- 
ing for the death of his relative 
Phaethon, changed to a swan, n. 
367 ft, 377 ; xn. 581 ; (2) son of 
Apollo and Hyrie, a great hunter, 
who in a fit of anger leaped off a 
cliff, but in mid-air was chauged 
by Apollo into a swan; hence 
Teuipe is called Cycuei'a, VII. 
371 ; (3) the invulnerable son of 
Neptune, met Achilles and was 
finally strangled by him ; changed 
by Neptune into a swan, XII. 

Cydinaeus, from Cydonia, a town 
in Crete, vin. 22 



Cyllarus, a centanr bcdoved by 
HyloDome, XII. 393 ft. 

Cyllene. a mountain in Arcadia, 
the birthplace of Mercury, i. 
217, 713 ; II. 720, 818 ; v. 176, 
831, 607; vii. 386; XI. 804 ; 
xm. 146 ; xiv. 291 

Cjllenius, an epithet of Mercury 
from Mount Cyllene, I. 713 ; 
n. 720, 818 ; xm. 146 ; xiv. 291 

Cymelus, one of the Lapithae, xu. 

Cynthia, an epithet of Diana from 
Cynthus, a mountain In Delos, 
her birthplace, II. 465 ; vn. 755 ; 
XV. 637 

Cynthus, a mountain on Delos, 
sacred to Apollo and Diana, II. 
221, 465 ; VI. 204 ; VII. 756 ; XV. 

Cypari8su8, a youth who was loved 
by Apollo, and at his death 
changed by the god Into a cy- 
press-tree, x. 106 ff. 

Cyprus, an island on the coast of 
Asia Minor, sacred to Veuus, x. 
270, 645, 718; XIV. 696 

Cytherea, Cythereias, Cytherei's, 
Cythere'i'us, of or belonging to 
the island of Cythera in the 
Aegean Sea, an epithet of Venus, 
who is said to have sprung from 
the sea-foam near the island, tv. 
190, 288; X. 529, 640, 717; 
XIII. 625; XIV. 487, 684; XV. 
886, 803 

Cythere'i'us heroB, applied to 
Aeneas as the son of Venus, 
xm. 625; xiv. 584 

Cythnus, an island of the Cyclades, 
v. 252 ; VII. 464 

Cytoriacus, from Cytorns, a moun- 
tain in Paphlagonia abounding 
In boxwood, iv. 311 ; vi. 182 

Daedalion, a son of Lucifer, 
brother of Ceyx, father of 
Chlone ; crazed by his daughter's 


death at the hands of Diana, he 
is changed by Apollo into a 
hawk, xi. 295 fl. 
Daedalus, a mythical Athenian 
architect, built labyrinth for the 
confinement of the Minotaur at 
the command of Minos, viu. 
155: himself confined in Crete, 
he makes wings for himself and 
his son and so escapes, vi ii. 183 ff.; 
envies his nephew, Perdix, and 
pushes him off a cliff, vm. 240; 
finds refuge after his flight with 
king Cocalus in Sicily, viil 
261; quoted as type of resource- 
ful man in time of trouble, ix. 
Damasichthon, one of the seven 

sons of Niobe, vi. 254 
Danae, daughter of Acrisius and 
mother of Perseus by Jupiter, 
who came to her in the form of 
a golden shower, iv. 611 ; vi. 
113 ; XI. 117 
Danaeins heros, Perseus, son of 

Danae, v. 1 
Daphne, daughter of the river-god 
Peneus, hence called PeneVs, 
i. 472, 504; the first love of 
Phoebus Apollo, i. 452 ff. ; 
changed to a laurel-tree, which 
the god adopts as his sacred tree, 
i. 548 ff. 
Daphnis, a shepherd boy of Ida, 

iv. 277 
Dardanidae matres, Dardanian, i.e. 

Trojan women, xm. 412 
Dardanius, an epithet applied to 
the descendants of Dardanus, the 
son of Jupiter aud Electra, who 
came from Italy to the Troad, and 
was one of the ancestors of the 
royal line of Troy; = Trojan : to 
Hellenus, xm. 335 ; to lulus, 
xv. 767; to Rome as founded 
by one of the Trojan race, xv. 
Daulis, a city i» Phocia, v. 278 


Dannus, an ancient king of Apulia, 

XIV. 458, 510 

Deianira, daughter of Oeueus, king 
of Calydou, hence called Caly- 
douis, ix. 112: sister of Meleager, 
IX. 149; wooed by Aclieloiis and 
Hercules, won by Hercules, in- 
sulted by Nessus, who in turn is 
slain by Hercules, ix. 9 fl. ; sends 
tunic anointed with the poisoned 
blood of Nessus to Hercules in 
ortler to win baek his love from 
Iole, ix. 138 ft. ; one of the sisters 
of Meleager not turned into a 
bird, viii. 544 

Deiouides, sou of Deione, Miletus, 

IX. 443 

DeVphobus, son of Priam, after 
Hector's death one of the greatest 
heroes among the Trojans, xn. 

Delia, an epithet of Diana from 
Delos, her birthplace, v. 639 

Delius, an epithet of Apollo, I. 
454; v. 329; VI. 250; XI. 174; 
XII. 598 

Delos, an island of the Cycladcs, 
sacred to Apollo and Diaua as 
their birthplace, i. 454 ; v. 329, 
639; VI. 191, 250, 333 ; VIII. 
221; xi. 174; xu. 598; xin. 
631 ; xv. 337 

Delphi, a famous city in Phocis 
where was the oracle of Apollo, 
I. 379, 515; II. 543, 677 ; IX. 
332; x. 168; XI. 304, 414; XV. 
144, «31 

Delphieus, an epithet of Apollo 
from his oracle at Delphi, II. 
54 3, 677 

Demoleou, a centaur, xu. 356, 

Deoi's, a daughter of Deo, a 
uame of Ceres, Proserpina, VI. 

Deoi'us, belonging to Ceres, her oak- 
trees, viii. 758 

Dercetis, a Syrian goddess mother 

of the Babylonian Semiramls, IV. 
Deucaliou, son of Prometheus ; he 
with his wife, Pyrrha, were the 
ouly human pair saved from the 
flood, i. 318 ff. ; VII. 356; re- 
people the world by throwing 
stones over their shoulders, i. 
Dia, an old name for Naxos, in. 

690; viii. 174 
Diana, daughter of Jupiter and 
Latona, twin sister of Apollo, v. 
330; xv. 550; born on Delos; 
represented on earth as goddess 
of the hunt, in. 163 ; armed 
with darts, bow and quiver, in. 
252; v. 375 ; swift of foot, IV. 
304 ; with robes girt high, i. 
695; II. 245; in. 156; ix. 89 ; 
in heaven as the moon-goddess, 
xv. 196 ; see Luna and Phoebe ; 
in the underworld identified 
with Hecate or Trivia, because 
worshipped where three roads 
meet, n. 416 ; she is ever virgin, 
I. 487, 695; v. 376 ; XII. 28; 
expels Callisto from her train, 
n. 441 ff. ; changes Actaeon into 
a stag, ii. 185 fl. ; took refuge in 
the form of a cat from the pur- 
suit of the Giants, v. 330 ; with 
Apollo destroys the children of 
Niobe, vi. 204 ff. ; enraged at the 
slight of Oeueus, king of Caly- 
dou, sends huge boar to ravage 
his country, viii. 272; angered 
by the presumption of Chione, 
shoots the girl with an arrow 
through the tongue, xi. 321 ; an- 
gered because Agamemnon had 
killed her favourite stag, or had 
boasted over her of his skill in 
hunting, she stays the Greek 
fleet at Anlis until they should 
sacrifice Iphigeuia to her, xn. 
27 ff., 185; at the last moment 
substitutes a hind on the altar 



for the girl, and bears her away 
to be her priestess at Tauris in 
Scythia, xii. 34; Orestes, rescued 
from death at Tauris by her aid, 
brings her image away to Aricia 
In Latium, hence she la called 
Orestea, xv. 489; changes Hip- 
polytus' appearance beyond re- 
cognition after his restoration to 
life and brings him to Italy, xv. 
537 ff . : in pity of her woe for her 
husband's death, changes Egeria 
into a spring of water, xv. 650 ; 
her epithets are Latonia, I. 696 ; 
Ortygia, i. 694 ; Cynthia, n. 4 65 ; 
Titauia, II. 173 ; Delia, v. 639 ; 
Dictynna, n. 441 ; Scythia, xiv. 
331; Orestea, xv. 489 

Dictaeus, from Mount Dicte in 
Crete,= Cretan, m. 2. 223 ; ix. 
717; an epithet of Minos, vm. 

Dictynna, "goddess of the net," 
an epithet of Britomartis in 
Crete, Identified with Diana, II. 

Dictys : (1) a sailor with Acoetes, 
in. 615 ; (2) a centaur, xii. 334 

Dido, a Phoenician, queen of Car- 
thage, who killed herself out of 
hopeless love for Aeneas, xiv, 
80. See Sidonis 

Didyme, two small Islands near 
Syrus in the Aegean, vu. 469 

Dindyma, a mountain in Mysia, 
sacred to Ceres, II. 223 

Diomedes : (1) son of Tydens, king 
of Argos, one of the bravest of 
the Greek her es at T<-oy, the 
frequent companion of the under- 
takings of Ulysses, xm. 68, 100, 
239, 242 ; wounded Venus while 
she was attempting to shield 
Aeneas, xiv. 477 ; xv. 769, 806 ; 
after the Trojan war he settled 
in Italy at Arpi and married the 
daughter of Daunus, king of 
Apulia, xiv. 510 ; received the 


messenger of Turnus who came 
to ask aid against Aeneas, and 
told the story of his adventures, 
xiv. 467 ff. ; his epithets are Ty- 
dides, as son of Tydeus, xn. 622 ; 
xm. 68 ; Oenidcs, as grandson 
of Oeneus, king of Calydon in 
Aetolia, xiv. 512 ; Aetolius he- 
ros, xiv. 461 ; hence his territory 
in Italy is called Calydoniaregna, 
xiv. 512 ; (2) a barbarous king 
of Thrace, killed by Hercules, 
ix. 194 
Dirce, a famous spring near Thebes 
in Boeotia, n. 239 

Dis, a name for Pluto (which does 
not appear in the Metamor- 
phose*), king of the underworld, 
IV. 438, 444, 611 ; V. 356, 608 | 
x. 16 ; he gained his kingdom by 
lot, v. 368 ; the eon of Saturn, 
v. 420 ; brother of Jupiter and 
Neptune, v. 628 ; through the 
craft of Venus he falls In love 
with Proserpina and carries her 
off to the lower world, v. 359 ff. ; 
x. 28 ; his kingdom described, 
iv. 432 ff. ; x. 16 ff. 

Dodona, a city in Epirus where was 
an oracle of Jupiter, the oldest 
in Greece, whose responses were 
delivered by the rustling of the 
sacred oaks, vu. 623 ; xin. 716. 
See Cbaonian oaks 

Dodonaeus, Dodonis, of Dodona, 
VII. 623 ; XIII. 716 

Dolon, a Phrygian spy out on a 
night adventure, slain by Ulysses, 
XIII. 98, 244 

Dolopes, a people in Thessaly, xn. 

Doris, daughter of Oceanus and 
Tethys, wi fe of Nereus, mother of 
the Nereids, n. 11, 269; mother 
of Galatea, XII. 742 

Dorylas : (1) a friend of Perseus, 
v. 129 ; (2) a centaur, xii. 380 

Dryades, wood-nymphs, m. 507 ; 


VI. 453 ; VIII. 746, 777 ; xi. 49 ; 
XIV. 526 

Dryas, son of Mars and brother 
of the Thracian Tereus; was 
present at the Calydonian boar- 
hunt, viii. 307; and at the 
battle of the Lapithae against 
the centaurs, xii. 290, 296, 

Dryope, daughter of Eurytus, king 
of Oechalia, mother by Apollo of 
Amphissus, married by An:irae- 
mon, changed into a tree, ix. 
331 ff. 

Dulichius, an epithet of Ulysses 
from Dulichium, a small island 
near Ithaca, XIII. 107, 426, 711; 
XIV. 226 

Dymantis, Hecuba, the daughter of 
Dymas, xm. 620 

Dyma9. father of Hecuba, xi. 761 

Echetlus, a centaur, xn. 450 

Echidna, a monster, half woman, 
half snake, mother of Cerberus, 
Chimaera, the Hydra, and the 
Sphinx, IV. 501 ; VII. 408 

Echinades, a group of islands into 
which as many nymphs were 
changed through the wrath of 
Acheloiis, vm. 589 

Kchion : (1) one of the five surviv- 
ing heroes sprung from the 
dragon's teeth sowed by Cadmus, 
III. 126 : he married Agave, the 
daughter of Cacimus.and became 
by her the father of Pentheus, 
in. 526 ; built a temple to Cy- 
bele, x. 686 ; (2) a son of Mer- 
cury, one of the heroes at the 
Calydonian boar-hunt, vm. 311, 

Echionides, an epithet of Penthena 
as son of Echion, ill. 613, 701 

Echo, a nymph deprived by Juno 
of the power of initiating speech, 
in. 358 ; conceives a hopeless 
love for Narcissus, in. 380, 493 ; 

is changed to a mere voice, in. 

Edonides, the women of the Edonl, 
a Thracian people who murdered 
Orpheus, and were changed by 
Bacchus Into trees, xi. 69 ff. 

Eetion, king of Thebes in Mycia, 
father of Andromache, xn. 110 

Egeria, an Italian nymph, instruc- 
tress and wife of Numa, xv. 
482 ; at Numa's death she 
refused to be comforted, xv. 
487 ff. ; and finally dissolved 
away into a spring of water, 
xv. 647 

Elatus, a prince of the Lapithae, 
father of Caenis, xn. 189, 497 

Eleleus, a name for Bacchus from 
the wild cry of the Bacchantes, 
IV. 15 

Eleusln, a city In Attica, famous 
for the worship of Ceres, vn. 

Elis, a country and city In the 
western part of the Pelopon- 
nesus, II. 679 ; V. 487, 5 76, 608 ; 
ix. 187 ; xn. 550 ; xiv. 325 

Elpenor, a comrade of Ulysses, xiv. 

Elymus, a centaur, xn. 460 

Elysium, the home of the blessed 
spirits in the underworld, xiv. 

Elysins, of Elysium, the abode of 
the blessed In the underworld, 
xiv. Ill 

Emathides, the daughters of Pierns, 
king of Emathia in Macedonia, 
who insulted the Muses and 
were changed to magpies, v. 


Emathion,an old man killed in the 
fight between Phineus and Per- 
seus, V. 100 

Emailiius. from Emathia, a dis- 
trict oi Macedonia, v. 313 ; xn. 
462 ; XV. 824 

Enaesimus, son of Hippocofin, 



killed at the Caledonian boar- 
hunt, vm. 362 
Enipeus, a river in ThesBaly, I. 
679 ; vi. 1 1 6 ; vll. 229 ; also the 
river-god who was the lover 
of Tyro, daughter of Sal- 
moneus ; in the form of Eni- 
peus Neptune tricked Tyro; 
according to another story Nep- 
tune with Iphiinedia, the wife of 
Aloeus, bfgot the giants Otus 
and Ephialtes, calltd Aloidae 
from Aloeus; Ovid has mixed 
these two stories in vi. 117 
Ennoinus, a Lycian, xm. 260 
Envy, her home described, n. 
760 ft. ; sent to punish Aglauros, 
ii. 785 
Epaphus, son of Jupiter and Io, 
grandson of Inachus, worshipped 
as a god in Egypt along with his 
mother, I. 748 
Ephyre, an ancient name for 

Corinth, n. 240; vn. 391 
Epiilaurius, from Epidauras, a 
city of Argolis, sacred to Aescu- 
lapius, in. 278 ; VII. 436 ; XV. 
643, 723 
Epimethis, Pyrrha, the daughter 
of Epiraetheus, the brother of 
Prometheus, i. 390 
Epirus, a country in the north of 

Greece, vm. 283 ; xm. 720 
Epopeus, one of the sailors of 

Acoetes, in. 619 
Epytus, one of the Alban kings, 

xiv. 613 
Erasiuus, a river in Argolis, xv. 

Erebus, a name for the underworld, 

v. 443 ; x. 76 ; Xiv. 404 
Erectheus, king of Athene, son 
of Pandion, father of Orithyia 
and Procris, vi. 677, 701 ; vn. 
Erichthonius, a son of Vulcan, 
born without mother, II. 663, 
767; IX. 424 


Eridanns, the mythical name of the 

Kiver Po, II. 324, 366 
Erigdupus, a centaur, xn. 453 
Erigone, daughter of Icarius.loved 
by Bacchus, vi. 125; she hanged 
herself through grief at her 
father's tragic death, aud was 
set in the heavens as the con- 
stellation Virgo, x. 461 
Erinnys, a Fury, or goddess of 
vengeance; the Furies were 
three sisters Alecto, Tisiphone, 
and Megaera, daughters of Ura- 
nus and Night, iv. 452; vm. 
481 ; x. 314 ; called euphemisti- 
cally Eumenides ; with snaky 
hair and torches in hand they 
pursue the guilty, ix. 410 ; x. 
314, 349; they are wild, horrible, 
baleful, implacable, mad, i. 241, 
726; iv. 452, 481,490; xi. 14 ; at 
the request of Juno they drive 
Atbamas mad, iv. 4 70 S. : were 
present at the wedding of Tereus 
and Procne, vi. 429 
Eriphyle.wifeof Ampliiaratis.whoin 
she betrayed to Polynices, and 
was slain by her own son Alc- 
macon, ix. 407 
Erycina, an epithet of Venus from 
Eryx, a mountain in Sicily sacred 
to her, v. 363 
Erymanthus : (1) a river in 
Arcadia, u. 244 ; (2) a mountaiu 
in Arcadia, n. 499 ; v. 608 
Erysichthon, son of the Thessalian 
kingTriopas, committed sacrilege 
againstCeresbycutting down her 
sacred tree, and was punished by 
unappeasable hunger, vui. 738 ff. 
Erytns. sou of Actor, companion of 

Phineus, v. 79 
Eryx : (1) a mountain in Sicily 
sacred to Venus, u. 221 ; v. 863 ; 
(2) a son of Venus, hence brother 
of Aeneas, xiv. 83 ; (3) an oppo- 
nent of Perseus petrified by the 
Gorgon-head, v. 196 


Eteocles.sonof Oedipusandloeasta, 
brother of Polyuices; their death 
prophesied, ix. 405 

Ethemon, an opponent of Perseus, 
V. 163 

Etruscus, of Etruria, a country of 
Central Italy, xv. 558 

Euagrus, one of the Lapitbae, xil 

Euander, eon of Carnientis, emi- 
grated from Pallautium in Ar- 
cadia before the Trojan war and 
founded the city of Pallanteum 
in Latium ; gave aid to Aeneas 
against Turnns, xiv. 456 

Euboea, a large island east of 
Central Greece, ix. 218, 226; 
XIII. 182, 660, 906; XIV. 4, 155 

Eucnus, a river of Aetolia near 
Calydon, vm. 527 ; ix. 104 

Euhan, a name of Bacchus frum the 
cry of his worshippers, iv. 16 

Euippe, wife of Pierus, mother of 
the Pieridea, v. 803 

Eumelus, father of Botres, vn. 390 

Eumenides, "the kind goddesses," 
a euphemistic name of the Furies, 
vi. 430 ; vm. 482 ; ix. 410 ; x. 

Eumolpus, a mythical singer of 
Thrace, priest of Ceres, brought 
the Eleusinian mysteries to 
Attica, xi. 93 

Eupalamus, one of the heroes at 
the Calydonian boar-hunt, Tin. 

Euphorbus, son of Panthoiis, a 
brave Trojan killed by Meuelaiis; 
Pythagoras claimed to be Eu- 
phorbus reincarnate, xv. 161 

Euphrates, a liver of Syria, 11.248 

Europa. daughter of the Phoenician 
king Agenor, betrayed by Jupiter 
in the form of a bull, n. 858 ; vi. 
104 ; her son was Minos, vm. 23, 

Enrotas, a river in Laconia, n. 
247 ; x. 169 

Eurus, the east wind, I. 61 ; n. 
1C0; vn. 659 ; vm. 2 ; XI. 481 ; 
xv. 603 

Eurydice, wife of Orpheus, x. 31, 
48; xi. 63, 66 

Eurylochus, a companion of Ulysses, 
Xiv. 262, 287 

Eurymides, Telemus, son of Eury- 
mus, xin. 770 

Eurynome, mother of Leucothoe, 
iv. 210, 219 

Eurynomus, a centaur, xn. 310 

Eurypylus : (1) a king of Cos, slain 
by Hercules, vn. 363 ; (2) a 
Thessalian hero at Troy, one of 
the nine who offered themselves 
for a duel with Hector, xin. 357 

Eurystheus, kin.,'- of Mycenae, son 
of Sthenelus, ix. 278 ; by a trick 
of Juno he was given mastery 
over Hercules, and imposed upon 
him the famous twelve labours, 
ix. 203, 274 

Eurytides, Hippasus.son of Eurytus 
(3), one of the heroes at the 
Calydonian boar-hunt, vm. 371 

Eurytlon, presentat the Calydonian 
boar-hunt, vm. 311 

Eurytis, Iole, daughter of Eurytus 
(1), IX. 395 

Eurytus : (1) king of Oechalia, 
father of Iole and Dryope, ix. 
356; (2) the ceutaur who precipi- 
tated the strife between the 
centaurs and Lapithae at the 
wedding of Pirithoiisand Hippo- 
damia, xn. 220 ; (3) the father of 
Hippasus, vm. 371 

Exadius, one of the Lapithae, xil. 

FAMA,Rumour,personifled,ix. 137; 
XII. 43 ft". 

Fames, Famine, a hag, personifica- 
tion of hunger, sent by Ceres to 
torment Erysichihon, vm. 78 4 fl. 

Farfarus, a small tributary of the 
Tiber, xiv. 330 



Kaunigena, Latinus, bod of Faunus, 
xiv. 449 

Fauuns : (1) an ancient king of 
Latium, father of Acis, xin. 750; 
of Latinus, xiv. 449; (2) a sylvan 
deity of flocks and fields, identi- 
fied with the Greek Pan, vi. 329; 
(3) in plural, demi-gods generally 
ranked with satyrs, I. 193 ; VI. 

Galanthis, af aithf ul handmaid of 
Alcmena, changed by Juno into 
a weasel, ix. 306 

Galatea, a sea-nymph, daughter of 
Nereus and Doris, tells story of 
her love for Acis, and the Cy- 
clops' wooing of her, xm. 738 ff. 

Gallicus, from Gaul, I. 633 

Ganges, a river in India, II. 249; 
IV. 21; VI. 636 

Ganymedes, son of Tros, brother 
of Hub and Assaracns ; on ac- 
count of his great beauty Gany- 
medes was loved by Jupiter, who 
sent his eagle to steal him away, 
x. 155 ; xi. 756 

Gargraphie, a vale and spring in 
Boeotia, sacred to Diana, where 
she was surprised by Actaeon, 
III. 156 

Geryon, m three-bodied monster 
killed by Hercules, ix. 184 

Gigantes, monstrous sons of Earth 
and Tartarus, with numerous 
arms and serpent feet, fabted to 
have made war upon the gods, 
scaling heaven by piling moun- 
tains one on another; they were 
overthrown by Jupiter's thunder- 
bolts and buried under Sicily, I. 
152, 157, 183; v. J19; x. 150: 
xiv. 1, 184 

Glaucus, a fisherman of Anthedon 
in Roeotia, is changed into a 
sea-divinity by his chance eating 
of a magic herb, vn. 233; falls 
in love with Scylla, xm. 906 ff. ; 


appeals to Circe in aid of bis 
suit to Scylla, and is himself 
loved by Circe, xiv. 9 ff. 

Onosiacus, Gnosius, from Guosos, 
a city in Crete, = Cretan, in. 
208 ; VII. 474 ; Vlll. 40, 52. 144 ; 
IX. G69 

Goldm Age, described, I. 89 ff. 

Gorare, daughter of Oeneus, king of 
Calydon, sister of Meleager, viu, 

Gorgo, Medusa, best known of three 
Gorgons, daughters of Phorcys, 
IV. 743 ; she had snaky hair, iv. 
615, 699, 771, 792; v. 241 ; a look 
at her face turned the observer 
to stone, iv. 655, 781 ; v. 180 ff., 
249 ; Medusa's head cut off by 
Perseus, iv. 615. 770; from her 
blood sprang Posrasus and Chry- 
nsor, iv. 786; VI. 12u; drop* of 
blood falling on the sands of 
Libya change them to snakes, IV. 
618; Atlas changed into a moun- 
tain at sight of the Goryon-head, 
iv. 655 fl ; its touch changes 
seaweed to coral, iv. 744; why 
Medusa only of her sisters has 
snaky hair, iv. 791 ; Perseus uses 
the petrifying head as a last 
resort against Phineus and his 
band, v. 180 ff.; the head is finally 
set by Minerva in her aegis, iv. 

Gortyuiacus, from the city of 
Gortyn in Crete, = Cretan, vn. 

Gradivus, an epithet of Mars, vi. 
427; xiv. 820; xv. 863 

Graecia, Greece, xm. 199 

Grai'us, Grecian, iv. 16. 538 ; vn. 
214 ; xii. 64, 609 ; xm. 241,281, 
402, 414; xiv. 163, 220, 325; 
XV. 9 

Granicu8, a river and river-god of 
Asia Minor, father of Alexiroe, 
xi. 763 

Gratfae, the Graces, young and 


beautiful sisters, daughters of 
Jupiter and Eurynome, atten- 
dants of Venus; used collectively, 
Gratia, vi. 429 
Gryneus, a centaur, XII. 260, 628 
Gyarus, an island of the Cyclades, 
v. 262 ; Til. 470 

Hades, the underworld of spirits, 
kingdom of Dis, described, iv. 
432 ft. 

Harmon ia, an old name for 
Thessaly, 1.668 ; II. 81,543,699; 
V. 306 ; VII. 132, 159, 314 ; vm. 
813 ; XI. 409, 652 ; xn. 81, 213 

Haemonius, Thessalian, from 
Haemonia, an old name of 
Thessaly ; an epithet of Jason, 
vii. 132 ; of Achilles, xn. 81 

Haemus, a mountain in Thrace, II. 
219; x. 77 

Haernus, once a man, changed into 
a mountain in punishment of his 
impious presumption, vi. 87 

Halcyoneus, a companion of 
Phineus, v. 1S"> 

Halesus.oneof theLapithae,xn.462 

Hamadryas, a wood-nymph, i. 690 ; 
XIV. 624 

Hammon, see Ammon 

Harmouia, daughter of Mars and 
Venus, wife of Cadmus, m. 132 ; 
she and her husband werechanged 
into snakes, IV. 571 ff. 

Harpocrates, the Egyptian god of 
silence, represented with his 
linger on his mouth, ix. 692 

Hebe, daughter of Juno, born with- 
out father, ix. 400, 416 ; given to 
Hercules as wife after his trans- 
lation to heaven, ix. 401 ; restored 
Iolaiis to youth, ix. 400; called 
stepdaughter and daughter-in- 
law of Jupiter, ix. 416 

Hebrus, a river in Thrace, n. 267 

Hecate, daughter of Perses and 
Asterie, sister of Latona, vu. 74, 
174, 241 ; xiv. 406 ; often identi- 

fied with Diana and Luna, and 
hence pictured as having three 
forms or three heads, vu. 94, 194; 
goddess of enchantments, vi. 139; 
VII. 194 ; XIV. 44 

Hector, son of Priam and Hecuba, 
xi. 758 : xn. 3 ; bravest hero 
among the Trojans, kills Prote- 
silaiis, the first to fall among the 
Greeks, xn. 68 ; attempts to burn 
the Greek ships, xm. 7 ; demands 
a champion from among the 
Greeks to fight him, xm. 82 ff. ; 
fights duel with Ajax, xm. 85, 
275; fights with Achilles and is 
slain by him, xu. 77 ; xm. 178 ; 
ids dead body dragged around 
the walls of Troy, xu. 591 ; Priam 
ransoms his son's body with gold, 
xm. 473 

Hecuba, daughter of Uymas, xi. 761 ; 
xin.620; wifeof Priam, xm. 404; 
mother of Hector,xiu.486; in the 
division of the Trojan captives 
she fell to the lot of Ulysses, xm. 
485; her farewell to Troy, xm. 
423 ; her lament over the death 
of Polyxena, xm. 494 ff. ; finds 
Polydorus' dead body on the 
shore in Thrace, xm. 536 ; takes 
terrible vengeanceon Polymestor, 
his murderer, xm. 649 ff. ; is 
changed to 8 dog, xm. 406, 
567 ff. 

Helena, daughter of Leda and 
Jupiter(Tyndareus, the husband 
of Leda, was her putative father, 
xv. 233); wife of Menelaiis, 
stolen by Paris, and thus the 
cause of the Trojan war, xu. 5 ; 
xm. 200; quoted as type of 
famous beauty, xiv. 669 ; while 
still a maiden she had been 
captured by Theseus, but re- 
covered by her brothers and 
brought back to Sparta, xv. 233 ; 
in her old age mourns the loss of 
her beauty, xv. 23J 



Helenus, a son^i Priam having the 
gift of augury, captured along 
with the Palladium by Ulysses 
and Diomede, xm.99, 335 ; after 
the fall of Troy is set by Pyrrhus 
over Epirus, where he entertains 
and advises Aeneas as to his 
future course, XHI. 723 ; XT. 

Heliades, daughters of the Sun-god 
and Clymene. mourn the death of 
their brother Phautlion ; changed 
into poplars and their tears into 
amber, n. 340 ff.; x. 91, 263 

Helice, a name for the constellation 
of the Great Bear, vin. 207 

Helices, a companion of Phineus, 
v. 87 

Helicon, a mountain In Boeotia, 
celebrated as the favourite haunt 
of the Muses, II. 219 ; V. 254, 663 ; 
by metonymy for the art of 
music and poetry, vm. 534 

Helle, daughter of Athamas and 
Nephele, sister of Phrixus ; flee- 
ing with her brother on the 
gold-fleeced ram, she fell off and 
was- drowned in the Hellespont, 
which bears her name, xi. 195 

Hellespontus, the narrow strait 
which joins the Propontis with 
the Aegean Sea, xm. 407 

Helops, a centaur, xn. 334 

Hennaeus, belonging to Henna, a 
town In Sicily, v. 385 

Hercules, the most famous of the 
Greek heroes, son of Jupiter, ix. 
104, 246 ff. ; xv. 12 ; and of 
Alcmena, the wife of Amphi- 
tryon, ix. 23 ; as reputed sou of 
Amphitryon, he Is frequently 
called Abides, from Aleeus, 
father of Amphitryon, see Al- 
cides; and Amphltryoniades, ix. 
140 : called also Tirynthius from 
Tiryns, in Argolis, his home 
town, see Tirynthius; on the 
day when he was to be born 


Jupiter announced that a de- 
scendant of Perseus was about 
to be born who should hold 
sway over all other descendants 
of that hero ; Juno Induced him 
to confirm this with an oath ; 
she then, as godless of birth, 
withheld the birth of Hercules, 
who, through Alcmena, was 
great-grandson of Perseus, and 
hastened the birth of Eurys- 
theus, grandson of Perseus, and 
by this trick the mighty Her- 
cules waB made subject to the 
weakling Eurystheus, ix. 281 ff.; 
Eurystheus was born In Mycene 
and Hercules in Thebes, hence 
the latter is called Aonius, ix. 
112 ; at Juno's instigation Eurys- 
theus set Hercules twelve great 
labours.ix. 22, 199: xv. 39 ; these 
labours are rehearsed in ix. 
182 ff. ; they are, in order of 
performance : (1) the killing of 
the Nemean lion, ix. 197 ; (2) 
the destruction of the Lernean 
hydra, ix. 69, 192, 193 ; (3) the 
capture alive of the st:ig famous 
for its speed and golden horns, 
IX. 188 ; (4) the bringing alive 
to Eurystheus of the Ery manthian 
boar, ix. 192; (5) the cleansiug 
of the stables of Augeas. king of 
Elis, ix. 187 ; (6) the killing of 
the carnivorous birds near the 
Stymphalian lake in Arcadia. 
ix. 187 ; (7) the capture alive of 
the wild Cretan bull, ix. 186: 
(8) the capture of the mares of 
Diomede which fed ou human 
flesh, ix. 194 ; (9) the securing 
of the girdle of Hippolyte, quetn 
of the Amazons, ix. 189 : (10) the 
killing of Geryon and the cap- 
ture of his oxen, ix. 184: (11) 
the securing of the apples of the 
Hesperides, ix. 190 ; (12) the 
bringing to the upper world of 


the dog Cerberus from Hades, 
vn. 410 ; ix. 185 ; in addition 
to these Bet labours, Hercules 
killed Busiris, ix. 183 ; Antaeus, 
ix. 184 ; fought the centaurs, ix. 
191 ; xii. 541 : bora the heavens 
on his shoulders in Atlns' place, 
ix. 198; visited Croton in Italy, 
and prophesied the founding of 
Crotona, xv. 12 ; rescued He- 
sioue, daughter of Laomedou, 
from the Bea-monster, and being 
cheated of his promised reward, 
with the aid of Telamon cap- 
tured Troy and dethroned Lao- 
medon, xi. 213 ft.; xm. 23; 
came to Cos, where he killed 
Eurypylus, VII. 364 ; fought 
with Acheloiis for Deianira and 
overcame him, vn. 13 ft. ; killed 
the centaur, Nessus, who insulted 
his bride, ix. 101 ft.; destroyed 
Messene and Elis and Pylos, and 
slew all the twelve sons of 
Neleus except Nestor, xn. 549 ff. ; 
fought against Kurytus, king of 
Oechalia, laid waste his king- 
dom, and took his daughter Iole 
captive, ix. 136 ff. ; received tho 
poisoned tunic from Deianira, 
sent by her in the belief that 
this, soaked in the blood of 
Nessus, would restore her hus- 
tiai d's love to her ; his great 
sufferings described, ix. 159 ff. ; 
he built a pyre on Mount Oeta, 
and was burned alive thereon, 
IX. 299 ff. ; his immortal part 
was deified by Ills father Jupiter, 
and set in the heavens as a 
constellation, ix. 271 ; after his 
translation to heaven he received 
Hebe as his wife, ix. 401 ; he 
gave his bow and arrows to 
Philoctetes as a reward for set- 
ting fire to his funeral-pyre, and 
in Philoctetes' hands these wea- 
pons were destined once again 

to war against Troy, ix. 231 ff. ; 
XIII. 52, 401 

Herm:ipljroditus,thesonof Mercury 
and Venui, story of, iv. 288 

Herse, daughter of Cecrop6, M. 559; 
beloved by Mercury, n. 7 24 ff. 

Hersilia, the wife of Romulus; 
after his death she was reunited 
to her deified husband by Iris, 
and received the name of Hora, 
xiv. 830, 848 

Hesione, a daughter of Laomedon, 
exposed to a sea-monster at the 
command of Neptune, rescued 
by Hercules and given by him 
to Telamon, to whom she bore 
Tencer, xi. 211 ff. 

Hespeiides, " the western maidens," 
three nymphs who on an island 
beyond Mount Atlas watched a 
garden with golden apples, iv. 
637; xi. 114; these apples, 
though guarded by a sleepless 
dragon, were secured by Hercules, 
ix. 190 

Hesperie, a nymph, daughter of the 
river-god Cebren, beloved by 
Aesacus, killed by the bite of a 
serpent, xi. 769 

Hesperus, the evening star, v. 


Hiberus, Hiberian or Spanish, vn. 
324 ; a geographical epithet ap- 
plied to the three-formed Geryon, 
whom Hercules slew, and whose 
cattle that hero drove away, ix. 
184 ; xv. 12 

Hippasus: (1) son of Eurytus, one 
of the Calydonian hunters, vm. 
313, 371 ; (2) a centaur, xn. 352 

Hippocoon, king of Amyclae, sent 
a part of his many eons, one of 
whom was Euaesimus, to the 
Calydonian boar-hunt, vm. 314, 

Hippocrene, a fatuous spring on 
Mouut Helicon, sacred to the 
Muses; said to have bnrst forth 



nnder the »troke of the hoof of 
Pegasus, v. 256 

Hippodainas, father of Perimele, 
via. 593 

Hippodame or Hlppodamia, daugh- 
ter of Adrastus, wife of Pirithoiis ; 
at her wedding tlie centaur 
Eurytus attempted violence upon 
her, and so precipitated the 
great hattle of the centaurs and 
Lapithae, xii. 210 ft.; quoted as 
a famous beauty, xiv. fi70 

Hippolyte, queen of the Amazons ; 
Hercules conquered herand took 
from her her famous golden 
girdle, ix. 189 ; she was married 
by Theseus, to whom she bore 
Hippolytus, XV, 652 

Hippolytns, son of Theseus and 
the Amazon Hippolyte, xv. 652; 
in his attempt to comfort Egeria 
he tells the story of his own 
sufferings and death, xv. 492 ff. : 
restored to life by Aesculapius, 
wholly changed in appearance, 
and placed in Italy by Diana, xv. 
633 ff.; here he was known by 
the name of Virbius, xv. 544 

Hippomenes, son of Megarens, a 
youth who conquered Atalanta 
in a race and married her, x. 
676 ff. ; changed by the angry 
Cybele into a lion, x. 889 ff. 

Hippotades, a name of Aeolus as 
son of Hippotes, iv. 663 : XI. 431 ; 
xiv. 86 ; xv. 707. See Aeolus 

Hippothoiis, one of the Calydonian 
hunters, via. 307 

Hister, the Lower Danube, n. 249 

Hodites : (1) an Ethiopian in the 
court of Cepheus, v. 97 ; (2) a 
centaur, xn. 467 

Hora: (1) the name given to Her- 
silia after her deification and 
reunion with Romulus, xiv. 851 ; 
(2) In plural, the Hours, atten- 
dants of the Sun-god, n, 26, 


Hyacinthia a festival celebrated 
at Amyclae, in honour of Hya- 
cinthus, x. 219 

Hyacinthus, a beautiful Spartan 
youth, son of Amyclas, king of 
Amyclae, hence he is called 
Amyclides, x. 162; called also 
Oebalides, as a general name for 
Spartan, from Oebalus, king of 
Sparta, x. 196; and see xi n. 396 * 
he was beloved by Apollo and 
accidentally killed by the god in 
a game of quoits, x. 162 ff. ; from 
his blood a tiower sprang up 
whose petals bore the marks of 
A polio's grief, AIAI, x. 217 ; xm. 

Hyades, daughters of Atlas, sisters 
of the Pleiades, a cluster of seven 
stars in the head of the Bixll ; their 
setting brings wet and stormy 
weather, in. 695 ; xm. 293 ; 
Dione, mother of Niobe, was one 
of the Hyades, vi. 174 

Hyale, a nymph in the train of 
Diana, HI. 171 

Hyanteiis, Boeotian, applied to 
Aganippe, v. 512 ; to Iolaiis, vm. 

Hyantius, the same as the above, 
applied to Actaeon, ill. 147 

Hyles, a centaur, xn. 378 

Hyleus, one of the Calydonian 
hunters, vm. 312 

Hyleus, from Hyle, a little town in 
Boeotia, xm. 684 

Hyllus, son of Hercules and Dela- 
nira, who after his father's death 
married Iole, ix. 279 

Hylonome, a female centaur, be- 
loved by Cyllarus, xn. 405 

Hymen or Hymenaeus, the god of 
marriage, present at the marriage 
of Perseus and Andromeda, iv. 
758; he did not bless the mar- 
riage of Tereus and Procne, vi. 
429; at the marriage of Iphis 
and Ian the, ix. 762 ft ; Orpheus 


and Eurydice, x. 2 ; the Hy- 
nienaeum, or nuptial song, at 
the marriage of Pirithoiis and 
Bippoilainia, sn. 215 

Hyniettus, a mountain in Attica, 
VII. 702 ; X. 284 

Hypaepa, a little town in Lydia, 
vi. 13 ; xi. 152 

Hypanis, a river of Sarmatia, xv. 

Hyperboreiis, Hyperborean, belong- 
ing: to the extreme north, xv. 

Hyperion : (1) a Titan, son of 
Coelus and Terra, father of the 
Sun-god, iv. 192 ; (2) the Sun-god 
himself ; Heliopolis, in Egypt, 
the city of Hyperion, xv. 406, 

Hypseus, a companion of Phineus, 

V. 99 

Hypsipyle, daughter of Thoas, king 
of Lemnog ; at the time of the 
Argonauts she saved her father 
alone when the women killed all 
the men of the island, xm. 

Hyrie, a lake and town near it in 
Boeotia ; nanieil from the mother 
of Cycnus(2) by Apollo; think- 
ing that her son had perished, 
she melted away in tears and was 
changed to the pool that bears 
her name, vn. 371, 380 

Iacchds, a nam« for Bacchus from 

the shouts of his worshippers, iv. 

lalysiui, from Ialysos, a city in 

Rhodes, vn. 365 
Ianthe, daughter of Cretan Teles- 

tes, a beautiful girl betrothed to 

Iphis, ix. 715 ff. 
Iapetionidcs, Atlas, son of Iape- 

tus, iv. 632 
lapetus, a Titan, father of Atlas, 

Prometheus, and Epimetheus, I. 

83 ; IV. 633 

lapygia, the .^un try in the heel of 
Italy, xv. 703 

Iapyx, a son of Daedalus, who ruled 
in Apulia, in Southern Italy, xv. 
62 ; hence Daunus, an ancient 
king of Apulia, is called lapygian, 
xiv. 458, 510 

Iasion, a son of Jupiter and Elec- 
tra, beloved by Ceres, ix. 423 

Iason, son of Aeson, vn. 60, 77, 
156, 164; vni. 411; Aeson't 
brother, Peli'8, usurped the 
throne of Iolchus in Thessaly, 
and sent Jason off on the adven- 
ture of the Golden Fleece ; in the 
Argo, which he built by the aid 
of Minerva (called the first ship, 
vi. 721 ; vni. 302), he assembled 
the heroes of Greece and sailed 
in quest of the Fleece ; the story 
of the adventure is told in vn. 
1 fl. ; Jason was also present at 
the Calydonian boar-hunt, vin. 
302,349,411. See Pagasaeus 

Icarus: (1) son of Daedalus; at- 
tempting to fly on wings made 
by his father, he went too near 
the sun, lost his wings, and fell 
into the sea, called after him the 
Icarian Sea, vm. 195 fl. ; (2) 
Icarus, or Icarius, the father of 
Erigone and Penelope, placed in 
the heavens as the constellation 
of Bootes, x. 450 

Icelos, a dream-god, son of Somnus, 
xi. 640 

Ida, a mountain near Troy, II. 218 ; 
IV. 277, 289, 293; VII. 359; X. 
71; xi. 762; xil. 521; xm. 324 ; 
xiv. 635 

Idalia, an epithet of Venus from 
her sacred mountain, Idalium, in 
Cyprus, xiv. 694 

Idas: (1) son of Aphareus, king of 
Messene, took part in Calydouian 
boar-hunt, proles Aphareia, vm. 
304 ; (2) a courtier of Cepheus, 
slain by Phineus, v. 90; (3) a 



companion of Diotnede, changed 
by Veuus into a bird, xiv.504 

Idmon, of Colophon, father of 
Araclme, vi. 8 

Idoinenens, a kiug of Crete, lender 
of the Cretans against Troy, xi u. 

Iliades : (1) an epithet of Gany- 
niedes, •= Trojan, x. 160: (2) an 
epithet of Komnlus, as the son 
Of Ilia, xiv. 781, 824 

Ilion, IHnm or Troy, vi. 95 ; xni. 
408, 505 ; XIV. 467 

Ilioi.eu6, one of the seven 6ons of 
Niobe, VI. 261 

Ilithyia, the Greek goddess of 
child-birth, corresponding to the 
Roman Lucina, ix. 283. See 

Illyricus, of Illyria, a country on 
the Adriatic Sea, north of Epirus, 
IV. 568 

Ilus, sou of Tros, builder of Ilium, 
xi. 756 

Imbreus, a centaur, xn. 310 

Inachides, a male descendant of 
Inachus : (1) Epaphus, Mb grand- 
son, I. 763; (2) Perseus, merely 
as an offspring of an Argive 
royal line, iv. 720 

Inachis, the daughter of Inachus, 
Io, i. 611 ; Isis, the Egyptian 
goddess, the divine manifestation 
of Io, ix. 687 

Inachus, a river and river-god in 
Argolis, i. 683, 611, 640, 687, 753 

Inarime, an island off the coast of 
Campania, xiv. 89 

Indiges, the name under which 
the deified Aeneas was wor- 
shipped, xiv. 608 

Indiuetes, deified heroes, wor- 
shipped as the patron deities of 
their country, xv. 862 

Indus, of India, I. 778 ; v. 47 ; vm. 
288 ; xi. 167 

Ino, daughter of Cadmus, wife of 
Athamas, sister of Semele, foster- 


uioiher of Bacchus, in. 313; 
helps to tear in pieces her 
nephew. Cent hens, ill. 722; 
makes unseemly boast of the 
power of her foster-son, Bacchus, 
IV. 417 ; is pnrsued by Athamas, 
who was driven mad by Juno, 
and leaps with her son, Melicerta, 
from a clilT into the sea, but is 
changed by Neptune into the 
6ea-goddess Leucoilioe, iv. 619 ff. 

Io, daughter of Inachus, 1. 611; 
caPed Argolica paelex, from her 
father's country of Argolis, I. 
786 : loved und ravished by 
Jupiter, I. 688 ff . ; chanted by 
him into a ueiier to avoid detec- 
tion by Juno, 1. 611 ; guarded 
by Argus, 1. 624 ff. ; driven 
over the world by a gadfly sent 
by Juno, 1. 725 ff. ; comes at 
last to the banks of the Nile and 
there regains her human form, 
I. 728 ff. ; bears a son Epaphus, 
I. 748 ; is worshipped in Egypt 
as Isis, 1. 747 

Iolaiis, the son of Iphicles, nephew 
and companion of Hercules, re- 
stored to youth by Hebe, vm. 
810; ix. 399, 430. See Hyanteus 

Iolciacus, of Iolcos, a seaport town 
of Thessaly, whence the Argo- 
nauts sailed, vn. 158 

Iole. daughter of Enrytus, king of 
Oechalia, captured by Hercules, 
ix. 140; after the death of 
Hercules, at his command she 
was given as wife to his son, 
Hyllus, ix. 279 

Ionium (aequor, mare), the Ionian 
Sea, lying west of Greece, iv. 
535; xv. 60, 700 

Iphigenia, daughter of Agamem- 
non, kiugof Mycenae, hence she 
is called Mycenis, xn.34 ; sacri- 
ficed by her father to Diana at 
Aulis: but Diana is said to have 
substituted a hind at the last 


moment, and to have carried off 
the maiden 10 be her priestess at 
Tauris, xn. 28 ft.; xm. 181 

Iphinoiis, a ceutaur, xn. 379 

Iphis : (1) born the daughter of 
one Ligd us, a Cretan, and after- 
wardi by the grace of luis 
changed into a young man, ix. 
668 ff. ; (2) a huuible youth of 
Cyprus who indulged a hopeless 
love for Anaxarete, and hanged 
himself at her door, xiv 699 If. 

Iphitides, son of Iphitus, Coerauus, 
XIII. 257 

Iris, goddess of the rainbow, xi. 
690, 632 ; daughter of Thaumas, 
hence Thamnantias, iv 480; 
special messenger of Juno, I. 
271 ; xiv. 85; sent by Juno to 
Sooinus, xi. 585 ft. ; sent to burn 
the ships of Aeneas in Sicily, 
Xiv. 85 ; sent to unite Hersilia 
to her dead husband, Romulus, 
xiv. 839 

Iron Age, described, i. 127 ff. 

Isis, an Egyptian goddess, believed 
by Greek mythology to have 
been the deified Io, i. 747 ; hence 
called Inachis, ix. 687; promises 
aid to Telethusa, ix. 687 ; fulfils 
her promise by changing I phis, 
born a girl, tntoa boy, ix. 773 ff.; 
her train described, ix. 687 ff. 

Ismarius.from Ismarus, a mountain 
in Thrace, «=Thraeian, ii. 257; 
IX. 642 ; x. 305 ; xm. 530 

Ismenides, Theban women, so 
called from the neighbouring 
river, Ismenus, m. 733 ; iv. 31 ; 
VI. 159 ; certain Theban women, 
changed by the wrath of Juno 
into liirls, iv. 543 ff. 

Isnienis, daughter of the Boeotian 
river-god Ismenus, the nymph 
Crocale, in. 169 

Ismenus, one of the seven sons of 
Niobe, vi. 224 

Ismenus, a river in Boeotia near 

Thebes, II, 214; in. 169, 733 
IV. 31,562; VI. 169; Xlii. 682 

Isse, daughter of Maeareus (1), 
vi. 124 

Isthmus, the Isthmus of Corinth, 
vi. 419; vii. 405 

Italia, Italy, xiv. 17 ; xv. 9, 59, 291, 

Ithaca, an island in the Ionian Sea, 
the home of Ulysses, xm. 98, 
103, 612, 711 

Ithacus, a name for Ulysses as 
king of Ithaca, xm. 98, lu3 

Itys, son of Tereus and 1'rocne, 
vi. 437; slain by his mothoraud 
her sister, and served up at a 
banquet to his father, VI. 620 ft. 

Inba, a king of Numioia, xv. 755 

lulus, Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, 
from wnom the gens Iulia 
claimed its origin, xiv. 683 ; xv. 
547, 767 

In no, daughter of Saturn (see 
Saturnia) and Rhea ; foster- 
daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, 
n. 627 ; sister and wife of Ju- 
piter and queen of the gods, I. 
620 ; II. 466, 612 ; III. 26J, 265, 
284 ; VL 94, 332 ; xiv. 829 ; god- 
dess of marriage, vi. 4 28 ; ix. 
762, 796; xi. 578;goddessof child- 
birth, see Lucina ; her daughter 
was Hebe, ix. 400 ; her son, 
Vulcan, iv. 173 ; see also Mars ; 
Iris is her messenger, see Iris; 
her bird is the pe-tcock, in whose 
tail she set the eyes of the 
slain Argus, I. 722 ; XV. 385 ; 
her activities are most often 
employed In punishing her 
mor r .al rivals in the love of 
her husband ; so she works her 
jealous rage on Io, I. 601 ff. ; 
on Callisto, n. 4 66 ft. ; on Semele, 
III. 261 ft.: punishes I no through 
the madness of Athamas, iv. 
421 ff. ; changes the Theban 
women, friends of Ino, into 



stones, iv. 543 ft.; persecutes 
Latona, vi. 332 ff. : sends pesti- 
lence on Aegiua, because named 
from her rival, vn. 523 ff. ; stays 
the birth of Hercules, whom she 
hates for Alcmeua's sake, and 
by tliis trick makes him subject 
to Kurystheus, ix. 21, 176, 284, 
295 ff. ; punishes Echo for her 
treachery in shielding Jupiter, 
in. 362 ff. ; strikes Tiresias with 
blinduess for siding with Jupiter 
against her, m. 359 ; being 
tricked by Galanthis, she 
changes her into a weasel, ix. 
306 ; changes the queen of the 
Pygmies into a crane and Anti- 
gone into a stork, both for daring 
to contend against her, vi. 90 ff. ; 
takes refuge from the pursuit of 
the Giants in the f urm of a white 
cow, v. 330 ; Incensed that Ju- 
piter should take Ganymede to 
be his cup-bearer, x. 161 ; takes 
pity on Alcyone and reveals to 
her her husband's death, xi. 
583 ft. ; is hostile to Aeneas and 
to the Trojans, but at last gives 
up her enmity, xiv. 582 ; sends 
Iris to reunite Hersilia to her 
dead husband, Romulus, xiv. 
829; Proserpina is called Iuno 
Averna, " the Juno of the Lower 
World," xiv. 114 

Iunouigcna, Vulcan, the son of 
Juno, iv. 173 

luppiter, the son of Saturn and 
Khea (see Saturnius); born in 
Crete and watched over in his 
infancy by the priests of Ida, 
iv. 282; viii. 99; with his two 
brothers, Neptune and Pluto, de- 
thrones Saturn, and in the 
divisiou of the kingdom by lot 
the dominion of the heavens 
falls to him, who thus became 
the highest of the gods, I. 114, 
154, 197, 251, 328; II. 60, 280, 


292; xiv. 807; xv. 858; he Is 
subject only to the decrees of 
fate, i. 256; v. 532; ix. 434; 
xv. 807; his emblems of power 
are the sceptre, I. 178 ; II. 847 ; 
and the thunderbolt, I. 154, 170, 
197; ii. 61, 848; xu. 51 ; his 
sacred bird is the eagle, which 
bears his thunderbolts iu its 
talons, iv. 714; x. 158; xv. 386; 
his sacred tree is the oak, 1. 106, 
end see Chaonia and Dodona ; he 
Is the god and guardian of hos- 
pitality, x. 224 ; his name is 
used by metonymy for the 
heavens and the upper air, II. 
»77 ; iv. 260; xin. 707 ; his 
wife, who is also his sister, is 
Juno, and his sons by her are 
Vulcan and Mars ; his children 
by other deities are Miuerva, 
born without mother from the 
head of Jupiter (see Miuerva); 
Mercury, by Maia, I. 669 ; Pro- 
serpina, by Ceres, v. 616; vi. 
114; the nine Muses, by Mnemo- 
syne, vi. 114 ; Venus, by Dione, 
xiv. 685 ; bis amours with 
nymphs or mortal women and 
his sous by these are : with Io, 
Epaphus, I. 688 ff . ; Latona, 
Apollo and Diana, I. 517, 696; 
vi. 336; Callisto, Areas, il 
422 ff.; Enropa, Minos, n. 84 6 ff.; 
vi. 103; viii. 122; and Rhada- 
manthus, ix. 436 ; Semele, 
Bacchus, m. 260 ff . ; Danaii, 
Perseus, iv. 611, 697; Malia, 
the Palici, v. 406 ; Led a, Castor 
and Pollux, vi. 109; Aniiope, 
Auiphion and Zethus, vi. Ill; 
Aegiua, Aeacus, vi. 113; vn. 
615; XIII. 28; Alcmena, Her- 
cules, ix. 23 ; Euryodia, Arcesins, 
xin. 1-15 ; hisage was the Silver 
Age of the world, 1. 1 1 3 ff. ; leaves 
heaven to investigate the sins of 
men i. 2 1 2 ff . ; decides to destroy 


the hum an race by flood, I. 253 fl\; 
hurls thunderbolt at Phaetbou 
and stops universal conflagra- 
tion, ii. 304 ; apologizes to 
Phoebus for this act, n. 396 ; 
disputes with Juno and refers 
the dispute to Tiresias, ill. 
320 ft*. ; changes Memnon on his 
funeral pyre into a bird, in. 
586 ; changes Celmls into a 
stone, IV. 282 ; flees to Kgypt 
from the pursuit of the Giants, 
and hides in the form of a ram ; 
is hence worshipped as the Libyan 
Amnion, with ram's horns on 
his head, v. 327 ; Is entertained 
by Philemon and Baucis, vm. 
626 ft. ; reveals the fates to 
Venus, how under Augustus 
Borne is to come to ber highest 
glory, xv. 807 fl. ; his temple 
on the Capitol at Some, xv. 
Ixion, king of the Lapithae, father 
of Piritbolis, vm. 403, 613; 
xii. 210 ; for attempting violence 
upon Juno he was punished in 
the underworld, bound to a 
whirling wheel, iv. 461 ; ix. 124; 
x. 42 ; with a cloud-form which 
Jupiter made in the image of 
Juno he begot the centaurs, xn. 
504 ; see Nubigenae 

Lacedaemoniub, of Lacedaemon, 

or Sparta, xv. 50 
Laciuius, of Lacinium, a promon- 
tory in Italy near Crotona, xv. 

13, 701 
Laconis, Laconian, Lacedaemonian, 

in. 223 
Ladon, a river in Arcadia, i. 

Laertes, son of Arcesius, father 

of Ulysses, xn. 625 ; xm. 144 
Laert lades, Ulysses, the son of 

Laertes, xm. 48 
Lae'rtius heros, Ulysses, xm. 124 

Laestrygones, an ancient people 
of Italy in Campania, fabled to 
have been cannibals, xiv. 233 
Lai'ades, Oedipus, the son of Lai' us, 
solved the riddle of the sphinx, 
vn. 769 

Lampetides, a musician in the court 
of Cepheus, v. 1 1 1 

Laiupetif, one of the Heliades, n. 

Lamus, a mythical king of the 
Laestrygonians, the founder of 
Forniiae, xiv. 233 

Laomedou, king of Troy, father of 
Priam, Hersione, and Antigone, 
vi. 96; XI. 196, 757; cheats 
Apollo and Neptune out of their 
promised reward for building 
the walls of Troy, xi. 200 ff. 

Lapithae, an ancient people in 
South-western Thessaly ; their 
great Bght with the centaurs, 
xn. 210 ft, 536 ; xiv. 670 

Larissaeus, of Larissa, a city in 
Thessaly, II. 542 

Latialis, Latinus, of Latium, 
Latian, Latin, generally =Roman, 
II. 366 ; xiv. 610, 623 ; XV. 481 

Latinus: (1) son of Faunus, king 
of Laurentum in Latium, father 
of Laviuia, hospitably receives 
Aeneas, xiv. 449 ; (2) one of 
the Alban kings, xiv. 611 

Latium, a country in Central Italy 
in which Rome was situated, xiv. 
452, 832 

Latins, Latian, Latin, generally— 
Koman, I. 560 ; xiv. 326, 390, 
422, 832; XV. 486, 682, 626, 742 

Latoi's, Diana, the daughter of La- 
tona, vm. 278 

I,ut oi us, Apollo, the son of Latona, 
XI. 196 

Latona, daughter of Coeus, a Titan, 
vi. 185, 346, 366; mother by 
Jupiter of Apollo and Diana, vl 
160, 315, 336 ; refused by Juno 
a place on earth where she might 



bear her children, she gave them 
birth on the floating island of 
Delos, vi. 185 ff., 332; is insulted 
by Niobe aud appeals to her 
two children for vengeance, vi. 
204 ft. ; stury of her persecution 
by Lycian rustics, whom she 
changed into frogs, vi. 839 ff. ; 
the sacred trees lu Delos uuder 
which she bore her chiluren, vi. 
335 ; XIII. 635 

Latouia, an epithet of Diana as 
daughter of Latona, I. 696 ; vm. 
394, 542 

Latonigenae, the twin children of 
Latona, vi. 160 

Latoiis, belonging to Latona, her 
altar, vi. 274 ; her son Apollo, 
vi. 384 

Latreus, a centaur, XII. 46S 

Laurens, of Laurentiutn, an ancient 
city of Latium. seat of King 
Latinus, xiv. 336, 342, 598 

Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, 
for whom Turuus fought against 
Aeneas, xiv. 570 

Laviniuui, a city of Latiutn, 
founded by Aeneas, xv. 728 

Learchus, son of Athamasand Ino, 
slain by his father in a fit of 
madness, rv. 516 

Lebinthus, one of the Sporadic 
Islands, vni. 222 

Leda, daughter of Thestins, wife 
of the Spartan king, Tyndareus; 
Jupiter came to her in the form 
of a swan, and had by her two 
sons, Castor and Pollux, vi. 109 

Leleges, a Pelasgic people scat- 
tered widely over parts of Greece 
and Asia Minor, VII. 443 ; vni. 
6 ; IX. 645, 652 

Lelex, one of the heroes at the 
Calydonian boar-hunt, vm. 312 ; 
visits Acheloiis in the company 
of Theseus, vm. 667; tells the 
story of Philemon and Baucis, 
vni. 617 


Leranicola, Vulcan, whose favourite 
dwelling-place was Lemnos, n. 

Lemnius, Vulcan, iv. 185 ; Lemnos 
itself is called Vulcania, xm.313 

Lemuos. an island in the Aegean 
Sea, the favourite seat of Vulcan, 
II. 275 ; IV. 185; Xlll. 46, 315 

Lenaeus, an epithet of Bacchus as 
god of the wine-press, iv. 14 ; xi. 

Lenin, a marsh in Argolis, where 
the Hydra lived, I. 697 ; ix. 69, 
74, 130, 192 

Lesbos, an island in the Aegean 
Sea, one of whose chief cities was 
Methymna, n. 591 ; xi. 65 ; xin. 

Lethaea, the wife of Olenus, who 
on account of her pride was 
turned into a stone, x. 70 

Lethe, a river in the Lower World, 
a draught of whose waters 
brought forgetfulness, vn. 152; 
xi. 603 

Leto'i's, belonging to Leto, the 
Greek form of Latona, applied to 
Calaurea, an island off the coast 
of Argolis, sacred to Leto, vn. 

LetoTus, an epithet of Apollo as the 
son of Leto, vni. 15 

Leucas, an island off the coast of 
Aearuonia, xv. 289 

Leucippus, one of the heroes at the 
Calydonian boar-hunt, vm. 306 

Leuconoe, one of the daughters of 
Minyas, iv. 168 

Leucosia, a small island near Paes- 
tuin, xv. 708 

Leucothoe : (1) the name of the 
sea-goddess into whom Ino was 
changed, iv. 542 : (2) daughter 
of Orchamus, king of Babylon, 
beloved by Phoebus, iv. 196 ; 
buried alive by her father, iv. 
240; changed by her lover into 
a shrub of fraukincense, iv. 256 


Liber, an old Italian god who pre- 
sided over planting and fructi- 
fication ; afterwards Identified 
with the Greek Bacchus, in. 
620,628; iv. 17; VI. 125 ; vil. 
295; vm. 177; zi. 105; xm. 

Libya, Africa, II. 2S7 ; IV. 617 ; V. 
76, 328; xiv. 77 

Libys : (1) African, applied to 
Amnion, v. 328 ; (2) one of the 
companions of Acoetes, in. 617, 

Lichas, a servant of Hercules who 
brought to him from Deianira 
the poisoned tunic, ix. 155; he 
was hurled by Hercules over the 
brink of a cliff, ix. 211 ; and was 
changed into a rock In mid-air, 
ix. 2 1 9 

Ligdus, a Cretan, father of Iphis, 
ix. 670 

Ligures, a people of Northern 
Italy, n. 370 

Lllybaeon, a promontory on the 
southern coast of Sicily, v. 351 ; 
xm. 726 

Limnaee, a nymph of the Ganjrcs, 
daughter of the god of that 
river, mother of Athis, v. 48 

Limy re, a city in Lycia, ix. 646 

Liriope, a water-nymph, mother of 
Narcissus, in. 342 

Litornum, a city In Campania, xv. 

Lotis, a nymph, daughter of Nep- 
tune ; fleeing from Priapus, 6he 
was changed into a lotus-tree, 
IX. 347 

Lucifer, the morning star, n. 116, 
723; iv. 629,665; vm. 2; xv. 
189, 789 ; the father of Ceyx, xi. 

Luciua, "sho who brings to the 
light," the goddess of child- 
birth, a name applied both to 
Juno and Diana, v. 304 ; IX. 
294, 316, 698; X. 607, 610 

Luna, the moon goddess, sister of 
Phoebus Apollo, the heavenly 
manifestation of Diana on earth, 
ii. 208 ; vii. 207 ; xv. 790 

Lyaeus, "the deliverer from care," 
an epithet of Bacchus, iv. 11; 
vm. 274 , XI. 67 

Lycabas : (1) a companion of 
Acoetes, in. 624, 675; (2) an 
Assyrian, companion of l'hin- 
eus, v. 60 ; (3) a centaur, xn. 

Lycaon, an early king of Arcadia, 
whose impious treatment of 
Jupiter precipitated the destruc- 
tion of the world for its wicked- 
ness, i. 165, 198 ft. ; changed into 
a wolf, i. 237 ; father of Callisto, 

Lycetus, a companion of Phinens, 
v. 86 

Lyceum, a gymnast" m at Athens, 
adorned with fountains and 
groves, the favourite resort of 
philosophers, II. 710 

Lycia, a country of Asia Minor, n. 
116; IV. 296; VI. 317, 339; IX. 
645; xm. 256 

Lycidas, a centaur, xn. 310 

Lycopcs, a centaur, xn. 350 

Lycormas, a river in Aetolia, n. 

Lyctius, of Lyctos, a city in Crete, 
=Cretan, vn. 490 

Lycurgus, a king of Thrace who 
opposed Bacchus and was de- 
stroyed by him, iv. 22 

Lycus : (1) a centaur, xn. 332 ; (2) 
a couipauion of Diomedes, xiv. 

Lydia, a country in Asia Minor, VI. 
11, 146; xi. 98 

Lyncestius, of the Lyncestae, a 
people in Macedonia, Lyncestian, 

XV. 329 

I.ynceus, son of Apharens, took 
part in the Calydonian boar- 
hunt, vm. 304 



Lyncides, a descendant of Lynceus, 
father of Abas, whose great- 
grandson was Perseus, iv. 76 7; 
V. 99, 185 

Lyucus, a king of Scythia, who 
attacked Triptolemus and was 
changed by Ceres Into a lynx, 
v. 650 ff. 

Lyrceus, of Lyrceum, a mountain 
between Arcadia and Argolis, I. 

Lyrnesius, of Lyrnesus, a town in 
the Troad, xn. 108 ; xin. 166 

Macareis, Isse, the daughter of 
Macareus (1), vi. 124 

Macareus : (1) a Lesbian, VI. 124; 
(2) a centaur, xn. 452; (3) 
Bon of Neritos, companion of 
Ulysses, xiv. 159, 441 ; he tells 
the story of his adventures, xiv. 
223 ff. 

Macedonlus, of Macedonia, xn. 

Maeaudrius, of the Maeandrus, IX. 


Maeandrus, a river of Phrygia and 
Lydia, famous for its wiuding 
course, II. 246; vm. 162; the 
god of the river, father of 
Cyanee, ix. 451 

Maenades, priestesses of Bacchus, 
Bacchautes, xi. 22 

Maeualos, and plural, Maenala, a 
range of mountains in Arcadia, 
I. 216 ; II. 4i5 ; v. 608 

Maeonia, an old name for Lydia, n. 
.52 ; III. 583; IV. 423 ; VI. 6, 10S 

M;ieoni8, an epithet of Arachne as 
a native of Maeonia, vi. 103 

Maera, an unknown woman who 
was changed into a dog, vu. 

Magnetes, the inhabitants of Mag- 
nesia in Thessaly. xi. 408 

Manto, aTheban seeress, daughter 
of Tiresias, vi. 167 


Marathon, a town and plain on the 
eastern coast of Attica, vu. 434 

Mareoticns, belon^-in^ to Mareota, 
a lake and city of Lower Kgypt, 
ix. 773 

Marmarides, from Marmarica, In 
Kgypt, v. 1 25 

Mars {and see Mavors), son of 
Jupiter and Juno, the sod o' 
war, vm. 20 ; xu. 91; his sicred 
serpent slain by Cadmus, ill. 
32 ff. ; father by Venus of Har- 
lucinia. wifeof Cadmus, in. 132; 
hiB amour with Venus discovered 
by Phoebus and revealed to 
Vulcan, iv. 171 ff . ; he was the 
father by Ilia of Romulus and 
Kenius, xv. 863 ; ho is called 
Gradivus, "he who marches 
out," vi. 427; xiv. 820; xv. 
863 ; his name is frequently 
used by metonymy for war or 
battle, m. 123,540; vu. 140; 
XII. 379, 610; XIII. 11, 208, 
360 ; xiv. 246, 450 ; xv. 746 

Marsyas, a satyr of Phrygia ; he 
challenged Apollo to a contest 
in musical skill, was beaten, and 
as a punishment for his pre- 
sumption wan flayed alive by the 
god ; the tears of his weeping 
friends were changed to the 
river of that name, vi 382 ff. 

Mavors, an old name for Mars, lit 
531 ; vi. 70 ; vu. 101 ; vm. 7, 
61, 437; xiv. 806 

Mavortius, belonging to or de- 
scended from Mars, appliod to 
the Thebans as descended in 
part from tin Echiouides, sprung 
from the teeth of Mars' sacred 
dragon, proles Mavortia, in. 631 ; 
to Meleager as the great-grand- 
son of M irs. vm. 437 

Medea, daughter of Aeetes, king 
of Colchis ; she is called, from 
father and country, Aeetias, 
vu. 9 ; Colchis, til 296 ; 


Phaslas, vii. 298; famous for 
her powers of magic, vn. 98, 
116, 137, 148, 152 ft., 199 ff. ; 
when Jason appeared at her 
father's court she fell fn love 
with him and helped him to per- 
form the three dangerous t.'isks 
imposed upon him, and so to ob- 
tain the Golden Fleece, vn.9 ff . ; 
she restores Aeson to youth by 
her magic arts, vn. 162 ff. ; she 
rejuvenates the nurse of Bacchus 
at the god's request, vn. 294 ; 
plots against the life of the aged 
Pelias and, pretending that she 
is about to restore him to youth, 
works his death by the hands of 
his own daughters, vn. 297 ff. ; 
by her magic causes the death 
of Creusa, for whom Jason had 
discarded Medea, and having 
killed her own two sons also, 
flees from Jason's vengeance, 
vn. 394 ff. ; takes refuge with 
Aegeus, who makes her his wife, 
vn. 402; detected in an attempt 
to poison Theseus, sou of Aegeus, 
she iled away through the air by 
her magic powers, vii. 406 ff. 

Medon : (1) one of Acoetes' 
sailors, in. 671 ; (2) a centaur, 
xii. 303 

Medusa, one of the Gorgons, 
daughter of Phorcys, iv. 743; 
loved by Neptune, in the form 
of a bird. vi. 119. See Gorgon 

Medusaeus, belonging to Medusa, 
referring to the petrifying 
Medusa-head, v. 249 ; Pegasus, 
v. 257; the spring of Hippo- 
crene, v. 312 ; Cerberus, x. 22 

Megareius heros, Hippomenes.son 
of Megareus, X. 659 

Megareus, grandson of Neptune, 
father of Hippomenes; lived in 
the Boeotiau town of Onchestus, 
hence called Onchestius, X. 
SO 5 

Melaneus : (1) a friend of Perseus, 
v. 128; (2) a centaur, xn. 306 

Melautho, a daughierof Deucalion 
whom Neptune loved In the form 
of a dolphin, vi. 120 

Melanthus, one of Acoetes' sailors, 
III. 617 

Melas, a river In Thrace, II. 247 

Meleager, son of Oeneus, king of 
Calydon, and Althaea, daughter 
of Thestius; at his birth his life 
was to depend upon the preser- 
vation of a billet of wood then 
buruingon the hearth ; his mother 
saved this, but finally burned it 
lu revenge for the slaying by her 
son of her two brothers, viii. 
451 ff. ; he organized a hunt for 
the boar sent by Diana to ravage 
the country, vm. 299 ; is smitten 
with love for Atalanta, one of 
the hunters, vm. 324 ; kills the 
boar and presents the spoils to 
Atalanta, vm.414 ; Is insulted by 
his mother's two brothers and 
kills them, vm. 432; dies in 
agony as the result of the burn- 
ing of the fatal billet by his 
mother, vm. 515 ff. ; one of his 
sisters is Dtianira, ix. 149 

Meleagrides, sisters of Meleager, 
who grieve Inordinately at his 
death, and are turned into 
guinea-hens by Diana, vm. 536 ft 

Melicerta. son of Athamas and 
Ino, changed into a sea-god, 
Palaemon, iv. 622 ff. 

M emu on, son of Tithonus and 
Aurora; while fighting for the 
Trojans was slain by Achilles ; 
on his funeral - pyre he was 
changed by Aurora into a bird, 
xm. 579 ft 

Memnonides, birds sprung from 
Memnon's ashes, which every 
year liew from Ethiopia to Troy 
and fought over his tomb in his 
honour, xm. 608 ff. 



jfendesins, of Meudcs, a city in 
Esrypt, v. 144 

Menelaiis, younsrer son of Atrens, 
hence called minor Atrides, xn. 
623 ; xv. 162 ; brother of Aga- 
memnon, husband ol Helen, 
went with Ulysses to Troy to 
demand back his wife, who had 
been stolen away by Paris, xiii. 
203; slew Enphorbus, XV. 162: 
fought with Paris, who escaped 
him in a cloud furnished by 
Venus, xv. 805 

Menephron, an Arc:tdian who com- 
mitted incest with his mother, 
vil. 386 

Menoctes, a Lycian, slain by 
Achilles, XII. 116 

Memlie, a nymph beloved by 
Proserpina, changed by the 
goddess into the mint plant, x. 

Mercuriua, the son of Jupiter and 
Maia, one of the Pleiades, 
daughter of Atlas, I. 670, 673; 
II. 686, 697, 742 ; XI. 303 : called 
Atlantiades, i. 682 ; n. 704 ; vm. 
627 ; CylleniuR, from his birth- 
place, Cylleue, a mountain in 
Arcadia, I. 713; II. 720, 818; 
v. 331 ; xiii. 146 ; xiv. 291 ; he 
Is the swift messenger of Jupiter 
and the other gods and flies 
through the air equipped with 
wings on his low-crowned hat 
and on his ankles, and with his 
wand, the caduceus, which 
soothes to sleep, I. 671, 716 : n. 
708, 714, 735, 818 ; IV. 756 ; VIII. 
627 ; XI. 807, 312 ; XIV. 291 ; his 
wand can also open doors, n. 819 ; 
he carries also a peculiar hooked 
sword, i. 717 ; as god of cunning 
and theft, he steals the cattle of 
Apollo, ii. 686 ; kills Argus at 
the request of Jupiter, I. 670 ff. ; 
chauges Battus Into a touch- 
stone, II. 706 ft ; helps Jupiter 


to trick Europa, II. 836 ; takes 
refuse from the Giants in the 
form of an ibis bird, v. 331; 
changes Aglauros into a stone, 
it 81 8 ; In company with Jupiter 
is entertained by Philemon and 
Baucis, vm. 627 ff. ; loves Herse, 
II. 724 ff.: father by Venus of 
Hermaphrodltns, iv. 288 ; father 
by Chione of Autolycus, xi. 303; 
through Autolycus he Is the 
great-grandfather of Ulysses, 
xm. 146 
Meriones, a companion of Ido- 

meneus from Crete, XIII. 359 
Mermeros, a centaur, XII. 305 
Merops, king of Ethiopia, husband 
of Clymeue, the putative father 
of Phaethon, I. 723; II. 184 
Messanius, of Messana, a city In 

Sicily, xiv. 17 
Messapius, of the Messapians, a 
people of Lower Italy, — Cala- 
brlan, Xiv. 614 
Messene, a city of Messenia in the 

Peloponni sus, vi. 417; xu. 649 
Metliyinuaens, of Meihyuina, one 
of the chief cities of Lesbos, xi.66 
Metion, father of Phorbas of 

Syene, v. 74 
Midas, king of Phrygia, son of 
Gordius and Cybele ; called 
Berecyntius heros from Mount 
Berecyntus In Phrygia, sacred 
to Cybele, xi. 106; because of 
the king's kindness to Silenus, 
Bacchus promised him the fulGl- 
meut of any wish he might 
express, and he wished that all 
he touched might turn to gold 
xi. 92 ff. ; tliis baleful power 
is washed away in the River 
Pactolus, xi. 142 ff. ; he again 
shows his stupidity by question- 
ing Tmolus' judgment in favour 
of Apollo versus Pan, and is 
given the ears of an ass, xi. 
146 ft. 


Mi!cti8, Byblis, the daughter of 
Miletus, ix. 635 

Miletus, son of Phoebus aud 
Deioue, Deionides, ix.443 ; father 
by Cyauee of Caunus and Byblis, 
founder of the city which bears 
his name, ix. 444 

Milon, an athlete of Crotona, weeps 
in his old age at the loss of his 
strength, xv. 299 

Mimas, a mountain range in Ionia, 
II. 22» 

Minerva, daughter of Jupiter, 
sprung from his head, iv. 800 ; 
v. 297 ; goddess of wisdom and 
technical skill, iv. 38 ; vi. 6, 23; 
patroness of men of genius, vm. 
252 ; inventor of the flute, VI. 
384; protectress of heroes: 
Perseus, iv. 754; v. 46, 250; 
Cadmus, in. 102; Theseus, xn. 
860: Diomede, Xiv. 4 76; the 
virgin goddess, II. 765 ; iv. 764 ; 
V. 875; vni. 664; xiv. 468 ; her 
locks are golden, ii. 749 ; vm. 
275 ; she Is the warrior goddess, 
II. 752, 756; IV. 754; VI. 46 ; 
vm. 264 ; she is armed with 
shield and spear, and on her aegis 
she wears the Gorgon-head, n, 
755; iv. 799, 803; vi. 78 ; XIV. 
475 ; her earlier favourite bird 
was the crow, but later the owl, 
n. 563; her favourite tree, the 
olive, vi. 335 ; vm. 275, 664 ; 
her favourite abode, Athens and 
Attica, II. 709, 712 ; vm. 250 ; 
strove with Neptune for the 
right to name the land, vi. 70 ff. ; 
her festival, the Panathenaea, n. 
711 ff.; entrusts Erichthouius to 
the (laughters of Cecrops, u. 553 ; 
sends the hag Envy to torment 
Aglauros, ll. 752; turns the hair 
of Medusa into snakes, iv. 798 ; 
accepts the challenge of Arachne 
to a contest in weaving, and 
after defeating her turns her 

into a spider to punish her pre- 
sumption, vi. 26 ff. ; changes 
Perdix to a plover, vm. 252 ; 
her sacred image, the Palladium, 
stolen from her temple at Troy 
by Ulysses and Diomede, xin. 
837, 381 ; the promontory of 
Minerva off the coast of Cam- 
pania in Italy, xv. 709 ; Minerva 
used by metonymy for house- 
hold tasks, iv. 33 ; for olive oil, 
xiu. 653. See Pallas, Tritonia, 

Minoi's, Ariadne, daughter of Minos, 
vm. 174 

Minos, son of Jupiter and Europa, 
vm. 120, 122; ix. 437; dux 
Europaeus, vm. 23 ; king of 
Crete, where he rules over 
numerous (centum) cities, VII. 
481 ; threatens war at Athens 
for the death of his son Andro- 
geos, and seeks allies against her, 
vn. 456 ff. ; seeks aid of Aeacus 
in vain, vn. 482 ft. ; wars against 
Kina NisuB at Megara, where he 
is loved by Scylla, who betrays to 
him her father, Nisus, vm. 6 ff. ; 
shuts np the Minotaur In a 
labyriuth which Daedalus made 
at his command, vm. 157; re- 
duced to weakness in his old age, 
he fears Miletus, ix. 441 ; Jupiter 
is unable to grant him immor- 
tality, ix. 437 

Minotaurus, a monster, half man 
and half bull, son of Pasiphae, 
wife of Minos, and a bull, vm. 
132; shut up by Minos in the 
labyrinth, vm. 155 ; here were 
brought to him each year seven 
boys aud seven maMeos as a 
tribute exacted of the Athenians 
by Minos to be devoured, until 
he was finally slain by Theseus, 
vm. 169 ff. 

Miuternae, a city of Latium on the 
border of Campania, xv. 716 

47 J 


MInyae, an ancient race named 
liom their king, Minyas, whose 
seat was Orchomenusin Boeotia ; 
his power ex tended also to Iol- 
chus in Thessaly; since from 
this point the Argonauts under 
J.isou started on their expedi- 
tion, they are called Minyae, VI. 
720; vii. 1 ; vim. 115 

MlnyeTas, AlclthoU, daughter of 
Minyas, iv. 1 

Minyei'as proles = Minyei'des, rv. 

Minyei'des, the three daughters of 
Minyas Leuconoe, Arsippe, and 
Alcithoe, who were changed into 
bats for slighting the festival of 
Bacchus, iv. 82, 425 

Misenus (a mortal), a son of Aeolus, 
a trumpeter of Aeneas, who lost 
his life at the promontory in 
Italy which bears his name, xiv. 

Mithridates, a king of Pontui ; six 
kings of this name had ruled over 
Pontus. aud the last, Mithridates 
the Great, was conquered by 
Lucullns and Pompey in 63 n.c, 
XV. 755 

Mnemonides, the nine Muses as 
the daughters of Mnemosyne, v. 
268, 280 

Mnemosyne, the mother by Jupiter 
of the Muses, vi. 114 

Molossus, belonging to the Molossi, 
gens Molossa, a people of Epirus, 
I. 226 ; rex Molossus, Munichus, 
who, with his wife and children, 
was once attacked by robbers ; 
while they resisted the robbers 
the building in which they were 
was set on fire ; to save them 
from burning to death, Jupiter 
changed them into birds, xm. 

Molpens, of Chaouia, a friend of 
Phineus, v. 163. 168 

Monycnus, a centaur, ami. 499 


Mopsoplus, Athenian, from Mop- 
8opiiB, an aucient king; Tripto- 
lemus, v. 661; the walls of 
Athens, VI. 423 

Mopsus, son of Ampyx, see Ampy- 
cides ; he was a soothsayer 
among the Lapithae, took part 
in the Calydonian boar -hunt, 
vui. 316, 350 ; was in the fight 
against the centaurs, XII. 466, 

Morpheus, a son of Somnus, sent 
to Alcyone in the form of Ceyx, 
XI. 635, 647, 671 

Mulciber, a name for Vulcan, in 
reference to him as a worker in 
metals, n. 5 ; ix. 423 ; by me- 
tonymy for fire, ix. 263; xiv. 

Munychiua, of Munychia, the port 
of Athens, --Athenian, II. 7o9 

Musae, the nine Muses, daughters 
of Jupiter and Mnemosyne, 
patronesses of the liberal arts ; 
they were : Clio, M use of history ; 
Melpomene, of tragedy ; Thalia, 
of comedy ; Euterpe, of lyric 
poetry ; Terpsichore, of dancing; 
Calliope, of epic poetry ; Erato, 
of love poetry ; Urania, of 
astronomy ; Polyhymnia, of 
sacred song; Calliope and 
Urauia are the only two of the 
sisters mentioned by name in 
the Metamorphoses ; in v. 260 
Urauia takes the lead in enter- 
taining Minerva, aud in v. 
339 ff. Calliope sings as the 
representative of her sisters in 
the contest with the Pierides, 
and in v. 662 she Is called the 
eldest sister, e nobis maxima; 
their favourite haunts were 
Mount Helicon and Mount Par- 
nassus, where their sacred springs 
were Aganippe and Hippocrene 
on the one, and Castalia on the 
other, v. 663 ; Helicon it hence 


called Vlrgincns, II. 219; v. 254 ; 
they are dnctae sorores, " the 
learned sisters," v. 255; "the 
especial dlviuities of poets," prae- 
sentia numina vatuni, xv. 622 ; 
Calliope was the mother of Or- 
pheus, x. 148 ; assaulted by King 
Pyreneua, the Muses fly away on 
wings, v. 274 ff. ; contend with 
the Pierides In song, and after- 
wards chauge the presumptuous 
sisters into magpies, v. 294 ff.,676. 
See Aouiiles and Thespiades 

Mutina, a city in Cisalpine Gaul, 
xv. 823 

Mycale : (1) a promontory in Ionia, 
II. 228 ; (2) a Thessalian witch, 
XII. 263 

Mycenae, a city of Argolis, the 
home of Agamemnon, vi. 414 ; 
XII. 34 ; XV. 426, 428 

Mycenis, a woman of Mycenae, 
Iphigenia, xn. 34 

Mygdouis, Mygdonius, of the 
Mygdonians, a Thracian people, 
ii. 24 7, who emigrated to Phry- 
gia, —Phrygian, vi. 45 

Myrmidoues, a race of men created 
out of ants by Jupiter in answer 
to the prayer of Aeacus, vn. 
615 ff., 654 

Myrrha, daughter of Cinyras, con- 
ceived for her father an in- 
cestuous passion, and became by 
him the mother of Adonis, x. 
312 ff. ; was changed to the 
myrrh-tree, x. 489 ff. 

Myscelus, son of Alemon of Argos, 
founder of Crotnna, xv. 19 ff. 

Mysus, of Mysia, Mysian, a country 
in Asia Minor, xv. 277 

Nabataeu8, of Nabataea, acouutry 
in Arabia, —Arabian, 1.61 ; v. 163 

Naias, Nais, plural Naiades and 
NaTdes, water nymphs, female 
deities of rivers and springs, I. 
842, 691 : II. 326; iv. 49, 289, 

304 ; VI. 329, 458 : VIII. 580 ; IX. 
87,657; x. 9,514; XI. 49; XIV. 
328, 657, 786 

Narcissus, son of the Naiad Liriope 
and the river-god Cephisus, in. 
342, 351; his fate foretold by 
Tiresias, ill. 346 ; vainly loved 
by Echo, III. 370 ff. ; falls hope- 
lessly in love with his own image 
reflected from the water, ill. 
407 ff. ; his shade still gazes on 
its image in the Stygian pool, 
in. 606 ; his body is changed 
iuto a flower that bears his name, 
m. 510 

Narycius, of Naryx, a city of the 
Locrians, vm. 312 ; xv. 705; an 
epithet of Ajax, son of Oileus, 
xiv. 468 

Nasamoniacus, of the Nasamones, 
a Libyan people south-west of 
Cyrenaica, v. 129 

Naupliades, Palamedes, son of 
Nauplius, Xin. 39, 310 

Nauplius, a king of Euboea, father 
of Palamedes. See Caplrireus 

Naxos, the largest of the Cyclades 
III. 636, 640, 649 

Nedvmnus, a centaur, xn. 853 

Neleius, Nestor, the son of Neleus 
XII. 577 

Neleus, son of Neptune and the 
nymph Tyro, xn. 658 ; king of 
Pylos, II. 689 ; father of Nestor, 
he had twelve sons, all of whom 
except Nestor were killed by 
Hercules, xn. 550 ft. 

Neleus, belonging to Neleus, VI. 
418 : XII. 558 

Nelides, the twelve sons of Neleus, 
xn. 553 

Neuieaeus, belonging to Nemea, a 
town in Argolis, ix. 197, 235 

Nemesis, a Greek goddess, personi- 
fying the righteous iinyer of the 
gods, who punishes mortal pride 
and presumption, m. 406; xiv. 
694. See Bhamnusia 



Neoptolemus.son of Achilles, called 
also Pyrrhus, xin. 455 

Nephele : (1) a nymph in Diana's 
train, III, 171; (2) the wife of 
Athamas, mother of Phrixus 
and Ueile, xi. 195 

Nepbelei's, Helle, the daughter of 
Nephele, XI. 196 

Neptunius, an epithet used of 
Theseus as the supposed son of 
Neptune, IX. 1; of Hippomenes, 
the great - crandson, x. 639, 
C65 ; of Cyonus, the son, xn. 

Neptunus, the son of Saturn, 
brother of Jupiter and Pluto; 
to him by lot in the division 
of the kiugdom of the de- 
throned Saturn fell the realms 
of the sea and other waters, i. 
275, 276, 331; 11. 270, 574; IV. 
532,533; vin. 595; x. 606; xi. 
207 ; xn. 580 ; the symbol of his 
power is the trident, i. 283 ; vm. 
696; xi. 202; XII. 680; father 
of Neleus by the nymph Tyro, 
xn. 558 ; grandfather of Me- 
gaieus, x. 606 ; was said to have 
been the father of Theseus by 
Aethra, wife of Ae^eus, ix. 1 ; 
father of Cycuus, xn. 72; his 
amours were: with Coroue, n. 
674 ; Medusa, iv. 798 ; vi. 119 ; 
Canace, vi. 116; Iphimedia, 
daughter of Aloeus, vi. 117 ; 
Theophane, daughter of Bisaltes, 
vi. 117; with Ceres, vi. 118; 
with Melantho, vi. 120 ; Mestra, 
daughter of Eryslchthon, vm. 
850 ; he helps produce the Hood, I. 
275 ; changes I no and .Melicerta 
into sea-diviuities, iv. 539 ff. ; 
disputes with other gods his 
claim to Athens, vi. 75 ; with 
Apollo built the walls of Troy 
for Laomedon, xi. 202; XII. 26, 
587 ; in punishment of Lao- 
medon'i treachery in refusing to 


pay the promised reward, be 
Hooded theeouutry and required 
that Laomedon's daughter, He- 
sione, be offered up as asacrilice 
to a sea-monster, xi. 207 ff. ; 
gave Periclymenus power to 
change to mauy forms, XII. 558 ; 
grieving over the death of 
Cycnusat the bawls of Achilles, 
he plans with Apollo to compass 
Achilles' death, xn. 080 

Nereis, a sea-nymph, daughter of 
Nereus; Thetis, XI. 259, xil.93; 
(Jalatea, xm. 7-12, 74?, 858; 
Psamathe, the mother of Phoeus, 
xi. 38u : in plural, i. 302 ; v. 17 ; 
xm. 899; XIV. 2C4 

Nerei'us, belonging to Nereus, used 
of Phoeus as sou of the Nereid 
Psamathe, vn. 685 ; of Thetis, 
genetrix Nereia, XIII. 162 

Neretum, a town In Calabria, XV. 

Nereus, a sea-god, husband of 
Doris, father of fifty daughters, 
the Nereids, n. 268; xi. 361; 
XII. 94 ; xm. 742 ; by metonymy 
for the sea, I. 187 ; xn. 24 

Neritius, of Neiitos, a mountain in 
Ithaca, and a small islaud in its 
viciuity, — Ithacan, xm. 712; 
XIV. 159, 563 

Nessus, a centaur, son of Ixion, 
ix. 124 ; slain by Hercules for 
attempting violence on Dcianira 
while he was carrying her across 
a stream ; he gave a portion of 
his blood, poisoned by the arrow 
of Hercules, to Deianira as a 
charm warranted to regain wan- 
ing love, ix. 101 ff. ; this charm 
was used by Dcianira with fatal 
effect, ix. 163 ff. ; Nessus was 
safe in the great fight between 
the centaurs aDd the Lapithae 
because he was doomed to die by 
the hand of Hercules, xn. 308, 


Nestor.son of Neleus, king: of Pylos, 
one of twelve brothers, all of 
whom were killed by Hercules 
except himself, vm. 365 ; XII. 
650 ff. ; in his youth he partici- 
pated in the Calydoniau boar- 
hunt, vm. 313; he was famous 
among the Greeks at Troy for 
his wisdom and eloquence, xu. 
178, 677; after the death of 
Cycnus, he tells the story of 
Caenis, a girl changed into the 
invulnerable youth Caeneus, xu. 
169 ff. ; he explains toTlepolemus 
the cause of his hatred for Her- 
cules, xu. 642 ff. ; was deserted 
in his need by Ulysses on the 
battlefield, xni. 63 

Nileus, an opponent of Perseus, 
who boasted that he was de- 
scended from the Nilus river- 
god, v. 187 

Nilus, the great river and river- 
god of Kgypt, i. 423, 728; II. 
254; V. 187, 324; IX. 774; XV. 

Ninus, an Assyrian king, husband 
of Semiramis, IV. 88 

Niobe, daughter of the Phrygian 
king Tantalus and of Dione, one 
of the Pleiades, daughter of 
Atlas, vi. 172, 174, 211; wife of 
Amphion, king of Thebes, VI. 
178, 271 ; mother of seven sons 
and seven daughters, on account 
of her boastful pride in whom 
she aroused the wrath of Latona 
(see Latona), vi. 165 ft.; at last, 
in her stony grief, she was 
changed to a stone and carried 
to her native Mount Siphylus, 
where the tears still flow down 
her stony face, vi. 305 ff. 
NiseTa vlrgo, Scylla, the daughter 

of Nisus, viu»S5 
Nisus, a king of Megara, besieged 
by Minos; he had a purple 
lock of hair upon the preser- 

vation of which his life 
and kingdom depended ; this 
lock his daughter Scylla, se- 
cretly in love with Minos, cut 
oft and gave to her father's 
enemy, vm. 8 ff. 
Nixl patres, three guardian deities 
of women in labour ; their 
statues stood in the Capitol at 
Rome, representing the gods in 
a kneeling posture, ix. 294 
Nixus genu,"the one bending his 
knee," the constellation of the 
kneeling Hercules, vui. 182 
Xoemon, a Lycian, xm. 258 
Nonacria, Xonaerinus, from Nona- 
cris, a mountain and city in 
Arcadia, =■ Arcadian, i. 690; II. 
409; Vlll. 426 
Noricus, of Noricum, a country 
lying between the Danube and 
the Alps, xiv. 712 
Notns, the south wind, bringer of 

rain, i. 264 
Nox, goddess of Night, daughter of 
Chaos, mother of the Furies, iv. 
452; XIV. 404 
Nuuia Pompilius, the second king 
of Korae, goes to Crotona to 
study the philosophy of Pytha- 
goras, xv. 4 ff. ; marries the 
nymph Egerla, xv. 482 ; dies at 
a ripe old age, xv. 485 
Numicius, a small river in Latlum, 

xiv. 328,699 
Numidae, a people in Northern 
Africa, conquered by Caesar in 
46 b.c. at the battle of Thapsus, 
xv. 754 
Numitor, king of Alba, driven 
from his throne by his brother 
Amulius, but restored by his 
grandsons, Romulus and Remus, 
xiv. 773 
Nycte'is, Antlope, daughter of the 
Boeotian king Nycteus ; mother 
by Jupiter of Zethus and 
Amphion, VI. Ill 



Nycteliue, a name of Bacchus 
from the fact that his mysteries 
were performed at night, iv. 


Nycteus (not the father of An- 
tiope), a companion of Diomede, 
changed by Venus into a bird, 
XIV. 504 

Nyctimene, daughter of Epopeus, 
king of Lesbos, who unknow- 
ingly had intercourse with her 
father ; in despair she fled into 
the forest, where she was changed 
by Minerva into an owl, II. 
690 ff. 

Nysei'des, the nymphs of Mount 
Nysa in India, who cared for the 
infant Bacchus in their caves, 
ill. 314 ; Bacchns obtained their 
rejuvenation from Medea, vii. 

Nyseus, an epithet of Bacchus 
from Monnt Nysa, IV. 13 

Oceanus, the great all-encircling 
sea, the ocean, vn. 267; ix. 
594 ; Xin. 292 : xv. 12 ; personi- 
fied, a deitv, son of Coelus and 
Terra, husband of his sister, 
Tethys, II. 610; IX. 499; XIII. 
Ocyrhoe.a daughter of Chiron en- 
dowed with the gift of prophecy ; 
she foretells the fates of Aescu- 
lapius, ii. 635 ft. ; is changed 
into a mare, II. 657 ft. 
Odrysius, an epithet from a tribe 
In Thrace, used for Thracian in 
general, referring to Tereus, vi. 
490; Pol) mestor, xm. 554 
Oeagrius, an epithet from Oeagrus, 
an old king of Thrace ; nondum 
Oeagrius = before the time of 
Oeatrrus, II. 219 
Oebalides. See Hyacin thus 
Oebalins. See Hyacin thus 
Oechalla, a city in Enboea, ix. 1S6, 


Oechalides, the women of Oechalla, 

ix. 331 
Oeclides, Amphiaraiis as the son of 

Oecleus. See Amphiaraiis 
Oedipodionlae,au epithet of Thebes 
as the city of Oedipus, XV. 429. 
See Lai'ades 
Oeneus, king of Calydon, son of 
Parthaon, husband of Althaea, 
father of Meleager, Tydeus, and 
Deiauira, vm. 486 ; ix. 12 ; in- 
curred the wrath of Diana, who 
sent a huge boar to ravage his 
country, vm. 273 ft. 
Oeuides, a male descendant of 
Oeneus ; Meleager, his son, vm. 
414; Diomede, his grandson, 
xiv. 612 
Oenopia, an older name for the 
island of Aegina, VII. 472, 
Oetaeus, an epithet of King Ceyx, 
because his city of Trachin lay 
near Mount Oeta, xi. 383 
Oete (Oeta), a mountain range 
between Thessaly and Aetolia, i 
S13; 11.217; IX. 165, 204, 230, 
249; XI. 383 
OYleus.king of the Locrians. father 

of Ajax (2), xiu. 622 
Olenides, Tectaphus, the son of 

Olenus, xn. 433 
Olenius, of Olenus, an ancient 

city in Achaia, in. 694 
Olenus, the husband of Lethaea, 
changed with her into a stone, 
wishing thus, though innocent, to 
share her guilt and punishment, 
x. 69 
Oliarus, an island of the Cyclades, 

Vii. 469 
Olympus : (1) a mountain In Nor- 
thern Thessalv, supposed in the 
Homeric age to be the home of 
the gods, i. 154..212; n. 60, 225; 
vi. 476 ; vn. 225 ; ix. 499 ; xiil 
761 ; (2) a pupil and friend of 
Marsyas, VI. 393 


Onchestius, from Oncliestus, a city 

in Boeotia, x. f»05 
Onetos, a Phocian, herdsman of 

Peleus, xi. 348 
Oplieltcs, a companion of Acoctes, 

III. 605 

Ophias, Combe, daughter of OpUius, 
vil. 383 

Ophionides, Aniycus, a centaur, 
son of Upliion, xu. 245 

Ophiuchus, a constellation in the 
north - eastern heavens, the 
" Serpent-holder," vm. 182 

Opliiusi ns, of Ophiusa, an old name 
for Cyprus, x. 229 

Ops, an old Italian deity, goddess 
of plenty, patroness of hus- 
bandry, the wife of Saturn, ix. 

Orchamus, an ancient king of 
Babylonia, father of Leucothoe, 

IV. 212; buries his daughter 
alive on learning of her amour 
with the Sun-god, IV. 240 

Orchomenus, a city in Arcadia, v. 
607; vi. 416 

Orcus, the underworld, abode of 
the dead ; also a name for l'luto, 
as god of the underworld, xiv. 

Oreas.oneof the mountain-nymphs, 
vm. 787 

Orestea, from or belonging to 
Orestes, son of Agamemnon ; 
applied to Diana, because Orestes 
with Pyla<!es and Iphigenia, 
priestess of Diana in Tauris, 
carried away the image of Diana 
to Aricia In Italy, xv. 489 

Orion, a celebrated giant, once a 
mighty hunter on earth, now set 
as a constellation in the heavens 
with his two hunting-dogs near 
him, and with a glittering sword 
girt about his waist, \ in. 207 ; 
xiii. 234 ; the two daughters of 
Orion were Menippe and Me- 
tioche, who at a time of pestilence 


at Tiiebea slew themselves as a 
voluntary offering in the people's 
stead, xiii. 692 

Orios, one of the Lapithae, xu. 

Orithyla, daughter of the Athenian 
king Krechtheus, sister of Pro- 
cris, wooed and roughly carried 
off by Boreas, vi. 683, 707 ; vu. 

Orneus, a centaur, xu. 302 

Orontes, a river of Syri i, II. 248 

Orpheus, a famous mythical musi- 
cian of Thrace, son of Oeagrus 
(or of Apollo, XI. 8) and Calliope, 
husband of Eurydice ; after her 
death he goes to the underworld 
to gain her b:ick, x. 3 fl. ; losing 
her a second time, he is incon- 
solable, and spends his time in 
playing on his lyre, x. 72 fl. ; he 
Is torn in pieces by the Ciconian 
women, xi. 1 fl. ; his shade re- 
joins Eurydice in the under- 
world, xi. 61 ; he is called Rho- 
dopeius, x. 11 ; Thiei'cius, xi. 2 ; 
Apollineiis, xi. 8 ; Thracius, xi. 

Orphne, a nymph of the under- 
world, mother of Ascalaphus by 
Acheron, v. 639 

Ortygia : (1) one ot the earlier 
names of the island of Delos, 
from 6pru£, a quail, xv. 337 ; 
hence an epithet of Diana, who 
was born ou Delos, I. 694 ; (2) 
a part of the city of Syracuse, 
lying on an island in the harbour, 
V. 499, 640 

Osiris, an Egyptian deity, god of 
fertility, husband of Isis, ix. 693 

Ossa, a mountain in Thessaly, i. 
155 ; II. 225 ; VII. 224 ; xu. 319 

Otlirys, a mountain in Thessaly, u. 
221 ; VII. 225, 353 ; XU. 173, 513 

Pachtnus, the south-eastern pro- 
montory of Sicilv. xm. 726 



Pactolides, nymphs of the Pac- 
tolus, VI. 1G 

Pactolus, a river in Lydia, vi. 16 ; 
XI. 87 

Padus, the Po, a river in Italy, n. 

Paean, a name of Apollo as the 
deity of healing, I. 666 ; a reli- 
gious hymn in his honour, xiv. 

Paeones, the Paeonlans, a people of 
Northern Macedonia, v. 3u3, 313 

PaeouhiB, an ailjective from Paean 
as if from Paeon, belonging to 
Apollo as sod of healing, and 
transferred to his son, Aescu- 
lapius, xv. 535 

Paestum, a city in Italy, in Lucania, 
XV. 708 

Pagasaeus, from Pagasa, a mari- 
time town of Thessaly, where 
the Argo was built, vn. 1 ; xn. 
412; xm. 24; an epithet of 
Jason from his native district, 
vm. 349 

Palaemon, the sea-god into whom 
Melicerta wa9 changed, iv. 542 ; 
called Athamantiades, since as a 
mortal he was the son of Atha- 
mas, xm. 919 

Palaestinus, of Palestine, and in 
general = Syrian, iv. 46; v. 145 

Palamedes, the eon of Nauplius, 
Naupliades, xm. 39 ; he dis- 
closed Ulysses' trick of assumed 
madness before the Trojan war, 
xm. 36 ff. ; he himself suffered 
for this, for he was done to 
death through the treachery of 
Ulysses, who hid a store of gold 
in Palamedes' tent and pre- 
tended that it was a bribe from 
Priam, xm. 38, 56 ff., 308 ff. 

Palatinus, of or belonging to the 
Palatine Hill, Palatine, XV. 660 ; 
= Latin, xiv. 622 

Palatium, one of the seven hills 
of Borne, the Palatine Hill, xiv. 


332, 882 : since Augustus bnilt 
his palace on this hill, the im- 
perial palace came to be called 
Palatia, i. 176 

Palici, sons of Jupiter and the 
nymph Thalia, worshipped in 
Sicily at Palica, where a temple 
and two lakes were sacred to 
them, v. 406 

l'alilia, the feast of Pales, the god 
of shepherds, celebrated on 
April 21, the day on which 
Rome was founded, xiv. 774 

Palladium, an image of Pallas, said 
to have fallen from heaven at 
Troy ; upon its preservation the 
safety of Troy was said by an 
oracle to depend ; the image was 
captured by Ulysses and Dio- 
mede, xm. 99, 337, 381 

Palladius, belonging to Pallas, vn. 
399, 723 ; vm. 275 

Pallantias and Pallantis, Aurora 
as daughter of the Titan, Pallas, 
IX. 421 ; xv. 191, 700 

Pallas (gen. Palladis), a surname 
of the Greek goddess Athene, 
corresponding to the Roman 
Minerva, used in Ovid Inter- 
changeably with Minerva ; she 
hides the infant Erichthonius in 
a box and gives this to the 
daughters of Cecrops to guard, 
ii. 553 ft; her festival at 
Athens, n. 712; sends the hag 
Envy to punish Aglauros, il 
752 ff.; Athens is named from 
her, ii. 834 ; bids Cadmus sow 
the teeth of the slain dragon in 
the ground, m. 102; daughters 
of Minyas, scorning Bacchus, 
worship Pallas as representing 
household arts, iv. 38 ; she helps 
Perseus, who is here called her 
brother, v. 46 ; visits the Muses 
on Mount Helicon, who enter- 
tain her with various tales, v. 
X54 ft; I* » virgin goddess, v. 


375 : goddess of the arts, vi. 23 ; 
encounters Anchne, vi. 26 ff. ; 
her armour described, vi. 78 ; 
gives olive-tree to Athens, vi. 
81, 335 : saves Perdix from death 
and changes him into a bird, 
vm. 252; used for her image, 
the Palladium, xm. 89. See 

Pallas (gen. Pallantis) : (1) an 
Athenian priuce, sou of Pandion, 
vii. 500, 665; (2) a Titan, 
father of Aurora; see Pallantias 
and Pallantis 

Pallene, a peninsula of Macedonia, 
xv. 356 

Pau, the god of woods and shep- 
herds, xi. 160; is himself half 
goat in form, xiv. 616 ; lives in 
mountain caves, xi. 147; xiv. 
514 ; wears a wreath of pine- 
needles, i. 699 ; pursues the 
nymph Syrinx, who escapes him 
by being changed into marsh 
reeds, i. 701 ff . ; makes the 
syrinx or " pipes of Pan " out of 
these reeds, I. 709 ff. ; wor- 
shipped by Midas, xi. 147 ; chal- 
lenges Apollo and is defeated in 
a contest with pipes and lyre, 
xi. 158 ft.; in plural, classed 
with Fauns and Satyrs, xiv. 638 

Panchaeus, of Panchaia, an island 
east of Arabia, x. 309, 480 

Pandion, a king of Athens, father 
of Procne and Philomela, vi. 
426 ; gives Prucne in marriage 
to the Thracian Tereus, vi. 428 ; 
entrusts Philomela to Tereus' 
care, vi. 483 ; dies of woe for his 
daughters' wrongs, vi. 676 

Pandiouiae, an epithet of Athens 
from its king, Pandion, xv. 430 

Pandrosos, one of the daughters of 
Cecrops, n. 569, 738 

Panouiphaeus, "author of all 
oracles," an epithet of Jupiter, 
XI. 198 

Panope, a city In Phocis, III. 19 

Panopeus, one of the Calydonian 
hunters, vm. 312 

Panthoi'des, Euphorbus, son of 
Panthoiis, xv. 161 

Paphius, belonging to Paphos,a city 
in the island of Cyprus sacred 
to Venus, Paphius heros, Pyg- 
malion, x. 290 

Paphos : (1) a city on the island 
of Cyprus, x. 290. 530 ; (2) 
son of Pygmalion and his ivory 
statue which was changed by 
Venus into a woman, x. 297 

Paraetonium, a seaport town in 
Northern Africa, ix. 773 

Parcae, three sisters, arbiters of 
human destiny, personification 
of fate ; their decrees are un- 
alterable, may be known and 
revealed by Jupiter, but he is 
powerless to change them, V. 632 ; 
vm. 462 ; xv. 781, 808 ; they 
were present at the birth of 
Meleager, vm. 452 

Paris, the son of Priam and 
Hecuba, brother of Hector ; stole 
away Helen, the wife of Mene- 
laiis, and so brought war upon 
his country, xn. 4, 609; xm. 
200 ; by Apollo's direction he 
shoots the fatal arrow at 
Achilles, xn. 601 ; saved by 
Venus in a cloud from death at 
the hands of Menelaiis, xv. 

Parnasius, from or belonging to 
Paruasus, a mountain in Phocis, 
sacred to Apollo and the Muses ; 
at its foot was the city of 
Delphi, where were Apollo's 
temple and oracle, hence templa 
Parnasia, v. 278 ; Themis had 
held this oracle in ancient times 
before Apollo, I. 321 ; hence she 
also is called Parnasia, iv. 643 

Parnasus, a mouutain in Phocis, 
•acred to Apollo and th» Muses, 



I. S17. 467: II. 221 ; IV. 64S ; V. 

278 ; XI. 165, 339 
Paros, an island of tlie CycladeB, 

celebrated for Us marble, nr. 

419 ; VII. 466 ; vm. 221 
Parrhssis, Parrbusius, of Parrhasia, 

a town in Arcadia, — Arcadian, 

II. 460 ; vm. 315 

Parthaon, king of Calydon, father 
of Oeneus, ix. 12 ; his house was 
exterminated by the wrath of 
Diana, vm. 542 

Parthenius, a mountain in Arcadia, 
ix. 188 

Parthenope, an old name for the 
city of Naples, xiv. 101 ; xv. 712 

Pasiphae, daughter of the Sun, 
ix. 736 ; wife of Minos, mother 
of Phaedra, xv. 600; through 
the spite of Venus she was in- 
spired with a mad passion for a 
beautiful bull, vm. 136 : ix. 736 ; 
which she gratified by means of 
a wooden cow framed for her by 
Daedalus, vm. 132 ; ix. 740; of 
this union the Minotaur was 
born, vm. 133, 169. See Mino- 
taur and Theseus 

Pasiphaeia, Phaedra, daughter of 
Pasiphae, xv. 500 

Patareiis of Fatara, a city in Lydla, 
I. 51« 

Patrae, an ancient city in Achaia, 
vi. 417 

Patroclus, a friend of Achillea ; 
clad in the aimour of the latter, 
drives back the Trojans, xm. 
273. See Actorides 

Peacock, the bird sacred to Juno ; 
after the death of Argus Juno 
places his numerous eyes in the 
peacock's tail, I. 723 ; II. 533 

lVgasus, a winged horse sprung 
from tho blood of Medusa when 
her head was struck off by Per- 
seus ; at the same time there 
came forth Chrysaor, brother 
of Pegasus, IV. 786; V. 259; 


Neptune is said to have been 
the fattier of these, VI. 119; 
the spriug llippocrene, "horse's 
fountain," on Mount Helicon 
sprang forth from the stroke of 
his hoof, v. 257 

Pelagon, one of the Calydonian 
hunters, vm. 360 

Pelasgi, one of the most ancient 
pcoplesnf Greeee,=Grecians, vn. 
49, 133 : XII. 7, 19, 612 ; XIII. 128, 
268 ; XIV. 562 ; XV. 452 

Peiares: (1) a companion of 
Phineus, v. 124 ; (2) one of the 
Lapithae, XII. 256 

PoleUirouius, belonging to a region 
of Thessaly inhabited by the 
centaurs and the Lapithae, xn. 

Peleus, son of Aeacus, Aeacides, 
xi. 227, 246 ; brother of Tela- 
mon and half-brother of Phocus, 
vn. 477 ; xm. 151 ; hushaud of 
Thetis, story of his wooing, xi. 
217 ff., 260 ; XII. 193 ; he is thus 
the son-in-law of Nereus as well 
as the grandson of Jupiter, xi. 
219; the father of Achilles, XL 
265; xn. 605, 619; xm. 165; 
and Is surpassed by him, xv. 
856 ; he took part in the Caly- 
doniau boar-hunt, vm. 309, 380; 
and in the battle of the cen- 
taurs and Lapithae, xn. 366, 
388 ; accidentally killed his 
half-brother, Phocus, son of the 
Nereid I'samathe, fled from home 
and found asylum with Ceyx, 
king of Trachin, xi. 266 ff. J 
here his cattle, herded on the 
seashore, are attacked by a 
monstrous wolf sent by Psama- 
the, xi. 349 ff. ; the hero finally 
gains absolution for his blood- 
guiltiness at the hands of Acas- 
tus, king of Thessaly, xi. 409 

I'elias, half-brother of Aeson, 
whom he had driven from the 


throne »* lolchos in Thcssaly ; 
he sends Aeson's son, Jason, 
od the dangerous quest of the 
Golden Fleece; Medea, brought 
back by Jason from Colchis, 
plots against the life of Pelias, 
and works his destruction by the 
hands of his own daughters, vil. 
297 fE. 

Pelides, Achilles, son of Peleus, xn. 
605, 619 

Pelion, a high mountain in Thes- 
saly, i. 155; Vil. 224, 352; XII. 

Pellaeus, of Pella, a city in Mace- 
donia, V. 302 ; XII. 254 

Pelope'ias, Pelopeius, belonging to 
Pelops, vi. 414 ; viii. 622 

Pelops, son of Tantalus, brother 
of Niobe ; in his childhood his 
father cut him in pieces and 
served him to tbe gods in order 
to teBt their divinity ; the gods 
perceived the hoax at once, but 
Ceres abstractedly ate a piece of 
the boy's shoulder ; the boy was 
made whole again by the gods, 
and the lost 6houlder replaced by 
a piece of ivory, VI. 404 ff. 

Pelorus, a promontory on the north- 
east coast of Sicily, v. 350 ; xm. 
727 ; xv. 706 

Penates, old Latin guardian deities 
of the household whose images 
were kept within the central 
part of the house, I. 231 ; III. 
639; viii. 91; xv. 864; used 
more commonly by metonymy 
for the house or home itself, I. 
174, 77S; V. 155, 496, 650; VII. 
574 ; VIII. 637 ; IX. 446, 639; 
XII. 551 

Penei's and Pene'ia, belonging to the 
river-jod Peneus ; his daughter, 
the nymph Daphne, I. 452, 472, 
625 ; ii. 504 ; Peneidas nndas, I. 
644 ; Pene'ia arva, xn. 209 

PeLelope, the wife of Ulysses, 

daughter-in-law of Laertes, via, 
315; Hecuba bewails that she is 
to be a gift to Penelope, XIII. 

Peneus, a river in Thessaly, rising 
on Pindus and flowing through 
the beaiuiful valljy of Teuipe, 
I. 569: VII. 280; xn. 209; the 
river-god, father of Daphne, I. 
452 ; receives condolences of 
other rivers on loss of Daphne, 
1.574 ff. ; suffers from conflagra- 
tion caused by Phaethon, II. 243 

Pentlieus, son of Echion and Auave, 
kiuj; of Thebes; flouts Tiresias 
and is warned by him not to op- 
pose Bacchus, ill. 513 ff.; op- 
poses introduction of Bacchic 
rites, m. 531 ff. ; goes to Cithae- 
rou to spy on the Bacchanals, 
and is torn in pieces by his 
crazed mother and the other 
womeu, in. 701 ff . ; IV. 429 

Peparethus, an island north of 
Euboea, vu. 470 

Perdix, son of the sister of 
Daedalus, very inventive; his 
uncle in envy pushed him off a 
cliff, but Minerva saved him 
from death by changing him 
into a bird, VIII. 237 ff. 

Pergamum, Pergama, the citadel 
of Troy, more frequently used 
for Troy itself, xn. 445, 691; 
xm. 169,219, 320, 374,607,520; 
xiv. 467; xv. 442 

Pergus, a lake in Sicily near the 
city of Enna, v. 386 

Periclytueuus, sou of Neleus, 
brother of Nestor, grandson of 
Neptune, from whom he had the 
power of changing his sbape; 
in the form of an eagle he was 
killed by an arrow of Hercules, 
XII. 556 

Perimele, daughter of Hippodamas, 
loved by the river-god Acheloiis, 
and changed by Neptune at her 



lover's prayer into an island, 

VIII. 590 ff. 

Periphas : (1) an ancient Attic 
king, held in so high honour by 
his people that he excited the 
enmity of Jupiter, who would 
have killed him, but at Apollo's 
request he changed him into an 
eagle and his wife Phene into 
an osprey, vn. 400 : (2) one of 
the Lapithae, xn. 449 

Periphetes, a monstrous sou of 
Vulcan who lived at Epiilaurus 
and slew all travellers with an 
iron club until he was himself 
slain by Theseus, VII. 437 

Persei's, Hecate, daughter of the 
Titan Perses, vn. 74 

PerseTus, belonging to Perseus, his 
camp or party, v. 128 

Persephone, the Greek name for 
Proserpina, V. 470 : X. 15, 730 

Perseus, son of Dauae and Jupiter, 
who appeared to her in the form 
of a golden shower, iv. 610, 640; 
v. 250; vi. 113; grandson of 
Acrisius, iv. 613; relates bow 
he gained the Gorgon-head, 
rv. 772 IT. ; flies through the air 
bearing the Gorgon-head, which 
petrifies all who look upou it, 
rv. 615; he is equipped with 
the wings and sword of Mercury, 
iv. 665; and the bronze shield 
of Minerva, iv. 782 ; Minerva 
was his helper in all his adven- 
tures, v. 250 ; his adventure 
with Atlas, whom he changes 
into a rocky mountain, iv. 
632 ff. ; be finds Audromeda 
chained to a rock, fights and 
kills the sea-monster which had 
been sent to devour her, and 
claims the maiden as his wife, 
iv. 670 ft*. ; Cepheus, king of 
Ethiopia, father of Andromeda, 
Joyfully receives him as son-in- 
lnw, iv. 738 ; he fights Phineus 


and his friends, who try to break 
the proposed marriage, and 
finally overcomes them by the 
aid of the Gorgon-head, v. 1 ff . ; 
drives Proetus from the throne 
of AcrNius and slays him 
with sight of the Gorgon-head, 
v. 236 ff. ; in like manner he 
Blays Polydectes, v. 242 ff. ; his 
epithets are: Ahantiades, Acri- 
sioniades, Agenorides, Danaeius, 
Inachides, Lyncides 

Persis, Persian, I. 62 

Petr:ieus, a ceutaur, sen. 327, 330 

Pettalus, a companion of Phineus, 
v. 115 

Peucetius, of Peucetia, a region In 
Apulia, xiv. 514 

Phaeaces, the Phaeacians, the 
fabled inhabitants of the island 
of Scheria, who lived in great 
luxury, xiii. 719 

Phaedimu8, one of the seven sons 
of Niobe, vi. 239 

Phaedra, daughter of Pasiphae and 
Minos, wife of Theseus; loved 
her stepson Hippolytus, and 
being repulsed accused him to 
his father and so brought him 
to death, xv. 600 ft. 

Phaeocomes, a centaur, xn. 4 31 

Phaestias, Phaestins, of Phaestna, 
a city of Crete, ix. 669, 716 

Phae'thon, grandson of Tethys, II. 
166; son of Phoebus and 
Clymene, the wife of the 
Ethiopian king Merops, I. 751, 
763, 771 ; n. 19, 48, 184 ; goes to 
Phoebus and asks for proofs of 
his sonship, II. 36 ; granted any- 
thing he may desire, he asks for 
permission to drive the chariot 
of his father for one day, n. 
48 ft*. ; starts on his course 
through the sky, n. 150 ff. ; 
hurled from the chariot and 
killed by the thunderbolt of 
Jupiter, n. 311 ff. ; falls to earth 


on the bank of the Po, where 
the Naiads And and bury him, 
II. 324 fl. 
Pbaethonteiis, pertaining 1 to 

Phaethon, his fires, iv. 246 
Phae'thontis, pertaining to Phae- 
tlion ; volucris, the bird of 
Phaethon — that is, the swan, into 
wnich Cycnus, son of Sthenelus, 
grieving for the death of Phae- 
thon, was changed, xn. 581 
Pliaethusa, one of the Heliades, 
sisters of Phaethon, II. 346 

Phantasos, a son of Somnus, XI. 

Pharos, a little island near Alex- 
andria in Egypt, ix. 773 ; xv. 

Pharsalia, the region about Phar- 
salus. a city in Thessaly, where 
Caesar defeated Pompey in 48 
B.C., xv. 828 

Phasias, au epithet of Medea from 
the Phasis, a river of her native 
Colchis, vii. 298 

Phasis, a river in Colchis, II. 249 ; 
vu. 6, 298 

Phege'ius, belonging to Phegeus, 
king of Psophis in Arcadia; his 
daughter was Alphesiboea, the 
first wife of Alcmaeon, who left 
her to marry Callirhoe, and was 
slain by the brothers of Alphesi- 
boea; hence the "sword of Phe- 
geus," In the hands of his sons, 
is said to have drained his 
kinsman's (i.e. his son-in-law's) 
blood, ix. 412 

Phegiacus, from the city of Phegia 
in Arcadia, n. 244 

Phene, wife of Periphas, vu. 399 

Pheretiades, Admetus, son of 
Pheres, king of Pherae in Thes- 
saly, one of the Calydonian 
hunters, vm. 310 

Fhlnle, a nymph in the train of 
liana, in. 17S 

k'hUammon, son of Apollo and 

Chione, celel rated for his gift of 
soutr, xi. 3 1 " 
Philemon and Ban is, a pious old 
couple in Phrygia who enter- 
tained Jupite and Mercury, 
VIII. 618 ff. 

Philippi, a city in Macedonia, 
where Octaviauus and Antony 
defeated Brutus aud Cassius in 
42 B.C., XV. 824 

Philoctetes, son of Poeas, ix. 233 ; 
mil 45, 313; a friend of Her- 
cules, set fire to the hero's pyre 
ou Mount Oeta, aud receivtd the 
famous bow and arrows, ix. 233 ; 
xin. 51 ; on the way to Troy he 
was bitten by a suake at Leinuos, 
and by the advice of Ulysses he 
was abandoned there by the 
Greeks, xm. 46, 318 ff. ; here 
he dragged out a wretched 
existence until in the tenth year 
of the war, in accordance with 
an oracle that Troy could not 
be taken without the arrows of 
Hercules, Ulysses went to Lein- 
nos and persuaded Philoctetes to 
joiu the Greeks at Troy, xm. 64, 
313, 329, 402 

Philomela, daughter of Pandion, 
sister of Procne, imprisoned and 
outraged by her sister's husband 
Tereus while on the way from 
Athens in his company to visit 
her sister, VI. 440 ff. ; manages 
to send news of her plight to 
Procne, vi. 572 ff. ; rescued by 
her sister, she plans with her a 
terrible revenge on Tereus, vi. 
601 ff. ; pursued by Tereus, she 
is changed into a nightingale, 
vi. 668 

Philyra, a nymph, daughter of 
Oceanus, whom Saturn loved, 
changing her into a mare and 
himself into a horse ; their son 
was Chiron, the centaur, n. 676 ; 
VI. 126 



PhilyreTns heros, Cliiron, son of 
Philyra, n. 676 ; Philyrcia tecta 
= the home of Chiron, vn. 

I'liiiiCiiB : (1) brother of the Ethio- 
pian king Cepheus, uncle of 
Andromeda, to whom he had been 
betrothed before the coming of 
Perseus ; with a band of followers 
he attacks Perseus at the wedding 
feast, and with all hiscornpauions 
is finally repulsed, petrified by the 
Bight of the Gorgon-head, v. 1 ft. ; 
(2) a king of Salmydessus ir 
Thrace, a blind prophet who 
had received the gift of prophecy 
from Apollo; he was tormented 
by the Harpies, who were sent to 
punish him because of liis cruelty 
towards his sons; when the Ar- 
gonauts asked instruction from 
him on their way to Colchis, he 
promised this if they would 
deliver him from the Harpies ; 
accordingly the winged sons of 
Boreas, Zetes and Calais, drove 
the pests far away to the island 
of the Strophades, vn. 3 

Phlegethou, a river of the lower 
world, v. 544 ; XV. 632 

Phlegraens, a centaur, XII. 378 

Phlegraeus, of Phlegra, a region of 
Macedonia, x. 151 

Phlegyae, a robber people of 
Thessaly who destroyed the 
temple at Delphi, xi. 414 

Phlegyas, a companion of Phineus, 
v. 87 

Phobetor, a son of Somnus, xi. 

Phocis, a country in Greece between 
Boeotia and Aetolia, I. 313; II. 
669; v. 276 ; XI. 348 

Phocus, son of Aeacus and the 
Nereid Psamathe, half-brother of 
Teiamon and Peleus, vn. 477, 
668, 685, 690; he was acciden- 
tally killed by Peleus, xi. 267 


Phoebe, a name for Diana, twin 
sister of Phoebus Apollo, VI. 
216 ; xu. 36 ; the goddess of the 
moon, II. 723 ; virgin huntress, 
I. 476; ii. 415; by metonymy 
for the moon, I. 11. See Diana 
Phoebus, a familiar name of 
Apollo, I. 451, 463; v. 330 ; VI. 
122,215; xv. 650; especially as 
the Sun-god, I. 752 ; II. 24, 36, 
399 ; hence frequently by meto- 
nymy for the sun Itself, i. 338; 
H. 110; m. 151; iv. 349, 716 ; 
xi. 595 ; xiv. 416 ; the oracular 
ood, ill. 8, 10. 18 ; XIII. 677 ; XV. 
631 ; Cassandra is called antistita 
Phoebi, "the high priestess of 
Phoebus," because the god had 
given her the power of prophecy, 
xiii. 410; Anius is antistes or 
high priest at Dclos, xm. 632 ; 
as god of the harp he contests 
against the pipes of Pan, xi. 
164; god of the bow, vm. 31, 
350; xm. 601 ; called domesticus, 
because Augustus in 12 B.C. 
erected a temple to the god on 
the Palatine and included him 
among his penatcs, xv. 865 

Phoenissa, Phoenix, of Phoenicia, 
Phoenician, III, 46 ; xv. 288 

Phoenix, son of Amyntor of Thes- 
saly, companion of Achilles, 
preseut at the Calydonian boar- 
hunt, vm. 307 

Phoenix bird, the storyof its birth, 
life, and death, xv. 393 tL 

Pholus, a centaur, xu. 306 

Phorbas: (1) a companion of Phi- 
neus, v. 74 ; (2) leader of the 
Phlegyae, who plundered the 
temple of Apollo at Delphi, xi. 
414 ; (3) a centaur, XXI. 322 

Phorcldes, the Graeae, daughters 
of Phorcys, who had but one eye 
among them, iv. 775 

Phorcynis, Medusa as daughter of 
Phorcys, iv. 741; v. 330 


Phoronls, an epithet of lo as sister 
of Plioroneus, son of Inachus, 
kin? of Argos, I. 668 ; II. 624 

Phrixea vellera, " tlie fleece of 
Plirixus" — that is, the golden 
fleece of the ram on which 
Plirixus, son of Athamas and 
Nephele, brother of Helle, es- 
caped with his sister from his 
stepmother's machinations and 
fled through the air to Colchis, 
where he sacrificed the ram to 
Jupiter and gave the wonderful 
fleece to Kin? Aeetes, vn. 7 

Phryges, the Phrygians, XI. 91 ; 
more frequently by metonymy = 
the Trojans, xn. 70, 612; xm. 
389, 435; xv. 452 

Phrygia, a country in Asia Minor, 
VI. 146, 166, 177 ; VIII. 162, 621 ; 
XI. 91 ; xv. 452 ; Phrygius = 
Trojan, x. 165 ; xi. 203 ; XII. 39, 
70, 148, 612 ; xm. 44, 337, 389, 
432, 435, 679, 721 ; XIV. 79, 562 ; 
XV. 444 

Phthia, a city in Thessaly, the 
birthplace of Achilles, xm. 156 

Phylcus, one of the Calydonian 
hunters, vm. 308 

Phylleti8, an epithet of Caeneus 
from the Thessalian town of 
Phyllos, xn. 479 

Phyllius, friend of Cycnus (2), vn. 

Picus, son of Saturn, ancient king 
of Latium, husband of Canens, 
repulsed the love of Circe and 
was changed by her into a wood- 
pecker, xiv. 320 ff. 

Pierus, a king of Emathia ; he had 
nine daughters, called Emathides 
from the name of their country, 
v. 669 ; these daughters also 
called (though not in the Meta- 
morphoses) by thp patronymic 
epithet Pierides, t name borne 
by the Muse s also from Pieria, 
the earliest seat of the worship 

of the Muses ; the daughters oi 
Pierus challenge the Muses to a 
contest in song, are defeated an i 
changed into magpies, v. 300 ff. 

Piudus, a mountain in Thessaly, i. 
570 ; II. 225 ; vn. 225 ; xi. 554 

Piraeus, the harbour of Athens, vl 

Pirene, a famous spring near 
Corinth, n. 240; vn. 391 

Pirenis, belonging to Pirene, a 
fountain on the citadel of 
Corinth, sacred to the Muses, 
II. 240; vii. 391 

Pirithoiis, son of Ixion, vm. 403, 
566, 613 ; xu. 210 ; king of the 
Lapkhae in Thessaly, friend of 
Theseus, vm. 303, 4 04; xn.229; 
was present with his friend at 
the Calydonian boar-hunt, vm. 
404; was in the group enter- 
tained by Acheloiis, vm. 567 ; 
his marriage with Hippodamia 
was the occasion of the great 
battle of the centaurs (who had 
been invited to the wedding, and 
one of whom attempted violence 
on the bride) and the Lapithae, 
followers of Pirithoiis, xn. 210 ff. 

Pisa, a city in Elis, v. 409, 494 

Pisces, a constellation, the Fish, 
the twelfth sign of the Zodiac, 
X. 78; used also collectively in 
the singular, Piscis, x. 165 

Pisenor, a centaur, xn. 303 

Pitane, a city on the Aeolic coast of 
Asia Minor, vil. 357 

Pithecusae, an island not far from 
Cumae, xiv. 90 

Pittheus, king of Troezen, son of 
Pelops, grandfather of Theseus, 
VI. 418 ; vm. 622 ; XV. 296, 506 

Pleiades, the seven daughters of 
Atlas and the ocean-nymph 
Pleione; they form a small con- 
stellation in the neck of Taurus, 
and are represented on the shield 
of Achilles, xm. 293 ; their 



names were Maia, Electra, Tay- 
geta, Halcyone. Celaeno, Ste'ope, 
and Mcrope; of these reference 
Is made In the Metamorphoses 
to two only, Maia (but not by 
name), the mother by Jupiter of 
Mercury, I. 670 : and Taygeta, 
III. 595 ; Niobe boasts that her 
mother (Dione) is a Bister of the 
Pleiades, i.e. she is one of the 
Hyaites, VI. 174 

Pleione, daughter of Oceanns, wife 
of Atlas, mother of the Pleiades, 
ii. 743 

Pleuron, a city in Aetolia, vn. 382 ; 
xiv. 494 

Plexippus, son of Thestius, brother 
of Althaea, killed by his nephew, 
Meleager, for Insulting Ata- 
lanta, vtu. 440 

Poeaniiades, Philoctetes, son of 
Poeas, xiii. 313 

Poeantia proles, the same as the 
preceding, xm. 45 

Poeas, the father of Philoctetes, 
IX. 233 

Polites, a companion of Ulysses, 
xiv. 251 

Polydaemon, a companion of 
Phiueus, v. 85 

Polydamas, a Trojan, son of 
Panthoiis and friend of Hector, 
Xll. 647 

Polydectes, a ruler of Seriphus, 
petrified by a look at the Gorgon- 
head, v. 242 

Polydegtnou, a companion of 
Phineus, v. 85 

Polydorus, son of Priam and 
Hecuba; when the Trojan war 
came on he was sent with a 
large treasure for safe keeping 
to Polymestor, but later was 
murdered by biui and his dead 
body cast out upon the seashore, 
xm. 432 fT. ; Hecuba thinks of 
him as her only comfort left 
after the death of Polyxena, 


xm. 530 ; and Immediately 
thereafter finds his dead body 
on the shore, xm. 536 ; Aeneas 
sails past the scene of his murder, 
XIII. 629 

Polymestor, a king of Thrace, 
husband of Itinue, daughter of 
I'riain ; murders Polydorus to 
gain the treasure consigned with 
him, xm. 430; Hecuba, finding 
out the crime, works terrible 
vengeance on the murderer, xm. 
549 ff. 

Polypemon, father of Sciron, grand- 
father of Alcyone (neptetn Po'y- 
pemonis) ; Sciron pushed his 
daughter into the sea, charging 
her with unchastity, aud she was 
changed into a halcyou, vn. 401 

Polyphemus, one of the Cyclopes, 
sous of Neptune, a race of 
fabulous one-eyed giants living 
in Sicily ; his wooing of Galatea, 
xm. 744 ff. ; warucd by Tele- 
mus that he is destined to lose 
his eye at the hands of Ulysses, 
xm. 771; his encounter with 
Ulysses' band described by 
Acb.aemeuid.-8, xiv. 167 ff. 

Polyxena, daughter of Priam and 
Hecuba ; at the command of the 
shade of Achilles she was sacri- 
ficed upon his tomb, xm. 448 ff. 

Pomona, a beautiful wood-nymph 
of Latium, devoted to horticul- 
ture, wooed by many suitors and 
won by Vertumnus, xiv. 623 ff. 

Pompeius Sextus, the second son 
of Pompey the Great, conquered 
in the year 36 B.C., in a sea-fight 
off Sicily between Mylae and 
Naulochus, by Agrippa, the 
admiral of Augustus, xv. 825 

Pontus, the Black Sea, hence a 
kingdom in Asia Minor border- 
ing on that sea, xv. 756 

Priameia couiunx, Hecuba, wife 
of Priam, xm. 404 


Priamldes, Helcnus, son of Priam, 
xni. 99, 723 ; xv. 438 : in plural, 
Priamidae, the sons o£ Priam, 
xni. 482 

Priaiuus, Priam, the son of Laome- 
don, last king of Troy, xi. 767 ; 
husband of Hecuba, by whom 
he had numerous sons and 
daughters, notably, as mentioned 
in the Metamorphoses, Hector, 
Paris, Helenus, Polydorus, 
Dei'phobus, Cassandra aud Poly x- 
ena ; Aesacus was the son of 
Priam by Alexiroe ; Priam, not 
aware that he has been changed 
into a bird, mourns his loss, xn. 
1 ; he would have given Helen 
back at the demand of Ulysses, 
but was overborne by the 
younger party, xm. 201 ; on 
the night of the fall of Troy he 
was killed by PyrrhuB at the 
altar of Jupiter in the court of 
his own palace, xm. 404 

Priapus, god of gardens and vine- 
yards, in which his statues are 
set as a sort of scarecrow to 
frighten thieves, xiv. 640 ; Lotis, 
in terror of his pursuit, escapes 
by being changed into a tree, 
IX. 347 

1'roca, an Alban king, father of 
Nurnitor and Amulins, xiv. 622 

Procliyte, an island off the coast of 
Campania, xiv. 89 

Procne, daughter of Pandion, 
married Tereus under evil 
omens, VI. 428 fl. ; mother of 
Itys, VI. 437 ; gets news of her 
sister's wrongs aud plans a 
terrible revenge on her husband, 
vi. 680 fl. ; pursued by her hus- 
band, she is changed into a 
swallow, vi. 668 

Procri8, daughter of Erecthens, 
king of Athens, vii. 697; sister 
of Orithyia, vn. 695 ; wife of 
Cephalus, vi. 682; the story of 

the devoted love of Procris and 
Cephalus and its tragic end, 
vii. 694 fl. 

Procrustes, a famous robber who 
compelled all passers-by to lie 
on a couch to which he fitted 
them either by cutting off or 
stretching out their bodies ; he 
was slain by Theseus, vn. 438 

Proetides, daughters of Proetus; 
being punished with madness 
by Juuo for their pride, they 
Imagined themselves to be cows ; 
they were restored to sanity by 
the soothsayer, Melampus, the 
son of Amythaon, xv. 826 

Proetus, the twin brother of 
Acrisius, drove the latter from 
his throne of Argos, but was 
petrified by a sight of the 
Gorgon-head in the hands of 
Perseus, v. 238 

Prometheus, the son of Iapetus, 
represented as makiug man out 
of clay, i. 82 ; father of Deuca- 
lion, I. 390 

Prometbides, Deucalion, son of 
Prometheus, I. 390 

Propoetides, girls of A mat h us who 
denied the diviuity of Venus 
and by her wrath were driven to 
prostitution and later changed 
to stones, x. 221, 238 

Proreus, one of Acoetes' sailors, 
in. 634 

Proserpina, daughter of Cere* and 
Jupiter, v. 376, 614 ; carried 
away by Pluto and made hii 
queen in the lower world, v. 
39 1 fl. ; terms of her return to 
the upper world settled by 
Jupiter, v. 530 ; she is to spend 
her time equally on earth and in 
Hades, v. 564 ; she changes Asoa- 
laphus into a screech-owl, v. 
544 ; she is now queen of the 
lower world, v. 543; x. 46. See 



Proteatlalls, a Thessalian chief, 
slain by Hector's spear, the first 
of the Greeks to fall in the 
Trojan war, xii. 68 

Proteus, a sea-god, capable of 
changing into many forms, II. 9 ; 
viii. 731; xi. 221; xui. 918; 
called the "Carpathian seer" 
because of his prophetic gift 
and his favourite haunt near 
the island of Carpathos in the 
Aegeau Sea, XI. 249 

Prothoenor, a courtier of Cepheus, 
v. 98 

Prytauis, a Lycian, xm. 258 

Psamatbe, a Nereid, mother by 
Aeacus of Phocus, whom his 
half-brother Peleus accidentally 
killed ; she sends a monster wolf 
to harry the cattle of Peleus, 
XI. 380, 398 

Psecas, a nymph in Diana's train, 
in. 172 

Psophis, a city in Arcadia, v. 

Pygmaeus, a Pigmy, one of a 
fabulous tribe of dwarfs who 
bad constant strife against the 
cranes, vi. 90 

Pygmalion, a Cyprian, who made a 
beautiful ivory maiden and fell 
In love with it ; through the 
grace of Venus the statue was 
changed into a human maid, x. 
243 ff. 

Pylos, a city In Elis, the home of 
Nestor, II. 684; vi. 418; VIM. 
365 ; xii. 537, 542, 550 ; XV. 838 

Pyracmus, a centaur, xii. 480 

Pyraethus, a centaur, xii. 449 

Pyramus and Thisbe, story of, 
iv. 55 ft 

Pyreneus, king of Thrace, who 
assaulted the Muses, v. 274 ff. 

Pyro'is, one of the horses of the 
8un-sod, II. 153 

Pyrrha, daughter of the Titan Epl- 
metheus, called thence Titania, 


i. 395 ; Epimethls, I. 390 ; wife of 
Deucalion, I. 350 

Pyrrhus, son of Achilles and 
Dei'damia, daughter of Ly- 
comedes, king of Scyros, at 
whose court Achilles' mother 
had hidden her son disguised as 
a girl, xm. 155 

Pythagoras, a famous Greek philo- 
sopher of Samos who took up his 
residence at Crotona in Italy, 
where Numa came to be his 
pupil ; his philosophy recounted 
at length, xv. 60 ff. ; he claimed 
to be the reincarnation of Eu- 
phorbus, xv. 161 

Pythia, the Pythian games, cele- 
brated at Delphi in houour of 
Apollo every four years in com- 
memoration of his conquest of 
the Python, I. 447 

Python, a huge serpent sponta- 
neously generated from the fresh 
slime of the earth after the flood, 
killed by Apollo, I. 438 ff.; gave 
name to Pythian games, I. 447 

Qdirinu8, the name under which 
the Romans worshipped the 
deified Romulus, xiv. 828, 834, 
851; xv. 862 : the son of Mars, 
xv. 863 ; turba and Populus 
Quirini •= the Romans, xiv. 607 ; 
xv. 756 ; coll is Quirini — the 
Quiriual Hill, xiv. 836 

Quirites, and collectively Quires, 
the Cures or Sabiues, used com- 
monly -= Romans, after the 
union of the Sabines with the 
people of Romulus, xiv. 823 ; 
XV. 600 

Remulus, an Alban king, xrv. 616 
Rhadamanthus, a son of Jupiter 

and Kuropa, brother of Minos; 

Jupiter grieves that he cannot 

grant him immortality on earth, 

IX. 436, 440 


Rhamunsia, a Dame of Nemesis 

from her temple at Rhamnus in 

Attica, m. 406 

Rhamnmis =- Bhamuusia, xiv. 694 

Rhanis, a nymph in the train of 

Diana, m. 171 
Rheyion, a city in the southern 
part of Calabria on the Sicilian 
Strait, xiv. 5, 48 
Rhesus, a Thracian king of whom 
the oracle had said that if his 
horses should have drunk of 
the water of the Xanthus Troy 
could not be taken ; Ulysses and 
Diomede frustrated this oracle 
by killing Rhesus and capturing 
his horses, xm. 98, 249 
Rhexenor, a companion of Dio- 
mede changed by Venus into a 
bird, xiv. 504 
Rhodanus, the Rhone, a river in 

Gaul, II. 258 
Rhodope,once a man, changed into 
a mountain in punishment of his 
impious presumption, VI. 87; 
mentioned elsewhere as a moun- 
tain in Thrace, II. 222 ; vi. 589 : 
X. 11, 50, 77 
Rhodopeius, an epithet of Orpheus, 
from Rhodope, a mountain of 
his native Thrace, x. 11, 50 
Rhodos, an island off the south- 
western coast of Asia Minor, vn. 
Rhoeteiis, of Rhoeteum, a promon- 
tory in the Troad, xi. 197 
Rhoetus: (1) a companion of 
Phineus, v. 38 ; (2) a centaur, 
xil. 271, 2S5 
Ripheus, a centaur, xn. 352 
Roma, Rome, I. 201 ; xiv. 800, 809, 

840 ; XV. 431, 637, 654, 73C 
Romanns, the Roman people, xv. 
637, 654 ; Rome's greatness pro- 
phesied, xv. 444 ff. 
Romethinm, a place in Italy, xv. 

Romuleiis, belonging to Romulus; 

colics, the Qniilnal Hill, xiv. 
845 ; urbs — Rome, xv. 625 

Romulus, son of Mars, xv. 863; 
and of Ilia (Iliades), xiv. 781, 
824 ; called genitor, father of 
the Roman people, xv. 862 ; he 
fights against the Sabines, xiv. 
799 ; his spear-shaft, fixed in the 
ground, puts forth leaves and is 
changed to a tree, xv. 661 ff. ; 
at the instance of Mars he is 
received into the company of 
the gods, xiv. 806 ff. See Qui- 

Rutuli, a people of Latium whose 
chief city was Ardea and whose 
hero was Turnus, xiv. 455, 528, 

Sabaeus, of the Sabeans, a people 
in Arabia Felix, x. 480 

Sabini, the Sabines, a people of 
Central Italy, connected with 
the early history of Rome, xiv. 
775, 797, 800, 832; XV. 4 

Salamis, a city on the island of 
Cyprus, founded hy Teueer.who 
came from the island of Salamis, 
xiv. 760 

Sallentinus, of the Sallentines, a 
people of Calabria, xv. 50 

Salmacis, a pool in Caria whose 
waters were enfeebling, iv. 286 ; 
xv. 319; a nymph of the pool 
who was enamoured of Herma- 
phroditus, iv. 306 ff. 

Samius, an epithet of Pythagoras, 
a celebrated philosopher of 
Samos, xv. 60. See Pythagoras 

Samos : (1) an island off the coast 
of Asia Minor, famed as the 
birthplace of Pythagoras, sacred 
also to Juno, vm. 221 ; xv. 60, 
61 ; (2) an island in the Ionian 
Sea under the dominion of 
Ulysses, xm. 711 

Sardes (Sardis), the ancient capital 
of Lydia, xi. 137, 152 



Sarpedon, a Lycian chief, son of 
Jupiter ii iid Europa, killed by 
Patroclus before Troy ; Ulysses 
boasts that he harried his baud, 
xhi. 255 

Saturnla, an epithet of Juno as the 
daughter of Saturn, I. 612, 616, 
722; II. 435, 631; III. 271, 293, 
333, 365; iv. 448, 464; v. 330; 
ix. 176 ; xiv. 782 

Saturnius, belonging to Saturn ; 
applied (1) to Jupiter, I. 163 ; 
vm. 708 ; ix. 242 ; (2) to Pluto, 
v.420 ; (3) to Picus as the son of 
Saturn, proles Saturnla, xiv. 320 

Saturnus, sou of Heaven and Earth, 
ruler of the universe during the 
Golden Age ; he was dethroned 
by his three sons (Jupiter, 
Neptune, aud Pluto, who shared 
his kingdom by lot among 
themselves) and sent to Tartara, 

I. 113 ; his wife was Ops, his 
sister, ix. 498 ; his children by 
her were the three sons men- 
tioned above, also Juno, Ceres, 
and Vesta ; Chiron, by Philyra, 

II. 676; VI. 126 ; and Picus, xiv. 

Schoeneia, Atalanta, daughter 
of Schoeneus, king of Boeotia, 
X. 609, 660 

Sciron, a famous robber on the 
rocky coast between Megaris and 
Attica, who threw his victims 
over high cliffs into the sea ; 
Theseus treated him in the same 
way ; his bones were changed to 
rocks which bore his name, VII. 
444, 447 

Scylla : (1) daughter of the nymph 
Crataeis, xm. 749 ; remarkable 
for her beauty and sought by 
many suitors, xm. 734 if. ; wooed 
by Glaucus, a sea-divinity, xm. 
900 fl. ; repulses him, xm. 967; 
Glaucus appeals to Circe for 
aid in his suit, xiv. 18 ft. ; Circe 


otters her own love to Glaucus, 
but, being repulsed by him, takes 
revenge by changing Scylla into 
a frightful monster; she Is fixed 
in place, a woman's form begirt 
with baying heads of dogs, vn. 
65; xm. 732; xiv. 69 ff. ; this 
monster takes toll of the men of 
Ulysses, thiuking thus to harm 
Circe, xiv. 70 ; Scylla was subse- 
quently changed to a dangerous 
rock in the same place, on the 
Italian side of the straits of 
Sicily, opposite Charybdis, xiv. 
73 ; (2) daughter of Nisus of 
Megara, who for love of Minos, 
who was besieging her native 
city, cut off her father's purple 
lock, on which hissafety depended, 
and gave it to Minos; scorned 
by him, she was transformed into 
the bird Ciris, vm. U ft. 

Scyros : (1) an island north-east of 
Euboea, xm. 166 ; (2) a town in 
Asia Minor, xm. 176 

Scythia, the country of the Scy- 
thians, lying in Northern Europe 
and Asia beyond the Black Sea, 
I. 64 ; II. 224 ; V. 649 ; vn. 407 ; 
vm. 788 ; x. 588 ; xiv. J31 ; xv. 
285, 360 

Semele, daughter of Cadmus, be- 
loved by Jupiter, mother of 
Bacchus, destroyed by Juno's 
wiles, m. 261 ff. 

Semelei'us, an epithet of Ilacchus 
from his mother, Semele, in. 
620 ; v. 329; IX. 641 

Setniramis, a mythical queen of 
Babylon, daughter of Dercetis ; 
was changed at last into a white 
dove, iv. 47 ; surrounded Baby- 
lon with walls of brick, iv. 58 ; 
her husband was Ninus, iv. 88 ; 
she was the ancestress of Poly- 
daemon, v. 86 

Seriphoi, an island of the Cyoladea, 
V. 242, 251; vn. 464 


Serpens, a northern constellation, 
ii. 173. See Auguis 

Sibylla, the priestess of Apollo at 
his temple in Cumae; is visited 
by Aeneas, guides him through 
the lower world, and tells him 
the story of Apollo's love and 
her foolish choice of a gift, xiv. 
104 ff. ; xv. 712 

Sicania, a name for Sicily, V. 464, 
495 ; xm. 724 ; xv. 279 

Sicells, Siculus, Sicilian, v. 861, 
412; Vll. 66; VIII. 283; xui. 
770 ; Xiv. 7; XV. 706, 826 

Sicyonius, of the city of Sicyon in 
the Peloponnesus, in. 216 

Sidon, a city in Phoenicia, II. 840 ; 
m. 129 ; iv. 643, 672 ; x. 267 ; 
xiv. 80 

Sidonis, an epithet of Dido as one 
who came from the Phoenician 
city of Sidon, xiv. 80 

Sidonius, an epithet applied to 
Cadmus, who came from Phoe- 
nicia, in. 129; to the Theban 
companions of Ino, because they 
were derived from Phoenician 
stock of Cadmus and his com- 
panions, iv. 643 

Sigei'us, Sigeils, of Sigeum, a pro- 
montory in the Troad, xi. 197 ; 
xn. 71 ; XIII. 3 

8i!enus, a satyr, the foster-father 
of Bacchus, iv. 26 ; kindly en- 
tertained by Midas, XI. 90 ff. 

Silver Age, described, I. 114 ff. 

Silvius, son of Ascanius, king of 
Alba, xiv. 610 

Simo'is, a river near Troy, xin. 324 

Siuis, an Isthmian robber who 
bound travellers to tree-tops, 
bent these dowu, and shot his 
victims into the air ; he was 
killed by Theseus, vii. 440 

Sinuessa, a town in Campania, xv. 

Siphnos, an island of the Cyclades, 
VII. 466 

Sipylus, one of the seven sopjb of 
Niobe, named after a mountain 
in his mother's native Lydia, vi 
149, 231 

Sirenes, daughters of Achelolls 
(Acheloides, v. 552), companions 
of the maiden Proserpina ; when 
she was lost, having searched 
the land over for her, at their 
own request they were changed 
to birds that they might search 
over the sea also, v. 552 ff . ; they 
were exceedingly skilled In 
song, v. 655 ; the " rocks of the 
Sirens" were three small rocky 
islands off the coast of Cam- 
pania, from which, by their 
sweet voices, the Sirens were 
said to lure passing siilors to 
their destruction, xiv. 88 

Sirinus, of Siris, a town and river 
in Lucania, xv. 52 

Sisyphus, son of Aeolus, xm, 26 : 
brother of Athamas, iv. 466 ; he 
was famous for his cunning and 
robberies, XIII. 32 ; for which he 
was punished In Hades by the 
endless task of rolling a stone 
up a hill, which always rolled 
back again, iv. 460 ff. ; x. 44 ; 
xm. 26 ; he was supposed to 
have seduced Anticlea, the 
mother of Ulysses, and to have 
been himself the father of 
Ulysses, xm. 32 

Sithon, an otherwise unknown 
creature, now woman and now 
man, iv. 280 

Sithonius, of the Sithonians, a 
people of Thrace, — 
588 ; xm. 571 

Smilax. See Crocus 

Smintheus, an epithet of Apollo, 
"the mouse-killer," xn. 685 

Sol, the Sun-god, son of Hyperion, 
IV. 192, 241, 245, 257 ; XV. 30 ; 
father of Circe, xiv. 10, 33, 346, 
176 ; of Paiiphae, IX. 376 ; ol 



Aeetcs, VII. 96 ; this pod is fre- 
quently confused with Phoebus 
Apollo, l. 751 ff. ; II. 1 ft., 394 

Somuus, the god of Sleep, his house 
aud retinue described, xi. 593 ff. 

Sparta, the chief city of Laconia, 
called also Lacedaemon, in. 208 ; 
vi. 414; X. 170, 217 

Sperchios, a river in Thessaly, I. 
679; II. 250 ; v. 86 ; vn. 23u 

Stabiae, a city on the Bay of 
Naples, xv. 711 

Strophades, two small isiands in 
the Ionian Sea, where the Trojans 
encountered the Harpies, xm. 

Strymon, a river in Thrace, II. 

Stymphalis, of Stymphalus, a dis- 
trict in Arcadia with a town, 
mountain, and lake of the same 
name, the haunt of certain odious 
birds killed by Hercules, IX. 

Styphelus, a centaur, xn. 469 

Styx, a river of the world of the 
dead, used also by metonymy 
for the lower world and for death 
itself, I. 1S9, 189, 737 ; II. 46, 
101 ; III. 76, 272, 290, 604, 695 ; 
IV. 434, 437; v. 604; VI. 662; 
X. 13, 313, 697; xi. 500; XII. 
S22; xiv. 155, 591; xv. 154, 

Sunentinus, of Surrentum, a town 
ou the Bay or Naples, xv. 710 

Sybaris. a town and river in Italy 
near Tarentum, xv. 51, 315 

Syenites, the inhabitants of Syene 
in Upper Egypt, v. 74 

Symaethis, a daughter of the 
river-god Symaethus in Sicily, 
mother of Acis, xm. 750 

Symaethius, of Symaethus, a town 
in Sicily, xm. 879 

Symphlegades, two rocky islands 
in the Euxine Sea, which, ac- 
cording to fable, clashed together 


whenever any object passed be- 
tween them, vil. 62 ; xv. 838 

Syrinx, a nymph of Arcadia, be- 
loved aud pursued by Fan, I. 
689 ff. ; changed to a growth of 
reeds, 1. 705 ; Pau constructs a 
musical instrumeut out of these 
reeds, called either the "pipes of 
Pan " or the Syrinx, 1. 71 1 

Syros, an island of the Cyclades, 
vii. 464 

Syrtis, a dangerous sandbank on 
the northern coast of Africa, 
VIII. 120 

Taenaride8, belonging to Tae- 
narus, the southernmost point of 
Laconia ; used by metonymy for 
Laconian, an epithet of Hya- 
cinth us, x. 183 

Tages, an Etrurian deity, grandson 
of Jupiter ; he sprang from a 
clod into human form, and was 
the god who taught the Etruscans 
the art of divination, xv. 558 

Tagus, a gold-bearing river in 
Spain, 11. 251 

Tamasenus, of Tamasus, a city in 
Cyprus, x. 644 

Tanais, the god of the river of that 
name in Scythia, 11. 248 

Tantalides, Agamemnon as the 
great-grandson of Tantalus, xn. 

Tamalis, JJiobe as daughter of 
Tantalus, vi. 211 

Tantalus : (1) king of Phrygia, son 
of Jupiter, father of Pelops and 
Niobe, vi. 172; he was admitted 
to the table of the gods, vi. 173 ; 
because of the trick he played 
upon them (see Pelops), he was 
punished in Hades with thirst, 
standing up to his chin in water 
which constantly eluded his 
efforts to drink, iv. 458 ; x. 41 ; 
(2) one of the seven sons of 
Niobe, vi. 240 


Tarentum, a city In Lower Italy 
founded by a colony of Lace- 
dacuioniaus, xv. 50 

Tarpein, a Roman maid who 
treacherously opened the citadel 
to the Sabines aud was killed 
beneath the weight of their arms 
which they threw upon her, xiv. 
776 ; the Tarpeiae arces was the 
Capitollne Hill, on which stood a 
temple of Jupiter, xv. 866 

Tartarus, and plural, Tartara, a 
name for the infernal regions, 
I. 113 ; II 260 ; v. 871, 423 ; vi. 
676 ; XI. 670 ; xn. 257, 523, 


Tartessius, of Tartessus, an old 
Phoenician colony in Spain, xiv. 

Tatius, a king of the Sabines who 
fought against Romulus, but 
afterwards made peace and 
reigned jointly with him, xiv. 

Taurus, a mountain in Asia MiLor, 
il. 217 

Ta'ygete, a daughter of Atlas, one 
of the Pleiades, in. 695 

Tectaphus, one of the Lapithae, 
xn. 433 

Tegeaea = Arcadian, from Tegea, 
an ancient town in Arcadia ; an 
epithet of Atalanta (1), vm. 317, 

Telamon, son of Aeacus, king of 
Aegina, xin. 25 ; grandson of 
Jupiter, xin. 28; brother of 
Peleus and Phocus, vn. 4 76, 66!) ; 
xin. 151 ; father of Ajax, xn. 
624 ; xm. 22, 346 ; was present 
at the Calydonian boar-hunt, 
vm. 309, 378 : took part in the 
Ar^onantic expedition, nil, 24 ; 
aided Hercuies in taking Troy, 
xm. 23 ; whereby he gained 
Hesione as his wife, xi. 216; 
he was banished with Peleus 
from his father's house for the 

accidental killing of their half- 
brother Phocus, xm. 145. See 
Telamoniades and Telamonius, 
epithets of Ajax as the sou of 
Telatnon, xm. 194, 231, 266, 321 
Telchines.a fabled family of priests 
in Ialysus, an ancient city of 
Rhodes, who by the glance of 
their eye» could change things 
intouglyshapcs ; Jupiter plunged 
them into the sea, vn. 365 
Teleboas, a centaur, xn. 441 
Telemua, son of Eurymus, a seer, 

xm. 770 
Telephus, a king of Mysia, son of 
Hercules and the nymph Auge ; 
he was wounded at Troy by the 
spear of Achilles and afterwards 
healed by that hero, who rubbed 
rust from the spear upon the 
wound, xm. 171 ; xn. 112 
Telestes, a Cretan, father of Iauthe, 

ix. 717 
Telethusa, wife of Lygdus, mother 

of Iphis, IX. 682, 696, 766 
Tellus, the personification of the 
earth, the Earth-goddess, n. 272, 
301 ; vn. 196. See Terra 
Temese, a town in Bruttiuiu, rich 
in copper mines, vn. 207 ; xv. 
Tempe, the beautiful and famous 
valley of the Peueus in Thessaly, 
between Olympus and Ossa, I. 
669 ; VII. 222. 571 
Tenedos, a small island near Troy, 

I. 616; XII. 109; XIII. 174 
Tenos, an island of the Cyclades, 

vn. 469 
Tereus. king of Thrace, relieved 
Pandion, king of Athens, from 
siesre aud received his daughter, 
Procne, in marriage, vi. 424 S. ; 
at his wife's request goes to 
Athens that he may bring Philo- 
mela back with him to visit her 
sister, vi. 440 ft ; is entrusted 



by Pandiou with the care of 
Philomela, whom on the journey 
homeward he ravishes and shuts 
np in a house in the deep woods, 
vi. 620 ff. ; the two wronged 
women take vengeance upon him 
by murdering his son, Itys, and 
serving him up as a feast to the 
unwitting father, vi. 647 ff. ; he 
pursues them and both he and 
they are changed into birds, VI. 
671 11. 

Terra, the Earth-goddess, mother 
of the Giants, I. 157. See Tellus 

Tethys, a sea-goddess, sister and 
wife of Oceauus, n. 69, 156, 509 ; 
ix. 499; xm. 951; changes 
Aesacus into a diving-bird, xi. 
784 it. 

Teucer: (1) one of the most ancient 
kings of Troy, who came origin- 
ally from Crete ; from him the 
people were called Teucrians, 
xm. 705 ; (2) the son of Tela- 
mon and Hesione, half-brother 
of Ajax ; though the cousin of 
Achilles, he does not claim that 
hero's arms, xm. 167 ; he Is re- 
presented as the ancestor of 
Anaxarete of Cyprus, xiv. 698 

Teucri, a name of the Trojans from 
Teucer, their ancient king, xm. 
705, 728 ; —Trojan, xiv. 72 

Thaumantea, Thaumantias, and 
Thaumantls, epithets referring 
to Iris, the daughter ef Thaumas, 
IV. 480; XI. 647; XIV. 485 

Thaumas: (1) the father of Iris, 
see above ; (2) a centaur, xn. 

Thebae : (1) the capital city of 
Boeotia, founded by Cadmus, 
ruled over by Amphion, Oedipus, 
and Pentheus, the scene of 
numerous stories in myth and 
legend, III. 131, 549, 663 ; IV. 
416 ; v. 26$ ; vi. 163 ; vn. 761 ; 
IX. 403; XIII. 686, 692; XV. 


427, 429 ; (2) a city In Mysla 
xii, 110; xm. 173 

Thebai'des, the women of Thebes, 
VI. 163 

Themis, the daughter of Heaven 
and Earth, goddess of Justice ; 
has also oracular power ; Deuca- 
lion consults her oracle after the 
flood has subsided, i. 321, 379 ; 
warns Atlas that a son of Jupi- 
ter will despoil him of his golden 
tree, iv. 643 ; checks the vow of 
Hobe that she would grant the 
gift of youth to no one after 
Iolaiis, ix. 403, 418 

Therens. a centaur, xn. 353 

Thermodon, a river of Pontus on 
which lived the Amazons, n. 
249; ix. 189; xn. 611 

Therses, a guest of Anius, xm. 

Thersites, a mean fellow among 
the Greeks before Troy who 
loved to abuse the Greek chiefs ; 
he was chastised by Ulysses, 
xm. 233 

Thescelus, a companion of Phineus, 
v. 182 

Theseius heros, Hippolytus, son «f 
Theseus, xv. 492 

Theseus, son of Aegeus, king of 
Athens, xv. 856 ; called thence 
Aegides, viii. 174, 406; according 
to another story he was the sou 
of Neptune, hence Neptunius 
heros, ix. 1 ; his mother, with 
whom he spent his boyhood, was 
Aethra, daughter of Pittheus, 
king of Troezeu; when grown 
to manhood he made his way to 
Athens to his father ; on this 
journey he slew a number of 
murderous robber giants who 
infested the road, vn. 433 ft. ; he 
came to Athens unknown to his 
father ; Medea, whom Aegeus 
had lately married, sought to 
poison Theseus, but his father, 


recognizing him at the critical 
moment, drove Medea away, vn. 
404 ff. ; finding Aegeus paying 
by compulsion of Minos a tribute 
of youths and maidens to feed 
the Minotaur, he joined this band 
at the next levy, sailed to Crete, 
slew the Minotaur, and by the 
aid of Ariadne found his way out 
of the labyrinth, fled from Crete 
with her to Dia, where he de- 
serted her, vm. 170 ff. ; he now 
returns to Athens, where he is 
joyfully received, vm. 263; goes 
to the Calydonian boar-hunt, 
vm. 2 70 ff.; on his return to 
Athens he is entertained by the 
river-god, Achelolis, vm. 647 ff. ; 
as a fast friend of Pirithoiis, he 
takes a prominent part in the 
battle of the Lapithae against 
the centaurs, xn. 227 ; he had 
a son, Hippolytus, by Hippolyte, 
the Amazon ; for this son, now 
grown to young manhood, Phae- 
dra, a second wife of Theseus, 
conceived a passion ; repulsed 
by the young man, she accused 
him to his father of attempt- 
ing violence upon her; Theseus 
prayed to his father Neptune, 
who sent a monster from the sea 
to destroy Hippolytus, xv. 497 ff. 
See Cecropides 
Tliespludes, a name given to the 
Muses from Thespiae, a city 
near their favourite haunt on 
Helicon, v. 310 
Thessalis, Thessalus, of Thessaly, 
a country in the north-eastern 
part of Greece, vn. 222; vm. 
768 ; xn. 190 
Thestiadae, the two sons of Thes- 
tius, Toxeus and Plexippus, 
brothers of Althaea, whom Me- 
leager slew at the close of the 
Calydonian boar-hunt, vm. 304, 
4J4 ff. 

Thestias, Althaea, daughter of 
Tliestius, mother of Meleager, 
vm. 452, 473 
Tliestorldes, Calchas, the son of 

Thestor, XII. 19, 27 
Thetis, a sea-nymph, daughter of 
Nereus and Doris, xi. 221,226; 
xn. 93 ; wife of Peleus, xi. 217, 
400 ; story of Peleus' wooing, xi. 
221 ff. ; she prays the nymph 
Psamathe to put away her 
wrath against Peleus, xi. 400 ; 
she is the mother of Achilles; 
foreseeing his death in theTrojaa 
war, she disguises him as a girl 
and hides him at the court of 
King Lycomedes at Scyros, xm. 
162; obtains from Vulcan a 
wonderful suit of armour for 
her son, xm. 288 
Thisbaeus, of Thisbe, a town in 
Boeotia, in a region famous for 
Its doves, xi. 300 
Thisbe, a beautiful Babylonian 
maiden loved by Pyramus, iv. 
55 ff. 
Thoaetes,armour-bearerof Cepheus, 

v. 147 
Thoas, king of Lemnos, father of 

Hypslpyle, xm. 399 
Thoou, a Trojau, xm. 259 
Thracia, with the adjectives, 
Thracius, Thrax, Threieius, a 
country north-east of Macedonia, 
V. 276; VI. 87, 424, 435, 661, 
682 ; ix. 194 ; x. 83 ; xi. 2, 92 ; 
XIII. 436, 439,537,565, 628 
Thurinus, of Thuiii, a city ou the 

Tareutine Gulf, xv. 52 
Thybris, a Greek aud poetic form 
of the name Tiber, xiv. 427, 
448 ; XV. 432, 624 
Thyesteae mensae, "Thyestean 
banquet," such as that which 
Tliyestes consumed ; Atreus, his 
brother, served up Thyestes' own 
sons to him as a horrid revenge 
for his own wrongs, xv. 462 



Tbynei'us, of the Thynl, a Thracian 
people who emigrated to Bithy- 
uia, — Blthyuian. vm. 719 
Thyoneus: (l)auepithetof Bacchus 
from Thyoue, the name under 
which his mother, Semele, was 
worshipped, iv. 13 ; (2) a son of 
Bacchus; the god, in order to 
conceal his son's theft of a bul- 
lock, changed the latter into a 
stag and his son Into the form of 
a hunter, VII. 359 
Tiberinus, an Alhan king, xiv. 

614 ; of the Tiber, xv. 728 
Tireslas.a Theban who spent seven 
years in the form of a woman, 
in. 324 ff. ; he decides a dispute 
between Jupiter and Juno in 
favour of the former and ifl 
stricken with blindness by 
Juno, in. 332 ; is giveu power of 
prophecy by Jupiter, in. 336 ; 
foretells fate of her son, Nar- 
cissus, to Liriope, in. 346 ; his 
fame iuoreased by tragic fate of 
Narcissus, ill. 611 ; warns Pen- 
theus of his impending doom, 
III. 516 
Tirynthius, from Tiryns, a city in 
Argolis, an epithet commonly 
applied to Hercules, vn. 410 ; IX. 
66, 268; XII. 564; XIII. 401; 
Tirynthia, Alcmena, the mother 
of Hercules, vi. 112 
Tisiphone, one of the Furies, IV. 
474 ; at the request of Juno she 
drives Athamas mad, iv. 481 
Titan, the Titans were the children 
of Uranos and Gaea (Heaven 
and Earth), among whom the 
following are mentioued in the 
Metamorphoses : Coeus, Hype- 
rion, Iapetus, Oceanus, Saturnus, 
Mnemosyne, Tethys, Themis ; 
the name Titan la most fre- 
quently applied to Sol, the Sun- 
god, son of Hyperion, I. 10 ; vi. 
438; x. 79,174; xl 257; also 


to Phoebus in his manifestation 
as the Sun-god, II. 118 
Tltania and Titanis, a female de- 
scendant of a Titan, an epithet 
applied to Latoua as the 
daughter of Coeus, vi. 185, 346 ; 
to Diana as granddaughter of 
Coeus, in. 17 3; to Pyrrha as 
granddaughter of Iapetus, i. 
395 ; to Circe as daughter of 
the Sun-god, xm. 968 ; xiv. 14, 
376, 382, 438 
Tithonus, sou of Laomedon, hus- 
band of Aurora, father of Mem- 
non ; his wife had gained 
eternal life for him, but not 
eternal youth, ix. 421 
Tityos, a "iant, suffering In Hades 
for attempted violence on Latona; 
a vulture feeds on bis liver, which 
is ever renewed for his suffering 
iv. 457 ; x. 43 
Tiepolemus.asou of Hercules, leadei 
of the Klio liaus, chides Nestor 
for omitting Hercules' part in 
the battle against the centaurs, 
XII. 537, 574 
Tmolus, and Timolus, a mountain 
in Lydia, n. 217 ; vi. 16; XI. 86, 
152 ; the god of the mountain, 
made judge of a contest in music 
between Pan and Apollo, XI. 
156 ff. 
Tonaus, an epithet of Jupiter, 
" the Thunderer," I. 170 ; u. 
406 ; XI. 198 
Toxeus, son of Thestius, killed by 

his nephew, Melea^er, vm. 441 
Trachas, a town in Latium, xv. 

Trachin, a city in Thessaly, XI. 

269, 282, 602, 627 
Trachinius, an epithet of Ceyx, 

king of Trachin, XI. 282 
Tricce, a town in Thessaly, vn. 

Tridentifer, an epithet of Neptune, 
vm. 596 


Trlnaeria and Trinacris, an old 
Greek name for Sicily, v. 347, 476 

Triones, the constellation of the 
Wain, the Great and Little 
Bears, which were compared to 
a wagon with oxen yoked to it; 
lying far to the north, hence 
"cold," ii. 171; the Bears are 
forbidden by Oceauus, at Juno's 
request, to dip beneath his 
waters, ii. 172, 628; x. 446. See 

Triopei's, Mestra, the daughter of 
Erysichthon, granddaughter of 
Triopas, king of Thessaly, vm. 

TriopeTus, Erysichthon, son of 
Triopas, vm. 751 

Triptoleiuus, son of Celeus, king of 
Eleusin in Attica, seut over the 
world by Ceres in her chariot to 
disseminate seeds and the know- 
ledge of agriculture, v. 616 ; 
attacked by Lyucus, v. 65 3 

Triton, a sea-god. half man, half 
fish, son of Neptune, at whose 
bidding he blows on his shell to 
calm or rouse the sea, I. 333 ; II, 
8; xm. 919 

Tritonia, an epithet of Minerva, 
from Lake Triton in Africa, near 
which she is said first to have 
revealed herself, II. 783 ; v. 250, 
270 ; VI. 1 

Tritoniaca harundo, "Minerva's 
reed " : she is said to have In- 
vented the flute, vi. 384 

Tritonis = Tritonia, n. 794 ; v. 
645 ; vm. 548 

Trivia, an epithet of Diana because 
she was worshipped where three 
roads meet, II. 416. See Hecate 

Troezen.a city In Argolis, vi. 418 ; 
VIII. 566 ; XV. 296, 506 

Troezenius heros, Lelex, an In- 
habitant of Troezen, vm. 667 

Troia, Troy, th« famous city of the 
Troad, XI. 199, 208, 216, 757; 

XIII. 169, 197, 226, 325, 420,426, 
429, 500, 677, 623, 655, 721; 
xv. 424, 440, 442; Troas, a 
Trojan woman, xm. 421 566; 
Troes, the Trojans, xm. 67 ; xm. 
269, 274, 343, 375, 572; XIV. 

Troianus, Trojan, Till, 365 ; xm. 
23, 54, 336, 702; XIV. 140; XV. 

Tro'icu9, belonging to or from 
Troy, xn. 604 ; an epithet of 
the goddess Vesta as derived 
from Troy, xv. 730 

Ti'oius, an epithet of Aesacus, sou 
of Priaui, XI. 773; Of Aeneas, 
xiv. 156 

Tumus, a kin? of the Rutuli iu 
Italy, who opposes the peaceful 
entrance of Aeneas Into Latiutn, 
for he himself has been promised 
the daughter of Latiuus, who 
is now olfered to the stranger, 

XIV. 451 ; sends ambassadors to 
Diomede asking for aid, xiv. 
457 ff. ; attempts to burn the 
ships of Aeneas, xiv. 630 ff. ; he 
falls at last in a dnel with 
Aeneas, and his city of Ardea 
is burnt to the ground, xiv. 

Tuscns, Tuscan or Etrurian, be- 
longing to Ktrurla. a country on 
the north-western coast of Italy, 
xiv. 223. 616; —Tyrrhenian, be- 
cause Etruria was said to have 
been settled by that Felasgian 
race, m. 624 

Tydides, Diomede, son of Tydeus, 
xn 622 ; xm. 68 

Tynnaridae, Castor and Pollux, 
twin sous of Leda and of the 
Spartan king Tyndnreus, present 
at the Calydonlan boar -bunt, 
vm. 301, 372 ; later they were 
couuted the sons of Jupiter, and 
given a place in the heavens, 
caelestia sidera, vm. 372 



Tyndarie, an epithet of Helen as 
tbe daughter of Tyndareus, xv. 

Typhoeus, one of the Giants, sons 
of Earth, who put the heavenly 
gods to flight, v. 321 ff. ; struck 
with lightning by Jupiter and 
buried uuder Sicily, in. 308; v. 
348, 353 

Tyria paelex, an epithet of 
Europa, m. 258 

Tyros, a city in Phoenicia, in. 
539 ; xv. 288 ; Tyrius -=Tyrian or 
Phoenician, n. 845 ; II L 35, 258 ; 
V. 61, 390 ; VI. 61,222 ; IX. 340; 
X. 211; XI. 166 

Tyrrhenia, the country of the Tyr- 
rhenians, Etruria, xiv. 452 ; Tyr- 
rhenus, of or belonging to the 
Tyrrhenians, a I'elasgian people 
who migrated to Italy and 
formed the parent stock of the 
Etrurians, in, 396, 676 ; IV. 23, 
663; xiv. 8 ; xv. 653, 576 

Ulixeb, Ulysses, son of Laertes, 
xn. 625 ; xin. 48 ; by scanda- 
lous report, son of Sisyphus, 
xin. 31 ; great-grandson of 
Mercury on the side of his 
mother, Anticlea, daughter of 
Autolycus, son of Mercury, xin. 
146 ; great-grandson also of 
Jupiter on the side of his father, 
Laertes, the son of Arcesius, 
the son of Jnpiter, xm. 
143 ; he is king of Ithaca and 
ihe neighbouring small islands, 
hence called Ithacus, xin. 98, 
103 ; he is distinguished among 
the Greeks for his craft, re- 
sourcefulness, eloquence, and 
boldness, xin. 92, 712 ; xiv. 159, 
671 ; in order to avoid going to 
the Trojan war, he feigned to 
be mad by plowing on the sea- 
shore, but Palamedes uncovered 
the trick by laying Ulysses' 


little son, Telemachus, In front 
of the oxen, xm. 36 ff. ; Ulysses 
afterwards took vengeance on 
I'alamedes for this act, xin. 38, 
56 ; he was saved on the battle- 
fleid by Ajax, xm. 71 ff.; he 
defeuds his claim to the armour 
of Achilles, xm. 124 ff. ; it was 
he who discovered Achilles hid- 
ing on Scyros at the court of 
Lycomedes and brought him to 
the war, xm. 1 62 AC. ; and he is 
therefore entitled to credit for 
all that Achilles has done at 
Troy, xm. 171 ff. : he persuaded 
Agamemnon to sacrifice Iphi- 
genia at Aulis, xm. 181: and 
tricked Clytaemnestralnto giving 
her up, xm. 193 ; in company 
with Menelaiis he went to Troy 
before war was declared to pro 
test against the theft of Helen by 
Paris and to demand her return, 
xm. 196 ; he was actively en- 
gaged in the aid of the Greeks in 
every way during tbe long siege, 
xm. 211 ff. ; he chastised Ther- 
sites, xm. 233; he rescued the 
dead body of Achilles from the 
enemy, xm. 280 ff. ; defends 
himself against the charge of 
shrinking from the Trojan war: 
his wife, Penelope, restrained 
him, just as Achilles' divine 
mother had kept him back, xiil 
296 ff. ; it was not he alone who 
had decided the fate of Pala- 
medes, xm. 308 ; he alone was 
not to blame that Philoctetes was 
left on Lemnos, xm. 313; he 
afterwards went to Lemnos and 
persuaded Philoctetes to bring 
the bow and arrows of Hercules 
to the Trojan war, xm. 399 : he 
receives the award of the armour 
of Achilles, xm. 382 ; according 
to prophecy of Telemus, he 
was destined to put out the eye 


of Polyphemus, xm. 772 ; hi» 
actual experience with the Cy- 
clops, xiv. 159 ff. ; he had re- 
ceived from Aeolus the winds 
tied in a bag, which his sailors, 
thinking it a treasure, had 
opened, xiv. 225 ff. ; his adven- 
tures on the island of Circe, xiv. 
248 ff. ; a slight reference to the 
many suitors who beset Penelope 
during his long absence, xiv. 
Urania, one of the nine Muses, 
afterwards called the Muse of 
Astronomy, v. 260 

Venilia, wife of Janus, mother of 
Canens, xiv. 334 

Venulus, a messenger sent by 
Turnus to Diomeile, xiv. 45 7, 

Venus, daughter of Jupiter aud 
Dione, xiv. 585 ; xv. 8u7 ; accord- 
ing to another story she is 
Aphrodite, " sprung_Xrom the 
foam of the sea," iVjJjjjf) she is 
called Cytherea, since near the 
island of Cytherashe rose from 
the sea, x. 640, 717 ; xiv. 487 ; 
XV. 803; see also IV. 190, 288; 
she is Erycina from Mount Eryx 
In Sicily, where she had a 
temple, v. 363 ; she is the god- 
dess of love and charm, x. 230, 
277 ; xiv. 478 ; xv. 762 ; and of 
marriage, IX. 796 ; x. 295 ; her 
husband is Vulcan, iv. 17S ; she 
Is the mother of Cupid (accord- 
ing to one account, by Mars), 
i. 463 ; v. 364 ; ix. 482; of Har- 
moniaby Mars, in. 132 ; iv. 531; 
of Aeneas by Anchises, xm. 
625, 674 ; XIV. 572, 584, 588 ; she 
gains deification for Aeneas, 
xiv. 585 ff. ; she saves hitn from 
Diomede in battle, xv. 806; as 
she also saved Paris from Mene- 
laiis, xv. 805 ; for Aeneas' sake 

she favours and watches over 
the Trojans, xiv. 572 ; aud the 
Romans as their descendants, 
xiv. 783 ; aud especially does 
she care for Julius Caesar as the 
descendant of Aeneas, xv. 762 ; 
and gaius for him a place among 
the gods, xv. 779 ff. : slieattemptg 
to gain immortality for Anchises, 
ix. 424 ; she loves the beautiful 
boy Adonis, x. 524 ff.; mourus 
over his death, x.717 ff. ; changes 
him to the anemone flower, x. 
735; her amour with Mars, dis- 
closed by Phoebus and exposed 
by Vulcan, iv. 171 ff. ; xiv. 27 ; 
took refuge from the pursuit of 
the Giants in the form of a fish, 
v. 331 ; appeals to Cupid to make 
Pluto love Proserpina, v. 363 ff. ; 
changes Pygmalion's ivory statue 
into a living maid, X. 270 ff. ; 
aids Hippomeues in his race 
with Atalanta, x. 640 ff. ; trans- 
forms the Propoetides and the 
Cerastae, X. 230, 238; wounded 
by Diomede in battle before 
Troy, xiv. 477; xv. 769; in 
memory of which she takes ven- 
geance on Diomede and his 
companions, xiv. 478, 498 ; her 
chief seats of worship, x. 529 ff. ; 
she is represented as drawn in 
a chariot by doves or swans, x. 
718 ; xm. 674 ; xiv. 597 ; xv. 
386 ; Venus, used by metonymy 
for love, in. 294, 323; iv. 258 ; 
VI. 460; IX. 141, 553, 639, 728, 
739; x. 80, 324, 434; xi. 306; 
xii. 198; xm. 875; xiv. 141, 
Vertumnns, an old Italian deity, 
god of the changing seasons 
and their productions; the story 
of his wooing of Pomona, xiv. 
64 2 ff. 
Vesta, daughter of Saturn, goddess 
of the hearth and of the house- 



hold in general, called Trojan 
because lier w< rship and her 
sacred fire were brought frotn 
Troy to Koine, xv. 731 ; her tires 
in dinger of extinguishment by 
Caesar's blood, xv. 778 ; held as 
especially sacred among Caesar's 
household gods. xv. 8G4, 865 

Virbius, the name of Hippolytus 
in Italy after he had been changed 
inio a deity, xv. 544 

Volturnus, a river in Campania, 
xv. 715 

Vulcan, son of Juno. Iunonigena, 
iv. 173: his favourite haunt is 
Lemnos, II. 757; iv. 185: XIII. 
313 : he is the god of fire, the 
blacksmith god, very skilful in 
working In metals, ll. 5, 106 ; IV. 
175 ; XII. 614 ; XIII 289 ; he 
Is the father of Kriehthouius, II. 

757; ix. 424 ; and of Periphetes 
Vul ani proles, vu. 437 ; he is 
the husband of Venus, and 
cleverly catches her and Mars in 
an amour, iv. 173 £f. See Mul- 

Xantiius, a river on the Trojan 
plain, II. 245 ; ix. 646 

Zanole, an older name for the 
city of Messana in Sicily, XIII. 
729; XIV. 5, 47 : XV. 290 

Zephyrus, the west wind, i. 64, 
108 ; xni. 726 ; xv. 700 

Zetes, one of the winged sons of 
Boreas and Orithyia ; joined the 
Argonauts, vi. 716 ; with his 
brother Calais drove the Harpies 
away from the blind old Thra- 
ciau king, l'iiineus. ril. 5 







Ammianus Marcellinus. J. C. Rolfe. 3 Vols. (2nd Imp. 

Apuleius: The Golden Ass (Metamorphoses). W. 

Adlington (1566). Revised by S. Gaselee. (1th Imp.) 
St. Augustine, Confessions of. W. Watt (1631). 2 Vols. 

(Vol. 1 1th Imp., Vol. II 6th Imp.) 
St. Augustine, Select Letters. J. H. Baxter. (2nd 

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Rev. H. F. Stewart and E. K. Rand. (6th Imp.) 
Caesar: Alexandrian, African and Spanish Wars. 

A. G. Way. 
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Hopper. (3rd Imp.) 
Catullus. F. W. Cornish; Tibullus. J. B. Postgate; and 

Pervigilium Veneris. J. W. Mackail. (13//z Imp.) 
Celsus: De Medicina. W. G. Spencer. 3 Vols. (Vol. I 

3rd Imp. revised, Vols. II & III, 2nd Imp.) 
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(2nd Imp.) 
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ham. (2nd Imp.) 
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2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 

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W. A. Falconer. (6th Imp.) 
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(Vol. I 3rd Imp., Vol. II 2nd Imp.) 
Gellius. J. C. Rolfe. 3 Vols. (Vol. I 3rd Imp., Vol. II and 

III 2nd Imp.) 



Horace: Odes and Epodes. C. E. Bennett. (14th Imp. 

Horace: Satires, Epistles, Ars Poetica. H. R. Fair- 

clough. (9th Imp. revised.) 
Jerome: Select Letters. F.A.Wright. (2nd Imp.) 
Juvenal and Persius. G. G. Ramsay. (1th Imp.) 
Livy. B. O. Foster, F. G. Moore, Evan T. Sage and A. C. 

Schlesinger. 14 Vols. Vols. I-XIH. (Vol. 1 4th Imp., Vols. 

H, III, V, IX, 3rd Imp., IV, VI- VIII, X-XII 2nd Imp.) 
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Lucretius. W. H. D. Rouse. (1th Imp. revised.) 
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Minor Latin Poets: from Publilius Syrus to Rutilius 

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Nemesianus, Avianus, with "Aetna", "Phoenix" and 

other poems. J. Wight Duff and Arnold M. Duff. (3rd 

Ovid: The Art of Love and other Poems. J. H. Mozley. 

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W. H. D. Rouse. (9th Imp. revised.) 
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Pliny: Letters. Melmoth's translation revised by 

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Vol. I (Ennius and Caecilius). Vol. II (Livius, Naevius, 

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Sallust. J. C. Rolfe. (4th Imp. revised.) 

Scriptores Historiae Augustae. D. Magie. 3 Vols 

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Sidonius: Poems and Letters. W. B. Anderson. 2 Vols. 

(Vol. I 2nd Imp.) 
Silius Italicus. J. D. Duff. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 2nd Imp.. 

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6th Imp.) 
Tacitus: Dialogus. Sir Wm. Peterson; and Agricola 

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Jackson. 4 Vols. (Vols I and II 4th Imp., Vols. HI and 

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Terence. John Sargeaunt. 2 Vols. (1th Imp.) 
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Valerius Flaccus. J. H. Mozley. (2nd Imp. revised.) 
Varro: De Lingua Latina. R. G. Kent. 2 Vols. (2nd 

Imp. revised.) 
Velleius Paterculus and Res Gestae Divi Augusti. 

F. W. Shipley. (2nd Imp.) 
Virgil. H. R. Fairclough. 2 Vols. (Vol. I \9th Imp., Vol. 

II \4th Imp- revised.) 
Vitruvius: De Architectura. F. Granger. 2 Vols. 

(Vol. I 3rd Imp., Vol. H 2nd Imp.) 

GREEK authors 

Achilles Tatius. S. Gaselee. (2nd Imp.) 

Aeneas Tacticus, Asclepiodotus and Onasander. The 

Illinois Greek Club. (2nd Imp) 
Aeschines. C. D. Adams. (2nd Imp.) 
Aeschylus. H. Weir Smyth. 2 Vols. (6th Imp.) 



Alciphron, Aelian and Philostratus: Letters. A. R. 

Benner and F. H. Fobes. 
Andocides, Antiphon Cf. Minor Attic Orators. 
Apollodorus. Sir James G. Frazer. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 3rd 

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Apollonius Rhodius. R. C. Seaton. (5th Imp.) 
The Apostolic Fathers. Kirsopp Lake. 2 Vols. (I 8/// 

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Appian: Roman History. Horace White. 4 Vols. (Vol.1 

4th Imp., Vols. II and IV 3rd Imp., Vol. Ill 2nd 

Aratus. Cf Callimachus. 
Aristophanes. Benjamin Bickley Rogers. 3 Vols. (5th 

Imp.) Verse trans. 
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I 4th Imp., Vol. II 3rd Imp.) 
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blems", "On Indivisible Lines", "Situations and Names 

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Armstrong. (With Metaphysics, Vol. II.) (3rd Imp.) 
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Aristotle: Organon. Categories: On Interpretation, 

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Forster and D. J. Furley. 
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Aristotle: Poetics and Longinus. W. Hamilton Fyfe, 

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Aristotle: On the Soul, Parva Naturalia, On Breath. 

W. S. Hett. (2nd Imp. revised.) 
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A. W. Mair; Aratus. G. R. Mair. (2nd Imp.) 
Clement of Alexandria. Rev. G. W. Butterworth. (3ro 

Colluthus. Cf. Oppian. 
Daphnis and Chloe. Cf. Longus. 
Demosthenes 1: Olynthiacs, Philippics and Minor 

Orations: I-XVII and XX. J. H. Vince. (2nd Imp.) 
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C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
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Timocrates, Aristogeiton. J. H. Vince. (2nd Imp.) 
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A.T.Murray. (2nd Imp.) 
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Diogenes Laertius. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 4th 

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Dionysius of Halicarnassus: Roman Antiquities. Spel- 

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I-V 2nd Imp.) 



Epictetus. W. A. Oldfather. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 3rd Imp., Vol. 

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Euripides. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. (Vols. I&II 7th Imp., Vols. 

III & IV 6th Imp.) Verse trans. ^ 
Eusebius: Ecclesiastical History. Kirsopp Lake and 

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Galen: On the Natural Faculties. A. J. Brock. {4th 

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The Greek Bucolic Poets' (Theocritus, Bion, Moschus). 

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Greek Elegy and Iambus with the Anacreontea. J. M. 

Edmonds. 2 Vols. (Vol I 3rd Imp., II 2nd Imp.) 
Greek Mathematical Works. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. 

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Herodes. C/. Theophrastus: Characters. 
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Hesiod and the Homeric Hymns. H. G. Evelyn White. 

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St. John Damascene: Barlaam and Ioasaph. Rev. G. R. 

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Julian. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. (Vols 1 & II 3ra 

Imp., Vol. Ill 2nd Imp.) 
Longus: Daphnis and Chloe. Thornley's translation 

revised by J. M. Edmonds; and Parthenius. S. Gaselee. 

(4th Imp.) r 
Lucian. A. M. Harmon. 8 Vols. Vols I-V. (Vols 1 & II 

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Lycophron. Cf. Callimachus. 

Iyra Graeca. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. (Vol. I 4th Imp,, 



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Lysias. W. R. M. Lamb. (3rd Imp.) 
Manetho. W. G. Waddell; Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos. 

F. E. Robbins. (3rd Imp.) 
Marcus Aurelius. C. R. Haines. (4th Imp. revised.) 
Menander. F. G. Allinson. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Minor Attic Orators. 2 Vols. Vol. I (Antiphon, Ando- 

cides). K. J. Maidment. Vol. II (Dinarchus, Lycurgus, 

Demades, Hyperides). J. O. Burtt. (Vol. I 2nd Imp.) 
Nonnos: Dionysiaca. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. (2nd 

Oppian, Colluthus, Tryphiodorus. A. W. Mair. (2nd 

Papyri. Non-Literary Selections. A. S. Hunt and C. C. 

Edgar. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) Literary Selections. Vol. I 

(Poetry). D. L. Page. (3rd Imp.) 
Parthenius. Cf. Longus. 
Pausanias: Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jones. 5 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 

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Philo. 10 Vols. Vols. I-IX. F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 

Whitaker; 2 supplementary vols. R. Marcus. (Vols. 

II-II1, V-IX 2nd Imp., Vols. I & IV 3rd Imp.) 
Philostratus: The Life of Apollonius of Tyana. F. C. 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. (Vol 1. 4th Imp., Vol II 3rd Imp.) 
Philostratus: Imagines; Callistratus: Descriptions. 

A. Fairbanks. 
Philostratus and Eunapius: Lives of the Sophists 

Wilmer Cave Wright. (2nd Imp.) 
Pindar. Sir J. E. Sandys. (7th Imp. revised.) 
Plato I: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, 

Phaedrus. H. N. Fowler. (11//; Imp.) 
Plato II: Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler. (4th 

Plato III: Statesman, Philebus. H. N. Fowler; Ion. 

W. R. M. Lamb. (4th Imp.) 
Plato IV: Laches, Protagoras, Meno, Euthydemus. 

W. R. M. Lamb. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Plato V: Lysis, Symposium, Gorgias. W. R. M. Lamb. 

(5th Imp. revised.) 
Plato VI: Cratylus, Parmenides, Greater Hippias. 

Lesser Hippias. N. H. Fowler. (4th Imp.) 


Plato VII: Timaeus, Critias, Clitopho, Menexenus, 

Epistulae. Rev. R. G. Bury. (3rd Imp) 
Plato VIII: Charmides, Alcibiades, Hipparchus, The 

Lovers, The ages, Minos and Epinomis. W. R. M. 

Lamb. {2nd Imp.) 
Plato: Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. {3rd Imp.) 
Plato: Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 5th Imp., 

Vol. II 4th Imp.) 
Plutarch: Moralia. 14 Vols Vols. I-V. F. C. Babbitt; 

Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold; Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. {2nd 

Plutarch: The Parallel Lives. B. Perrin. 11 Vols. 

(Vols. I, II, VI, VII and XI 3rd Imp., Vols. HI, V, 

VIII-X 2nd Imp.) 
Polybius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. {2nd Imp.) 
Procopius: History of the Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

(Vol. I 3rd Imp., Vols. H-VH 2nd Imp.) 
Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos. Cf. Manetho. 
Quintus Symrnaeus. A. S. Way. {3rd Imp.) Verse trans. 
Sextus Empiricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. (Vol. I 3rd 

Imp., Vols. II & III 2nd Imp.) 
Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 10th Imp., Vol. II 6th 

Imp.) Verse trans. 
Strabo: Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. (Vols. I, 

V and VIII 3rd Imp., Vols. II-IV, VI and VII 2nd Imp.) 
Theophrastus : Characters. J. M. Edmonds; Herodes, 

etc. A. D. Knox. {3rd Imp.) 
Theophrastus: Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort. 

2 Vols. {2nd Imp.) 
Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. (Vol. I 5th Imp., Vols. 

II-IV 3rd Imp. revised.) 
Tryphiodorus. Cf. Oppian. 
Xenophon: Cyropaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. (4th 

Xenophon: Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Sympo- 
sium. C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. (Vols. I 

and III 3rd Imp., Vol. II 4th Imp.) 
Xenophon: Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Mar- 
chant. 3rd Imp.) 
Xenophon: Scripta Minora. E. C. Marchant. (3rd Imp.) 



Aflian: De Natura Animalium. A. F. Scholfield. 
Aristotle: History of Animals. A. L. Peck. 
Callimachus: Fragments. C. A. Trypanis. 
Plotinus. A. H. Armstrong. 

latin authors 

St. Augustine: City of God. 

Cicero: Pro Sestio, In Vatinium, Pro Caelio, De Pro- 

viNcns Consularibus, Pro Balbo. J. H. Freese and R. 

Phaedrus and other Fabulists. B. E. Perry. 




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